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Feedstuffs Swine Sheep Powerpoint
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Feedstuffs Swine Sheep Powerpoint


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  • 1. Feedstuffs
    Large Animal Nutrition
    Swine, Sheep and Goats
  • 2. Feedstuffs
    Feedstuffs- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful function
    Provide source of nutrients and energy
    Combined to produce rations
    Modify characteristics of diet
    Provide one of more nutrients
    Modify characteristics of diet
  • 3. International Feed ID System
    System for classifying feedstuffs based on descriptive characteristics
    Based on the primary nutrient provided by the feedstuff
    Each feedstuff is assigned an International Feed Number ( IFN)
  • 4. There are 8 international Feedstuff classes
    1. Dry Roughages
    2. Pasture Range and Grasses
    3. Ensiled Roughages
    4. High Energy Concentrates
    5. Protein Sources
    6. Minerals
    7. Vitamins
    8. Additives
  • 5. 1. Dry Roughages
    Bulky feed that has low weight per unit of volume
    High crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibility
    Contains greater than 18% crude fiber and less than 70% total digestible nutrients
  • 6. Dry Roughagae Examples
    Hay- legume ( alfalfa), grass legume, non legume
    Straw and chaff
    Corn cobs
    Cottonseed hulls
    Shells and hulls
    Sugarcane byproducts
    Paper and wood byproducts
  • 7. 2. Pasture and Range grasses
    Grazed plants
    Soilage or greenchop
    Cannery and food crop residues
  • 8. 3. Silages and Haylages
    • fermented, high moisture feed made from the entire plant. Stored in silos
    corn, sorghum
    Grass, grass-legume, legume
  • 9. 4. High Energy Concentrate
    Cereal grains
    Beet and citrus pulp
    Animal, marine and vegetable fats
    Roots and tuber
  • 10. 5. Protein Supplements
    Contains greater than 20% crude protein
    animal, avian, marine sources
    Milk and by-products
    Legume seeds
    Brewery and distillery by-products
    Urea, ammonia
  • 11. 6. Mineral supplements and 7. Vitamin supplements
    Must be added by sources that animal is able to absorb
    Vitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatly
    Plants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storing
    Animals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins
  • 12. 8. Additives
    Non- nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feed
    Added in very small quantities
    Antibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobials
    Buffers, colors, flavors
    Hormones, enzymes
  • 13. Estimating Nutritional Value of a Feed
    Goal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuffs matches the animal’s needs
    Three methods for Estimating
    Chemical Analysis
    Digestion and Balance Trials
    Feeding Trials
  • 14. Chemical Analysis
    Subdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount present
    Problem: Doesn’t estimate how well the animal utilizes the feed
  • 15. Digestion and Balance Trials
    Measures the digestibility of a feed
    Feed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of time
    Problem: Not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissue
  • 16. Feeding Trials
    Used extensively
    Usually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trials
    Can evaluate growth, egg production, wool production
  • 17. Swine Nutrion
    Sow – adult female
    Boar- adult male
    Piglet- young pig
    Gilt- sexually mature female, no litter yet
    Barrow- castrated male
  • 18. Swine Nutrion- Water
    Neonates 80% water, finishing pigs 55% water
    Requirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of feed, urine output, etc.)
