Chapters 9 and 10 life span development


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Chapters 9 and 10 life span development

  2. 2. The Middle Childhood Years<br />Physical Development<br />Changes in Height and Weight<br />Children in elementary school grow 2-3 inches per year (on average)<br />This is the only time throughout the lifespan when girls (on average) are taller than boys<br />Girls and boys gain approximately 5-7 pounds per year<br />Weight redistributed, bodies more muscular and strength increases<br />Nutrition<br />Nutrition does not affect size only, also affects:<br />Social and emotional functioning – proper nutritional leads to more involvement with peers, more positive emotion, higher energy levels and less anxiety<br />
  3. 3. Childhood Obesity<br />Obesity is defined as body weight that is more than 20% above the average for a person of a given age and height.<br />Obese children and adolescents are at risk for health problems during their youth and as adults. <br />For example, during their youth, obese children and adolescents are more likely to have risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and Type 2 diabetes) than are other children and adolescents.<br />Obesity is caused by a combination of genetic and social characteristics, as well as diet.<br />Adopted children tend to have weights and body types more similar to biological parents that adoptive parents.<br />What social factors can lead to obesity??<br />
  4. 4. Concrete Operations<br />Ages 7-12 (approximately). <br />During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. <br />Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. <br />Ex: “Conservation problem” – children at this age can use cognitive and logical processes to answer this correctly – no longer go by appearance<br />
  5. 5. Cognitive advancements<br />Logic: <br />Piaget determined that children in the concrete operational stage were fairly good at the use of inductive logic. <br />Inductive logic involves going from a specific experience to a general principle. <br />On the other hand, children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic<br />This involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event. <br />Reversibility: <br />One of the most important developments in this stage is an understanding of reversibility, or awareness that actions can be reversed. <br />An example of this is being able to reverse the order of relationships between mental categories. <br />For example, a child might be able to recognize that 3+5 = 8, 5+ 3 = 8 and 8-3 = 5. <br />
  6. 6. Education in Middle Childhood<br />Virtually all children in the United States are entitled to receive a free education through the 12th grade.<br />According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, Individuals classified with a disaibilty by the Committee on Special Education or under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 are entitled to receive a free and appropriate education, sometimes until the age of 21.<br />An appropriate education may comprise education in regular classes, education in regular classes with the use of related aids and services, or special education and related services in separate classrooms for all or portions of the school day. <br />Special education may include specially designed instruction in classrooms, at home, or in private or public institutions, and may be accompanied by related services such as speech therapy, occupational and physical therapy, psychological counseling, and medical diagnostic services necessary to the child’s education.<br />
  7. 7. Measuring IQ<br />Intelligence is defined as the capacity to understand the world, to think rationally, and using resources effectively<br />There are currently several standardized intelligence tests<br />These modern tests are rooted in the work of Binet.<br />Binet linked intelligence with success in school<br />Binet linked each intelligence test score with a mental age<br />6-yr old – test score of 30<br />30 = average score of 10 year olds<br />6-yr old’s mental age would be 10 years<br />IQ score = (MA/CA) x 100<br />
  8. 8. Modern IQ testing<br />Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Ed:<br />Began as American revision of Binet’s original test<br />The test consists of a series of items that vary according to the person’s age<br />Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Ed (WISC-IV):<br />Separate verbal and nonverbal performance skills<br />Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Ed:<br />Children are tested on their ability to integrate different types of stimuli simultaneously and use step-by-step thinking<br />
  9. 9. What IQ tests don’t tell…<br />The concept that intelligence is unidimensional is currently disputed by many theorists<br />Many developmentalists support two different kinds of intelligence:<br />Fluid intelligence – reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning and memory<br />Crystallized intelligence – accumulation of information, skills and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations<br />Other theorists suggest an even greater number of distinct types of intelligence, which can be independent of one another<br />
  10. 10. Below and Above the Norm<br />Mental Retardation: According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), Mental Retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning as well as adaptive behavior (conceptual, social and practical skills)<br />Mild retardation: IQ scores of 50 or 55 - 70<br />Moderate retardation: IQ scores of 35 or 40 – 50 or 55 <br />Severe retardation: IQ scores of 20 or 25 – 35 or 40<br />Profound retardation: IQ scores fall below 20 or 25<br />The Gifted and Talented: Children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capability or specific academic fields.<br />
  11. 11. Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood<br />Industry-versus-inferiority stage<br />Age 6-12<br />Children are faced with the complexities of the modern world<br />They not only focus on mastering the academic work they are presented with, they are also making a place for themselves in the social world<br />Success at this stage is accomplished by proficiency at tasks and a growing sense of competence<br />Difficulties may lead to feeling inadequate and withdrawing from academic pursuits as well as interactions with peers. <br />
  12. 12. Self-Esteem<br />Self-Esteem is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation. <br />Self-concept reflects beliefs about the self (e,g, I am good at math) whereas self-esteem is emotionally-oriented (e.g. no one likes me)<br />Self-esteem develops in many important ways during Middle Childhood.<br />Children increasingly compare themselves to others<br />As they do this, they assess how they measure up to society’s standards<br />Children are developing their own standards<br />For most children, self-esteem increases during middle childhood<br />Children with low self-esteem may become enmeshed in a cycle of failure that is difficult to break<br />
  13. 13. Building Friendship in Middle Childhood<br />Friendships influence children’s development in many ways…<br />Friends provide information about the world and other people<br />Friends provide emotional support and help kids handle stress<br />Friends teach children how to manage and control their emotions<br />Friends teach about communication with others<br />Friends foster intellectual growth<br />Friends allow children to practice relationship skills<br />
