Chapters 7 and 8 life span development.pptxPresentation Transcript
Life Span Development Spring 2010 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS Chapter 7 SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS Chapter 8
Physical Development During the Preschool Years
Children grow steadily during the preschool period
The average 6-year old weighs 46 pounds and is 46 inches tall
By age 6, boys are taller and heavier (on average) than girls
Children become less chubby and round and more slender
Arms and legs lengthen
Muscle size increases
Bones become sturdier
The sense organs continue to develop
Both gross and fine motor skills become increasingly fine-tuned during this age
Boys tend to be somewhat stronger and have greater overall physical activity level than girls due to increased muscle strength
Girls tend to be more dexterous and have greater coordination of limbs
Fine motor skills develop:
Cutting with scissors
Handedness also begins to emerge
Piaget’s Stage of Preoperational Thinking
Ages 2 - 6
Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period.
Piaget noted that children in this stage:
Do not yet understand concrete logic
Cannot mentally manipulate information
Are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism.
During the preoperational stage, children also become increasingly adept at using symbols, as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending.
For example, a child is able to use an object to represent something else, such as pretending a broom is a horse.
Role playing also becomes important during the preoperational stage.
Children often play the roles of "mommy," "daddy," "doctor," and many others.
Piaget used a number of creative and clever techniques to study the mental abilities of children.
Most famous technique – 3-D display of a mountain scene.
Children asked to choose a picture that showed the scene they had observed.
Most children are able to do this with little difficulty.
Next, children are asked to select a picture showing what someone else would have observed when looking at the mountain from a different viewpoint.
Invariably, children almost always choose the scene showing their own view of the mountain scene.
According to Piaget, children experience this difficulty because they are unable to take on another person's perspective.
In one well-known conservation experiment, equal amounts of liquid are poured into two identical containers.
The liquid in one container is then poured into a different shaped cup, such as a tall and thin cup, or a short and wide cup.
Children are then asked which cup holds the most liquid.
Despite seeing that the liquid amounts were equal, children almost always choose the cup that appears fuller.
Piaget found that few children showed any understanding of conservation prior to the age of five.
Preschoolers’ Understanding of Numbers
One critical flaw in Piaget’s theory – Preschoolers have a greater understanding of numbers than he thought
The average preschooler can count in a fairly consistent, systematic manner
By age 4, most preschool-aged children can carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting
They also can compare different quantities quite successfully
Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development
Social interaction plays an important role in the development of cognitive skills.
The development of cognitive skills depends upon the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
ZPD is the level at which children can almost , but not quit fully, perform a task independently. They can perform the task with the assistance of someone more competent or skilled.
When appropriate instruction is offered within the ZPD, children are able to increase their understanding and master new skills.
Scaffolding is a key idea derived from Vygotsky's view.
The assistance provided by others is called SCAFFOLDING - the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth.
The aid that more accomplished individuals provide to learners comes in the form of cultural tools (the actual physical items such as pencils, paper, calculators, and computers)
Forming a Sense of Self
Changes in understanding of self as well as others’ behaviors
Ending of autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Children either become more independent as a result of parental encouragement of exploration or they experience shame and doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
Beginning of initiative vs. guilt stage
Initiative vs. Guilt
Age 3 – 6
“ Let me do it”
Conflict at this stage is the struggle between wanting to do things independently (without help from mom and dad) and the guilt that comes with failure
To support positive resolution, parents should:
Provide opportunities for decision-making and self-reliance
Offer direction and guidance
Encourage children’s initiative
Parents who discourage children’s efforts toward initiative make contribute toward child’s feelings of guilt and may negatively impact their self-concept
Development of Self-Concept
What is self-concept?
A person’s identity – a set up beliefs about a person and what they are like as an individual – what sets them apart from everyone else
Preschooler’s tend to have an optimistic, yet unrealistic self-concepts
They tend to overestimate their skills and knowledge
Part of their optimism is that they are only beginning to compare themselves to what their peers can do
Their optimistic view enables them take chances and try new things
Cultural impact on development of the Self
The way a particular culture views the self impacts the way preschoolers develop their own self concept
Collectivist vs. Individualistic societies
In a collectivist society, family and clan ties are regarded as critical and people in these societies are expected to put their own dreams and beliefs to one side for "the greater good" of the whole community.
Group, rather than the individual, is the fundamental unit of political, social, and economic concern.
Examples of collectivist societies include Latin America, the Far East and the Islamic world.