    General guidelines 1-11/2 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumed
    Lactating sows require more for milk production
    Water quality affects consumption, high total dissolved solids can cause diarrhea, high levels of sulfates should be avoided
  • 19. Swine Nutrition- Energy
    Required for buildup of lean and fat tissue
    Nursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milk
    Growing pigs- most energy from cereal grains
    Sows and finishing pigs- some energy is gained from volatile fatty acids from fermentation in large intestine
    Dietary need is directly related to body weight
    Amount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of diet
  • 20. Energy source feedstuffs for Swine
    Cereal grains ( especially swine)
    Damaged grains
    Grain by- products
    Purified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets)
    Fat ( tallows, animal and vegetable fats)
    Processed food waste
  • 21. Swine Nutrition – Protein and Amino acids
    Pig carcasses contain 50% muscle. About 8% of the whole body is edible protein
    Pigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissues
    Amino acids required are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
    Lysine is the first limiting amino acid, high requirements, low content in feedstuffes ex. Corn
    Most diets are based on soybean meal due to its higher lysine content
  • 22. Protein Source Feedstuffs in Swine
    Plant proteins: soybeans
    Animal proteins: by-products of meat packing industry, fish meal, dried milk products
    Synthetic amino acids
  • 23. Swine Nutrition- Minerals
    Highest Mineral Needs
    Ca and P- usually fed as limestone and oyster shells
    NaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intake
    I- soybean and grain diets deficient, supplement required
    Fe- injected in piglets to prevent anemia- lasts 3 weeks, milk is iron deficient
    Mg- required in growing pigs, present in feedstuffs
    Z- supplemented to prevent parakeratosis
  • 24. Swine Nutrition- Vitamins
    Vitamin A- supplement 2-3 times need because corn has low Vit A and it breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good source
    Vitamin D- absent in most feedstuffs, expose pigs to sunlight or add sun cured hays or fish oils to diet
    Vitamin E – required in all life stages, legume hay, green forage and cereal grains are good sources
    Vitamin K- present in feeds, synthesized by hind gut fermentation but pig must have access to feces. Supplement added to prevent hemorrhaging in newborns
  • 25. Vitamin, Mineral and Additive Source Feedstuffs in Swine
    Mineral- trace mineral salt
    Vitamin- alfalfa meal, fermentation by products, animal protein
    Additives: antibiotics, anthelmintics etc
  • 26. Nutritional Diseases in Swine
    Amino Acid Deficiency: anemia, edema, immunocompromise, impaired growth
    Parakeratosis: Occurs between the 6-16th week of life. From low zinc, high calcium diet; bilateral abnormal keratinization of the skin, forming horny scales; starts as brown spots on underside
  • 27. Swine Feeding Management
    Pre-breeding: gilt is bred at 7-8 mos. Flushing 1-2 weeks prior to breeding increases ovulation and litter size, high antibiotics added to dieet
    Gestation: normal nutritional needs for first two trimesters. Majority of growth is in last month. Overweight sows are more likely to crush piglets
    Farrowing: include laxatives to prevent constipation when in farrowing crate; wheat bran or dried beet pulp 10-15% of diet; high antibiotics
    Lactation: nutrient requirements 3-4 times higher than during gestation, produce 2.5 lbs milk per piglet; if feed restricted can suffer bone fractures and paralysis
    Nursing pigs: all nutrients from sow’s milk for first 2 weeks. Must supply iron( injectable) Begin eating dry food at 2 weeks
  • 28. Sheep Nutrition
    Ruminant Herbivores
    Ewe- female of reproductive age
    Ram- intact male of reproductive age
    Lamb- young sheep of either sex
    Wether- neutered adult male
    Mutton- meat derived from adult sheep
  • 29. Sheep Nutrition- Water
    Water is limiting nutrient in many areas
    Water quality is more important to sheep than any other livestock species ( stagnant, odor, high bacterial or mineral content)
    Water intake is influenced by feed, vegetation, protein intake, environmental temperature, amount of rain, dew, or snowfall
  • 30. Water Requirements for Sheep
    1 gallon of water per 4 lbs of dry feed consumed
    More water when air temp is above 70F
    Less intake if water temp is <40 or > 50F
    Lower requirement where there is daily rain, heavy dew or soft, wet snow
    Lower requirement for those eating silage, succulent or range forage
  • 31. Sheep Nutrition- Energy
    Insufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feed
    Energy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, death
    High energy needs:
    • Immediately before and after lambing
    • 32. Flushing ewes and rams for breeding
    • 33. Finishing lambs
  • Energy Source Feedstuffs for Sheep
    Good quality pasture, hay, silage
    Grains: barley, corn, wheat, oats and milo
