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# Percentages

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### Transcript

• 1. Gray Morris
• 2. Unit One: Chapter 5
• 3.
• Define percentage
• Convert percentages to fractions
• Convert percentages to decimals
• Convert percentages to ratios
• Convert decimals to percentages
• Convert fractions to percentages
• Convert ratios to percentages
• Determine percentages from numbers
After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to:
• 4.
• Used in sales tax, mortgage interest, savings earned
• Used in names of medications
• Magnesium sulfate 50%
• Hydrocortisone 1%
• IV solution of D5W (Dextrose 5% in Water)
• Used to assess level of burns
• Rule of Nines—Figure 5-1
• 5.
• Percentage refers to how many parts are related to the whole (100 parts)
• Written with the percent symbol “%” means “of 100”
• 5% = 5 parts of 100 parts or or
• 5 per 100
• 6. Figure 5-1 The rule of nines for estimating burn percentage. (From Ignatavicius D, Winkelman C, Workman M, Hausman K: Medical-surgical nursing: critical thinking for collaborative care, ed. 6, St. Louis, 2009, Saunders.)
• 7.
• Intravenous (IV) solutions
• Percentage = number of grams (g) of solute (powder) in 100 mL of diluent
• 1,000 mL of D5W (Dextrose 5% in water)
• 5% = 5 g in 100 mL so…
• 5 g in 100 mL = (x) g in 1,000 mL
• 100(x) = 5(1,000)
• x = 50 g
• 8.
• Safety Point: The higher the percentage, the stronger the solution
• Examples:
• A 10% solution is STRONGER than a 5% solution
• A 0.99% solution is WEAKER than a 1% solution
• 9.
• % symbol may be used with whole numbers (15%), mixed numbers (3½%), fractions (¾%), or decimals (0.6%)
• Drop % sign, place number over 100 and reduce
• Examples:
• 10.
• Drop % sign and move decimal two places to the left (add zeros if needed)
• Examples: 25% = 0.25
• 1.4% = 0.014
• Alternative Method: write as a fraction with 100 as the denominator and divide numerator by denominator
• 11.
• Change percentage to fraction and reduce, then place the numerator on the left and the denominator on the right – separate by colon
• Example:
• 12.
• Multiply the fraction by 100, reduce, add %
• Example:
• Alternative Method: change the fraction to a decimal, multiply by 100, add %
• Example:
• 13.
• Move the decimal two places to the right (add zeros if needed), add %
• Example:
• 14.
• Change the ratio to a fraction, then change the fraction to a percentage as described previously
• Example:
• 15.
• Change the given percentage to a decimal or fraction, then multiply the decimal or fraction by the number
• Example: A client reports he drank 25% of his 8-ounce cup of tea. Determine how much tea the client drank.
• 16.
• Make a fraction with the numbers—the denominator is the number after the word “of” and the other number is the numerator
• Convert to a decimal, then to a percentage
• Example: 12 is what percentage of 60?