In an individualist society, the individual is regarded as sovereign, and it is their wishes that should be the ultimate decider of action.
Individualism holds that a human being should think and judge independently, respecting nothing more than the sovereignty of his or her mind; thus, it is intimately connected with the concept of autonomy.
Examples of individualist societies are Europe, North America and Australia-New Zealand.
Children in Western cultures are more likely to focus on their uniqueness - what sets them apart from others
Racial and Ethnic Awareness
A child becomes aware of racial difference during pre-school years.
As they look at other children, they recognize that some have light skin and others dark skin, some have straight hair and others curly hair, some have rounded eyes and others narrow eyes.
They begin to compare their own appearance to other children.
Children at this age have learned to “classify”
They tend to sort things based on color and size.
They can't yet deal with multiple classification, so they get confused about the names of racial groups and the actual color of their skin.
They wonder why two people with different skin tones are considered part of the same racial group.
Preschoolers begin to identify themselves as a member of a particular group such as “Hispanic”, however, they do not yet understand the significance society places on ethnic and racial membership
Differences in the way we treat boys and girls begin at birth (often even in the womb!)
Gender differences manifest in children’s play
Boys - more rough-housing, wrestling
Girls – more time in structured activities and role-playing
Girls prefer same sex playmates at approximately 2; boys typically do not begin the show preference until age 3
Preschoolers begin to have ideas about what types of behaviors are appropriate for males and females
Preschoolers expectations and gender stereotypes are less flexible in this phase of life than any other period throughout the lifespan
Several theoretical explanations for the influence of gender during the preschool years…
Our sex (male or female) refers to the physical characteristics that differentiate the two
Some research suggests that there are biological differences in the structure of male and female brains
Corpus callosum (nerves connecting hemispheres of brain) larger in women
Gender differences can be produced by hormones
Studies of males and females with atypical levels of hormones
Girls with unusually high levels of androgen preferred males as playmates and spent more time than other girls (hormones within normal ranges) playing with trucks and cars.
Impact of evolution on gender differences – Stereotypical characteristics attracted mates and promoted their survival
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Suggests that we develop according to a series of stages related to biological urges
Preschool years – Phallic stage
Focus is on genitals
Freud suggested that the end of the phallic stage marked an important turning point in development
Around age 5 he believed anatomical differences between sex organs were evident
Oedipal conflict – boys begin to develop sexual interests in their mothers and view fathers as rivals
Electra complex – Girls feel sexual attraction for their fathers and they experience “penis envy”
These conflicts are resolved by children identifying with the same sex parent, incorporating that parent’s values
Criticisms of psychoanalytic perspective
Some believe Freud saw women as inferior to men
Lack of scientific support for Freud’s theories
Children learn gender stereotypes much earlier than the age of 5
Children in single-parent households also develop gender stereotypes
Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context .
It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling.
Albert Bandura is considered one of the most influential theorists in this area.
General principles of social learning theory follows:
1. People can learn by observing the behaviors of others and the outcomes of those behaviors.
2. Learning can occur without a change in behavior. Social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone , their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behavior change.
3. Cognition plays a role in learning. Awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviors that people exhibit.
4. Social learning theory can be considered a bridge or a transition between behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories.
Preschoolers begin to establish their gender identity through the formation of gender schemas – cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender
Children at this age begin to develop “rules” about what is acceptable and what is inappropriate for males and females
Because preschoolers are so rigid in their thinking, they may apply these “rules” very strictly
Ex: A little girl who things pants are inappropriate for girls may refuse to wear anything but dresses
The purpose of play
Developmental psychologist Lev Vygotsky thought that, in the preschool years, play is the leading source of development.
Through play children learn and practice many basic social skills.
They develop a sense of self, learn to interact with other children, how to make friends, how to lie and how to role-play.
At the beginning of preschool years (age 3), children engage in functional play – simple, repetitive activities
Pushing a car, rolling and unrolling clay, skipping
Playing for the purpose of being active rather than working towards an end result
By approximately age 4, children will begin to involve themselves in constructive play – manipulating objects to produce or build something
Putting a puzzle together, building a house out of legos
The Social Aspects of Play (According to Mildred Parten (1932)
Parallel play – Children using similar toys, playing in a similar manner, but not interacting with one another.
Onlooker play – Children simply watch others play, but do not engage in the activity or participate themselves.
Associative play – Two or more children interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they are not doing the same thing.