    Precautions: when feeding wheat grain- lambs susceptible to acute indigestion
  • 34. Sheep Nutrition- Protein
    Usually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumen
    Microbial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambs
    Add extra protein feeds when pastures are mature or when feeding creep rations
  • 35. Protein source feedstuffs for sheep
    Green pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes0
    Urea levels: < 1% of total ration
    No urea in young lambs, creep rations, straw, poor quality hay or lambs on limited feed
  • 36. Sheep Nutriton- Minerals
    Highest Mineral Needs
    NaCl- usually provided ½-1/3 lb per ewe per month
    Ca, P – highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for P
    I- usually provided in salt
    Co- more in legumes than grasses
    Se- small difference between deficiency and lethal toxicity, muscular dystrophy
    Zinc- high needs for normal testicular development
  • 37. Sheep Nutrition- Vitamins
    Vit A- can store excess for 6-12 months
    Vit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problems
    Vit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiency
    Vit K- synthesized by rumen
    Vit C- synthesized by tissues
  • 38. Vitamin and Mineral Feedstuffs in Sheep
    Vitamins- green feeds, germs of seeds, sun-cured hays
    Minerals- leafy legumes, grains, trace mineral and salt mix
  • 39. Sheep Nutritional Diseases
    Enterotoxemia type D- intestinal toxins present in blood; caused by stress and sudden diet changes; vaccinate lambs prior to weaning
    Urinary calculi- common in rams and wethers in drylot; results from Ca/P ration imbalance and decreased water intake
  • 40. Sheep Feed Management
    Pre-breeding: ewe is flushed for 4-6 weeks, 2 weeks prior to breeding and continuing for 2-3 weeks after bred; flushed on either high quality pastures or ¼ to ½ lb of grain or pellets per day; treat for internal parasites and trim hooves
    Gestation- 70% of fetal growth happens in the last 6 weeks of gestation
  • 41. continued
    Late pregnance feed requirement
    • 50% more feed if single lamb
    • 42. 75% more feed if twin lamb
    • 43. Add grain to high roughage diet, more energy
    Lactation- maximum milk production 2-3 weeks post parturition; feed three times her maintenance requirements; must have increase protein intake to make milk
    Nursing lambs- born with non functioning rumen; colostrum is a must within first 12-18 hours. If no ewe colostrum, can use fresh cow colostrum. Creep feeding used for early weaning and getting lambs to market
  • 44. Goat Nutrition
    Ruminant Herbivore
    Doe- female
    Buck- intact male
    Kid- baby goat, either sex
    Wether- castrated male
    • Inquisitive feeding behavior
    • 45. Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides
  • Goat Feeding Behavior
    Confinement feeding: will pick through offered feed and eat what they want
    This results in 2 important effects:
    Composition of consumed diet differs from formulated diet
    Goats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the diet
    Range feeding: active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses, creating a browse line. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant; goats grazing hilly terrain have higher energy requirements than those on level terrain
  • 46. Goat Nutrition- Water
    • Intake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivity
    • 47. Free access to good quality water
    • 48. More sensitive to water quality, won’t touch fecal/urine contaminated water
    • 49. Lactation increases needs
  • Goat Nutrition- Energy
    Wide variances among breed, productivity, production and size
    Mostly from carbohydrates and low levels of fat, high fat inhibits rumen fermentation
    Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organs
    Consume more dry matter then other livestock species
  • 50. Energy Source- Feedstuffs for Goats
    Forages: alfalfa hay, bermuda grass hay
    grains: corn, sorghum, oats
  • 51. Goat Nutrition- Protein
    Most expensive component of diet
    Needed to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acids
    Unlike fat, excess is not stored
    Vary with developmental stage
    Protein source feedstuffs for goats
    - Soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower meal
  • 52. Goat Nutrition- Mineral
    Ca and P are two major minerals- needed for bone development and milk production
    Mobilize bone stores for high needs
    Phosphorus need is met due to goats high selectivity in diet
    Only salt should be provided free choice
    Lush pasture is deficient in magnesium
  • 53. Goat Nutrion- Vitamins
    Only Vit A is likely to be deficient
    Occurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weather
    Occurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material
  • 54. Goat Nutritional Diseases
    Enterotoxemia type D- can occur after high intake of immature succulent forage. Toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type D
    Urinary calculi- can occur when Ca and P rations are unbalanced