Chapters 17, 18 and 19 life span development


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Chapters 17, 18 and 19 life span development

  2. 2. Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood  Age 65 – Death  Outward signs of aging ◦ Thinning/ graying hair ◦ Face/ skin wrinkling ◦ People become noticeably shorter  Internal aging ◦ Brain becomes smaller and lighter ◦ Blood flow is reduced within the brain ◦ Hardening and shrinking of blood vessels throughout the body ◦ Respiratory system is less efficient ◦ Digestive system less efficient
  3. 3. Psychological and Mental Disorders  15-25% of individuals over the age of 65 show symptoms of psychological disorder  Major depression – feelings of intense sadness, pessimism and hopelessness ◦ Partly due to cumulative loss (death of partner and friends) ◦ Declining health and physical capabilities ◦ Loss of independence and control  Drug-induced psychological disorders ◦ Drug intoxication ◦ Anxiety  Dementia ◦ Broad category of serious memory loss and decline in mental functioning ◦ Lessened intellectual functioning ◦ The most common mental disorder in late adulthood ◦ Chances of experiencing dementia increases with age
  4. 4. Alzheimer’s Disease  A progressive brain disorder that produces memory loss and confusion  Symptoms of Alzheimer’s appear gradually  Unusual forgetfulness  Trouble recalling certain words during conversation  Recent memory deteriorates first, then older memories  Eventual total confusion – inability to speak intelligently or recognize family and friends  Loss of muscle control and bed confinement (near the end of life)
  5. 5. Exercising the Aging Brain  Continued cognitive stimulation keeps cognitive abilities sharp  Training showed long-term effects  Engaging in some form of mental workout- consistently and continually increasing the level of difficulty-is key to success
  6. 6. Memory: Remembrance of Things Past – and Present  Episodic memory ◦ Specific life experiences ◦ Most memory losses  Semantic memory ◦ General knowledge and facts ◦ Typically unaffected by age  Short-term memory ◦ Declines gradually until age 70 (more pronounced) ◦ Information presented quickly and verbally is forgotten sooner ◦ Newer information is more difficult to recall
  7. 7. Information-Processing Deficits  Inability to inhibit irrelevant information and thoughts declines  Speed of processing declines  Attention declines  Less efficient retrieval methods
  8. 8. What else?  Power and prestige for elderly have eroded in industrialized societies  Rapidly changing technology causes older adults to be seen as lacking important skills  Older adults are seen as non-productive members of society and in some cases simply irrelevant
  9. 9. Living in Nursing Homes  Greater the extent of nursing home care = greater adjustment required of residents  Loss of independence brought about by institutional life may lead to difficulties  Elderly people are as susceptible to society’s stereotypes about nursing homes
  10. 10. Financial Vulnerability in Older Adulthood  Reliance on a fixed income for support ◦ Social Security benefits ◦ Pensions, and savings, rarely keeps up with inflation  Rising cost of health care
  11. 11. The Cost of Staying Well  Elderly face rising health costs  Average older person spends 20 percent of his or her income on health care costs  Nursing homes can cost $30,000 to $40,000 a year
  12. 12. Work and Retirement  Retirement is major decision  Social Security  Part-time employment  Mandatory retirement
  13. 13. Some employers..  Encourage older workers to leave their jobs in order to replace them with younger employees whose salaries will be considerably lower  Believe older workers are not up to demands of the job or are less willing to adapt to a changing workplace
  14. 14. Retirement Retirement decision based on variety of factors  Burnout  Health concerns  Employer incentives  Desire to travel, study, or spend more time with family
  15. 15. Death of Spouse  Few events are more painful than death of spouse ◦ No longer part of a couple ◦ Must deal with profound grief ◦ No one to share life with and social life often changes ◦ Economic changes often occur
  16. 16. Why do friends matter? Friendships in late adulthood:  Allow older adults more control about whom to include in a friendship  May be more flexible  Relate to increasing likelihood, over time, that one will be without marital partner
  17. 17. Social Support  Social support is assistance and comfort supplied by another person or a network of caring, interested people ◦ Important for successful aging ◦ Sympathy and empathy ◦ Can help furnish material support such as solve problems, give a ride, or fix broken things ◦ Dogs can be especially good at providing social support
  18. 18. Elder Abuse Physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals  May affect as many as 2 million people above the age of 60 each year  Is most frequently committed by family member
  19. 19. Erikson’s Final Stage  Ego-integrity versus despair:  Characterized by looking back over one’s life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it  Success at this stage: ◦ Integrity – fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way ◦ Few or no regrets ◦ Sense of satisfaction and accomplishment  Difficulty at this stage (lack of success): ◦ Looking back on one’s life with disappointment ◦ Regret over missed opportunities ◦ Have not accomplished what they wished ◦ Unhappy, depressed, angry (despair) over the way their life turned out
  20. 20. Coping with aging  Bernice Neugarten studied the different ways people cope with aging: ◦ Disintegrated and disorganized personalities are unable to accept aging, experience despair as they get older, often end up in nursing homes or hospitalized ◦ Passive-dependent personalities lead lives filled with fear of falling ill, fear of the future, fear of their own inability to cope ◦ Defended personalities seek to ward off aging and attempt to act young, exercising vigorously, and engaging in youthful activities that could lead to unrealistic expectations and disappointment ◦ Integrated personalities cope comfortably with aging and accept becoming older with a sense of dignity
  21. 21. Death and Dying  Death Across the Life Span  Death does not always occur during old age  How do our reactions with death evolve as we age?
  22. 22. Death in Infancy and Childhood  Prenatal Death: ◦ Parents typically form psychological bonds with unborn child ◦ Feel profound grief when a child dies before it is born  Infant/ Child Death: ◦ SIDS ◦ Most frequent causes of childhood death:  Motor vehicle accidents  Drowning  Fires
  23. 23. Confronting Death  Dr Elisabeth Kübler-Ross pioneered methods in the support and counseling of personal trauma, grief and grieving, associated with death and dying.  She also dramatically improved the understanding and practices in relation to bereavement and hospice care.  The study of death and dying is actually known as thanatology (from the Greek word 'thanatos' meaning death).  Kübler-Ross's five stages of grief model was developed initially as a model for helping dying patients to cope with death and bereavement, however the concept also provides insight and guidance for coming to terms with personal trauma and change, and for helping others with emotional adjustment and coping
  24. 24. Kübler-Ross's five stages of grief  Denial:  Denial is usually only a temporary defense for the individual. This feeling is generally replaced with heightened awareness of situations and individuals that will be left behind after death.  Anger:  Once in the second stage, the individual recognizes that denial cannot continue. Because of anger, the person is very difficult to care for due to misplaced feelings of rage and envy. Any individual that symbolizes life or energy is subject to projected resentment and jealousy  Bargaining:  The third stage involves the hope that the individual can somehow postpone or delay death. Usually, the negotiation for an extended life is made with a higher power in exchange for a reformed lifestyle.  Depression:  During the fourth stage, the dying person begins to understand the certainty of death. Because of this, the individual may become silent, refuse visitors and spend much of the time crying and grieving. This process allows the dying person to disconnect themself from things of love and affection. It is not recommended to attempt to cheer an individual up that is in this stage. It is an important time for grieving that must be processed  Acceptance:  This final stage comes with peace and understanding of the death that is approaching. Generally, the person in the fifth stage will want to be left alone. Additionally, feelings and physical pain may be non-existent. This stage has also been described as the end of the dying struggle