Cooperative play – Children are genuinely playing with one another by taking turns, playing games, or devising contests.
Children have a difficult time trying to articulate their feelings through words.
Psychologists have determined that a child expresses a great deal through play.
This determination led to the development and use of play therapy.
Play therapy allows the child to play in a controlled environment and the therapist can observe their behavior.
This also allows a child to work through some internal conflicts you may not be aware of.
Observing their play may provide insight into the inner feelings or concerns. This may help you as you attempt to understand why your child is behaving a certain way.
Sand-tray therapy :
A method of psychoanalytic therapy
Used to assess the mental health and well-being of children and adults
The therapist analyzes how they express themselves through the manipulation of objects in small, tabletop sand-trays.
Clients are asked to create a diorama (a story or miniature world) by arranging toy people, animals, cars, plants, etc. in the sandtray.
The therapist evaluates the client's choice and use of the objects to help the participant to recognize their deeper "symbolic" natures, and to draw various conclusions about their psychological health.
Sand Tray is a non-invasive therapeutic method that works especially well with those individuals who are young or have trouble comprehending and talking about difficult issues, such as domestic abuse or child abuse, incest, or the death of a family member.
There are many ideas about how to raise children.
Some parents adopt the ideas their own parents used.
Some talk to their child’s pediatrician.
Others get advice from friends.
Some read books about parenting.
Others take parenting classes.
Psychologists have determined the parenting practices are most effective and are more likely to lead to positive outcomes for children.
Parenting styles can be grouped into three categories:
Authoritarian, Permissive, and Authoritative
Also a 4 th category – Uninvolved Parents
Authoritarian parents always try to be in control and exert their control on the children.
These parents are punitive, rigid, and cold.
Authoritarian parents set strict rules to try to keep order, and they usually do this without much expression of warmth and affection.
They attempt to set strict standards of conduct and are usually very critical of children for not meeting those standards.
Authoritarian parents typically do not tolerate expressions of disagreement.
They tell children what to do, they try to make them obey and they usually do not provide children with choices or options.
Impact on Children
Children of authoritarian parents:
Tend to be withdrawn
Lack social skills
Are typically not friendly
Often appear uneasy around their peers
Girls tend to be overly dependent on their parents
Boys tend to be unusually hostile
Permissive parents give up most control to their children.
They do not see themselves as holding much responsibility for how their children turn out.
They provide lax and inconsistent feedback
Parents make few, if any, rules, and the rules that they make are usually not consistently enforced.
They don't want to be tied down to routines. They want their children to feel free.
They do not set clear boundaries or expectations for their children's behavior
They tend to accept in a warm and loving way, however the child behaves.
Impact on Children
Children of permissive parents tend to:
Be dependent on their parents
Present as moody
Lack appropriate social skills
Have little self-control
Authoritative parents help children learn to be responsible for themselves and to think about the consequences of their behavior.
Parents do this by providing clear, reasonable expectations for their children and explanations for why they expect their children to behave in a particular manner.
Authoritative parents set clear, firm and consistent limits
They monitor their children's behavior to make sure that they follow through on rules and expectations.
They do this in a warm and loving manner.
They often, "try to catch their children being good" and reinforcing the good behavior, rather than focusing on the bad.
Impact on Children
Children of authoritative parents:
Are generally independent
Are friendly with and are well-liked by their peers
Have strong motivation to achieve
Are typically successful
Regulate their own behavior effectively
Uninvolved parents show no interest in their children.
They display indifferent behavior towards their children, rejecting them
They are detached emotionally – their “parenting” encompasses simply supplying food, clothing and shelter
Uninvolved parenting is often considered “neglect”, which is a form of child abuse
Child abuse happens in many different ways, but the result is the same- serious physical or emotional harm.
Abuse can be physical, psychological or emotional, sexual or can be in the form of neglect
Physical or sexual abuse may be the most striking types of abuse, since they often unfortunately leave physical evidence behind.
However, emotional abuse and neglect are serious types of child abuse that are often more subtle and difficult to spot.
Child neglect is the most common type of child abuse.
Forms of abuse
Physical abuse is any injury purposely inflicted upon a child.
This can include kicking, biting, violent shaking, hair pulling, choking, burning or beating.
If a child has numerous fractures, welts or bruises in various stages of healing, then there is good reason to be suspicious.
Sexual abuse is any sexual act between a child and an adult.