  14. 14. Stages of Friendship<br />According to William Damon, children’s friendships go through three stages:<br />Stage 1 (ages 4-7)<br />Children see friends as others who they spend most of their time with<br />They see friends as children they share toys and other activities with<br />They do not take personal traits into account<br />
  15. 15. Stages of Friendship<br />Stage 2 (ages 8-10)<br />Children now begin to consider personal traits in selecting friends<br />Friends are viewed in terms of the rewards they provide<br />The centerpiece of friendship is mutual trust<br />Stage 3 (ages 11-15)<br />Friendships have become based on intimacy and loyalty<br />Friendships involve psychological closeness, mutual disclosure, and exclusivity<br />This stage will be discussed in further detail during discussion of adolescence<br />
  16. 16. Bullying<br />What is bullying?<br />Bullying is when someone hurts or scares another person on purpose and the person being bullied has a hard time defending himself or herself. Usually, bullying happens over and over. <br />Bullying can be defined as:<br />Punching, shoving and other acts that hurt people physically <br />Spreading bad rumors about people <br />Keeping certain people out of a "group" <br />Teasing people in a mean way <br />Getting certain people to "gang up" on others <br />**According to the National Association of School Psychologists, 160,000 U.S. schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied**<br />
  17. 17. Cyberbullies<br />Bullying also can happen on-line or electronically. cyber bullying is when children or teens bully each other using the Internet, mobile phones or other cyber technology. <br />This can include:<br />Sending mean text, e-mail, or instant messages; <br />Posting nasty pictures, doctored photos or messages about others in blogs or on Web sites; <br />Using someone else's user name to spread rumors or lies about someone. <br />
  18. 18. Why kids bully<br />Approximately 10-15% of students bully at one time or another<br />Characteristics of bullies:<br />Approximately 50% of bullies come from abusive homes<br />They are exposed to media (TV shows, Video Games) that contain violence<br />They may try to lie their way out of accepting responsibility when they are caught<br />They show little (if any) remorse for their victims<br />Some of the reasons why kids bully:<br />They see others doing it <br />It's what you do if you want to hang out with the right crowd (to become popular) <br />It makes them feel, stronger, smarter, or better than the person they are bullying <br />It prevents others from bullying them <br />
  19. 19. Long-term effects<br />It can mess up a kid's future. <br />Young people who bully are more likely than those who don't bully to skip school and drop out of school. They are also more likely to smoke, drink alcohol and get into fights (Nansel et al, 2003; Olweus, 1993).<br />It scares some people so much that they skip school. <br />As many as 160,000 students may stay home on any given day because they're afraid of being bullied (Pollack, 1998).<br />It can lead to huge problems later in life. <br />Children who bully are more likely to get into fights, vandalize property, and drop out of school. <br />Approximately 60% of boys who were bullies in middle school had at least one criminal conviction by the age of 24 (Olweus, 1993). <br />
  20. 20. The Family Environment<br />Last few decades – changing in the structure of a “typical family”<br />↑ in # of families with 2 parents working<br />↑ in divorce rate<br />↑ in # of single-parent families<br />One of the biggest challenges of middle childhood – increasing independence<br />Children move from being completely controlled by their parents to increasingly controlling their own lives<br />Coregulation – A period during which parent and child jointly control the child’s behavior.<br />
  21. 21. Effects of family environment<br />Both parents working outside of the home – what is the impact on the children?<br />In most cases, children do very well<br />The parents’ schedule seems less important than other factors… <br />Children have best adjustment when parents are:<br />Loving<br />Sensitive to their children’s needs<br />Providing appropriate substitute care <br />
  22. 22. Effects of family environment<br />Children who are home alone:<br />Self-care children are children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work (“latchkey kids”)<br />Some children report negative experiences while at home alone (such as loneliness)<br />Alone time at home is viewed as less detrimental than “hanging out” unsupervised with peers<br />This is an opportunity for enhanced independence and competence, as well as an opportunity for “down time”<br />Many self-care children develop strong self-esteem as a result of the opportunity to take care of homework, personal projects, and contribute to the house<br />
  23. 23. Effects of family environment<br />Divorce<br />Only about 50% of children will grow up with married parents living in the same home<br />Other family dynamics – single-parent, stepparents, raised by grandparents, living with other relatives, or foster care<br />Impact of divorce?<br />Age of children at the time of divorce is an important factor<br />During the early stages of middle childhood, children tend to blame themselves for the divorce<br />By the age of 10, children feel pressure to choose sides and therefore may have divided loyalty<br />Children and parents take time to adjust – typically 6 months to 2 years<br />Most children live with their mothers after divorce<br />Parent-child relationships are strained due to children being “caught in the middle”<br />
  24. 24. Effects of family environment<br />Single-parent families<br />Approximately 25% of children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live in a single-parent household<br />In rare cases, this situation is a result of death<br />In most cases, there either was never a spouse, parents have divorced, or one parent has been absent<br />Impact of single-parent family depends on a number of factors:<br />Was 2nd parent present earlier?<br />What is the socioeconomic status of the single parent?<br />Who is caring for the child while single parent is working?<br />
  25. 25. Effects of family environment<br />Multigenerational Families:<br />Children, parents and grandparents living together<br />This can be a rich living experience, with multiple levels of support, both emotionally and financially<br />However, there is often conflict between the adults, who may struggle in sharing the role of disciplinarian<br />
  26. 26. Effects of family environment<br />Blended Families:<br />The aftermath of divorce often results in at least one parent remarrying<br />“Blended families” refers to a remarried couple who has at least one stepchild living with them<br />17% of all children in the U.S. living in a blended family<br />Role ambiguity often occurs – roles and expectations for family members are unclear:<br />Children may be uncertain about their responsibilities<br />Children may be unsure of how to act towards stepparents or stepsiblings<br />Children may have to decide which family to spend a holiday with<br />Children may get conflicting advice from biological parent and stepparent<br />