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Percentages

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Transcript

  • 1. Gray Morris
  • 2. Unit One: Chapter 5
  • 3.
    • Define percentage
    • Convert percentages to fractions
    • Convert percentages to decimals
    • Convert percentages to ratios
    • Convert decimals to percentages
    • Convert fractions to percentages
    • Convert ratios to percentages
    • Determine percentages from numbers
    After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to:
  • 4.
    • Used in sales tax, mortgage interest, savings earned
    • Used in names of medications
      • Magnesium sulfate 50%
      • Hydrocortisone 1%
      • IV solution of D5W (Dextrose 5% in Water)
    • Used to assess level of burns
      • Rule of Nines—Figure 5-1
  • 5.
    • Percentage refers to how many parts are related to the whole (100 parts)
    • Written with the percent symbol “%” means “of 100”
    • 5% = 5 parts of 100 parts or or
    • 5 per 100
  • 6. Figure 5-1 The rule of nines for estimating burn percentage. (From Ignatavicius D, Winkelman C, Workman M, Hausman K: Medical-surgical nursing: critical thinking for collaborative care, ed. 6, St. Louis, 2009, Saunders.)
  • 7.
    • Intravenous (IV) solutions
    • Percentage = number of grams (g) of solute (powder) in 100 mL of diluent
    • 1,000 mL of D5W (Dextrose 5% in water)
      • 5% = 5 g in 100 mL so…
      • 5 g in 100 mL = (x) g in 1,000 mL
      • 100(x) = 5(1,000)
      • x = 50 g
  • 8.
    • Safety Point: The higher the percentage, the stronger the solution
      • Examples:
      • A 10% solution is STRONGER than a 5% solution
      • A 0.99% solution is WEAKER than a 1% solution
  • 9.
    • % symbol may be used with whole numbers (15%), mixed numbers (3½%), fractions (¾%), or decimals (0.6%)
    • Drop % sign, place number over 100 and reduce
      • Examples:
  • 10.
    • Drop % sign and move decimal two places to the left (add zeros if needed)
      • Examples: 25% = 0.25
      • 1.4% = 0.014
    • Alternative Method: write as a fraction with 100 as the denominator and divide numerator by denominator
  • 11.
    • Change percentage to fraction and reduce, then place the numerator on the left and the denominator on the right – separate by colon
      • Example:
  • 12.
    • Multiply the fraction by 100, reduce, add %
      • Example:
    • Alternative Method: change the fraction to a decimal, multiply by 100, add %
      • Example:
  • 13.
    • Move the decimal two places to the right (add zeros if needed), add %
      • Example:
  • 14.
    • Change the ratio to a fraction, then change the fraction to a percentage as described previously
      • Example:
  • 15.
    • Change the given percentage to a decimal or fraction, then multiply the decimal or fraction by the number
      • Example: A client reports he drank 25% of his 8-ounce cup of tea. Determine how much tea the client drank.
  • 16.
    • Make a fraction with the numbers—the denominator is the number after the word “of” and the other number is the numerator
    • Convert to a decimal, then to a percentage
      • Example: 12 is what percentage of 60?

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