Actual intercourse does not have to occur for a child to be considered sexually abused.
Children can be forced to observe or participate in various sexual acts.
This form of abuse is more difficult to reveal.
Emotional abuse is verbal abuse or an attitude that is degrading a child.
This can include name calling, screaming, shaming or negatively comparing a child to another "good" child.
Emotional abuse can have long lasting effects on the social and mental health development of a child.
Neglect is failing to provide for a child's basic needs.
This can include inappropriate clothing for the weather, unhealthy food (or no food at all), lack of supervision, denial of medical care to a sick or injured child or denial of love and affection.
How can child abuse happen?
History of child abuse.
Unfortunately, patterns we learn in childhood are often what we use as parents.
Without treatment and insight, the cycle of child abuse often continues.
Stress and lack of support .
Parenting can be a very time intensive, difficult job.
Parents caring for children without support from family, friends or the community can be under a lot of stress.
Teen parents often struggle with the maturity and patience needed to be a parent.
Caring for a child with a disability, special needs or difficult behaviors is also a challenge.
Caregivers who are under financial or relationship stress are at risk as well.
Alcohol or drug abuse .
Alcohol and drug abuse lead to serious lapses in judgment – this can interfere with impulse control making emotional and physical abuse more likely.
Due to impairment caused by being intoxicated, alcohol and drug abuse frequently lead to child neglect
Domestic violence .
Witnessing domestic violence in the home, as well as the chaos and instability that is the result, is emotional abuse to a child.
Domestic violence often escalates to physical violence against the child as well.
In most cases, abused children will not just come out and tell you that they are being abused.
There is a fear of with might happen to them if they tell and possibly even a feeling of betraying the abuser.
Some children are lead to believe that the abuse is their fault and so they feel ashamed to tell anyone.
Some warning signs:
Withdrawal from family and friends
Depression or anxiety
Burns, bite marks or multiple bruises
Change in weight
This list includes only a few signs that can point to abuse. If a child has a couple of these signs, that does not necessarily mean that a child is being abused. Also, all abused children do not exhibit these signs.
Moral development describes changes in our understanding of what is right and wrong, as well as establishing a sense of justice
Piaget (1932) collected evidence about the development of moral reasoning through observing children’s play and interviewing them about moral problems.
He identified two main stages of development in their reasoning:
Heteronomous morality (children up to 9 or 10 years old) means that children’s morality is controlled by others such as parents, teachers or other authority figures.
The defining rules of heteronomous morality:
Children see rules as decided by authority figures. They are fixed and must not be broken.
Right and wrong. Children’s judgments of right and wrong tend to be based on the amount of visible damage caused rather than the intention behind it. For example, a child who breaks ten plates while helping to dry the dishes is seen as naughtier than a child who breaks one plate while stealing jam.
Punishment. Children ten to suggest retributive (very harsh) or reciprocal (an eye for an eye) punishments for wrongful acts.
Autonomous morality (children over 9 to 10 years old) means controlled from within.
The child no longer needs others to say what is morally correct.
At this stage:
Children see rules as decided by themselves. They can be changed by agreement.
Children can take both the amount of damage and the intention into account when judging how much someone is to blame for a wrongful act.
Children tend to suggest rational punishments adjusted to fit the crime.
Intellectual development does not stop at age 10 or 11.
This is just the beginning of formal operations, which continue to develop at least until age 16.
Accordingly, one might expect thinking about moral issues to continue to develop throughout adolescence.
Kohlberg therefore interviewed both children and adolescents about moral dilemmas, and he did find stages that go well beyond Piaget's.
He uncovered six stages, only the first three of which share many features with Piaget's stages.
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
1. Obedience and punishment orientation
Individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves
“ How can I avoid punishment?”
2. Self-interest orientation
Right behavior is defined by whatever is in the individual's best interest
Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests
“ What's in it for me?”
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
Level 2 (Conventional)
3. Interpersonal accord and conformity
Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society's accordance with the perceived role.
They look to comply with social norms
Desire to maintain rules and authority exists only to further support these social roles
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
It is important to obey laws and social expectations because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society
“ Law and order morality”
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
5. Social contract orientation
Individuals are viewed as holding different opinions and values.
Laws which do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet "the greatest good for the greatest number of people".
This is achieved through majority decision, and inevitable compromise.
Thus democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning.
6. Universal ethical principles
The individual acts a certain way because it is right, and not because it is instrumental, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon.
Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level