Chapters 13 and 14 life span development.pptx


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Chapters 13 and 14 life span development.pptx

  2. 2. Early Adulthood <ul><li>Period from end of adolescence to beginning of middle adulthood (20- 40) </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know what you’re an adult??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the defining characteristics of adulthood? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have these characteristics changed in the last century? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Adulthood” – physical vs. emotional development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Development <ul><li>Typically, physical development/ maturation already complete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small % still gain in height in early 20’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain continues to grow in height and weight, reaching its maximum during early adulthood and then contracting in size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senses are typically at their peak </li></ul><ul><li>Most of us are at our peak of psychomotor abilities during early adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction time quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle strength greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-eye coordination sharp </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Stress and Coping: Dealing with Life’s Challenges <ul><li>What is stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What causes stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are stressors in our lives? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Good vs. Bad Stress <ul><li>Good stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stress response (fight or flight) is critical during emergency situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: slamming on brakes to avoid a car accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A little of this stress can help keep you on your toes, ready to rise to a challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress doesn't always happen in response to things that are immediate or that are over quickly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing or long-term events( like coping with a divorce? can cause stress, too. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term stressful situations can produce a lasting, low-level stress that's hard on people. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Physical reaction to stress? <ul><li>What does stress do to our bodies? </li></ul><ul><li>The human body responds to stressors by activating the nervous system and specific hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus signals the adrenal glands to produce more of the hormones adrenaline and cortisol and release them into the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>These hormones cause physical changes to prepare a person to react quickly and effective, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased breathing rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open blood vessels wider, increasing blood flow and putting our muscles on alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils dilate to improve vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The liver releases some of its stored glucose to increase the body's energy. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Long-term effects <ul><li>While the immediate effects of stress might be beneficial in certain situations, long-term, continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body’s ability to deal with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress-related hormones constantly being secreted leads to deterioration of the heart, blood vessels and other body tissues </li></ul><ul><li>People become more susceptible to diseases/ decreased ability to fight off germs </li></ul><ul><li>People engage in negative methods of coping </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signs of Stress Overload <ul><li>Everyone experiences stress a little differently. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people become angry and act out their stress or take it out on others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people internalize it and develop eating disorders or substance abuse problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others may experience psychosomatic symptoms (medical problems caused by an interaction of psychological, emotional and physical difficulties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach aches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Signs of Stress Overload <ul><li>People who are experiencing stress overload may notice some of the following signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety or panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a feeling of being constantly pressured, hassled, and hurried </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irritability and moodiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical symptoms, such as stomach problems, headaches, or even chest pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allergic reactions, such as eczema or asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking too much, smoking, overeating, or doing drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sadness or depression </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Stress management <ul><li>These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more damage in the long run: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overeating or undereating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning out for hours in front of the TV or computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using pills or drugs to relax       </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procrastinating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling up every minute of the day to avoid facing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking out your stress on others (lashing out, angry outbursts, physical violence) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Coping with Stress <ul><li>Coping – the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-focused coping : attempting to manage a stressful situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: changing jobs, decreasing work load, working less hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused coping : the conscious regulation of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion focused strategies involve releasing pent-up emotions, distracting one-self, managing hostile feelings, meditating, using systematic relaxation procedures, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Other coping methods <ul><li>Defensive coping describes unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Deny the seriousness/ importance of a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional insulation is a form of defensive coping which involves unconscious prevention of feeling emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People try to remain unaffected by positive and negative experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This prevents the person from facing the reality of the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of drugs and alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also provides a means of avoiding reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents the person from dealing with stress/ problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasurable means of escape </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Higher Education <ul><li>How important is a college education in today’s society? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of a college degree? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the percentage of high school graduates who go to college? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Demographics of Higher Education <ul><li>69% of white high school graduates, 61% of African American graduates, and 47% of Hispanic graduates enter college, </li></ul><ul><li>Only around 40% of those who start college graduate 4 years later with a degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although about half of those who do not graduate will eventually finish, the other half never obtain a college degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More women that men attend college and graduate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women receive 133 bachelor’s degrees for every 100 men receive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This proportion continues to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why this gender gap in college attendance? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Adjusting to the demands of college <ul><li>Often multiple life changes come along with entering college </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High stress with demands of coursework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional financial stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in social groups/ peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being away from home for the 1 st time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First-year adjustment reaction – a cluster of psychological symptoms often experienced by first-year college students, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loneliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Adjusting to the demands of college <ul><li>How do students adjust? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining teams, clubs, fraternities/ sororities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having academic success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some students benefit from counseling to support them during the transition </li></ul><ul><li>Possible signs that professional help is warranted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological distress that lingers, interferes with a person’s well-being and ability to function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling unable to cope with stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopeless or depressed feelings (sometimes without an apparent reason) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to develop close relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Relationships During Early Adulthood <ul><li>Intimacy and Love </li></ul><ul><li>According to Erik Erikson, the focus of early adulthood is the intimacy vs. isolation stage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must develop the ability to form deep, intimate relationships with other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not directed specifically toward sexual intimacy, but toward forming long-lasting emotional bonds with another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s components of intimacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selflessness – sacrificing one’s own needs for those of another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality – gratification of joint pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep devotion – fusing of identities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulties during this stage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loneliness, isolation, fear of relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible result from failure to resolve conflict of previous stage </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Friendship <ul><li>Humans have a need for belongingness – leads people in early adulthood to form and preserve relationships that allow them to experience a sense of belonging with others </li></ul><ul><li>How are friendships formed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender differences – much more evident in this phase of life than any other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>females: emotional sharing of confidences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>males: shared activities, interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>females tend to discuss things in greater depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more self-revealing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confide less about strengths, victories, achievements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One theory – control – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females - less desire for control, more willing to show dependency, vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males - must protect against loss of control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Two Faces of Love <ul><li>Not all love is the same </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of love/ ways of loving others? </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of love: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companionate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passionate love (romantic love) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of powerful absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense physiological arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid emotional swings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companionate love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong affection for those with whom we are deeply involved </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cultural Differences? <ul><li>Western cultures – passionate love is desirable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayed in movies, TV shows, magazine ads, books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this unrealistic portrayal? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What fuels the fires of romantic love? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only positive emotions? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romantic love acceptable/ desirable in all cultures? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sternberg <ul><li>Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg believed that love has three basic components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of these basic components form eight basic subtypes of love . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The three basic components are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy , the emotional component, which involves liking and feelings of closeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion , the motivational component, which contains drives that trigger attraction, romance and sexual desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment , the cognitive component, which reflects the decision to make a long-term commitment to a loved partner. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The combinations of love <ul><ul><li>Intimacy alone is described as liking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion alone is described as infatuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of intimacy and passion is called romantic love . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment alone is called empty love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of commitment and passion is referred to as fatuous love (foolish and silly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of commitment and intimacy is known as companionate love , a secure and trusting partnership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of all three components is known as consummate love , (a relationship that is in the highest degree, near perfect). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of all three components results in non-love . </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Progression of romantic relationships <ul><li>The emphasis of each component shifts as a romantic relationship develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Passion - Passionate arousal tends to occur at the beginning of relationships, peaks relatively quickly and then reduces to a stable level as a result of habituation. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy - Intimacy tends to peak slower than passion and then gradually reduces to a relatively low level of manifest intimacy as interpersonal bonding increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment - In successful relationships, the level of commitment rises relatively slowly at first, speeds up, and then gradually levels off. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Choosing a life partner <ul><li>What are the most important factors in choosing a spouse? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is “love”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable to marry without love? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary factors influencing mate selection? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of a mate with characteristics that will likely maximize the availability of beneficial genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males – choose mates who have high reproductive capacity (young, attractive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females – genetically programmed to seek out providers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Cohabitation vs. Marriage <ul><li>Cohabitation – couples living together without being married </li></ul><ul><li>Various reasons for choosing cohabitation over marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not ready for lifelong commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Practice” for marriage (problems with this?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject marriage altogether </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why marry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate culmination of a loving relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Right” thing to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire support of a spouse (economic, sexual, social roles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children out of wedlock not accepted by all sects of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal benefits (insurance/ survivor benefits) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. What makes marriage work? <ul><li>Relationships face a variety of challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict in marriage is not unusual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly half of newly married couples experience a significant degree of conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many others view the early years of marriage as deeply satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a good marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate relatively little negativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners hold similar interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners agree on distribution of roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View themselves as an interdependent couple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This awareness has not helped prevent the epidemic of divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly half of all marriages in the U.S. end in divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Most divorces occur during the first ten years of marriage </li></ul>
  27. 29. Why do couples divorce? <ul><li>Possible Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>poor communication; lack of support; lack of intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>women are now more financially independent, less likely to remain in bad marriages </li></ul><ul><li>young people expect more from marriage than previous generations </li></ul><ul><li>couples realize that exposing children to continued conflict does greater damage </li></ul><ul><li>At-Risk for Divorce: </li></ul><ul><li>teens have higher divorce rates </li></ul><ul><li>high school or college drop-out </li></ul><ul><li>if the father is unemployed, under age 30, or living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>those who cohabitated before marriage </li></ul>
  28. 30. Adjusting to Divorce <ul><li>adjustment depends on how people feel about themselves and former partners </li></ul><ul><li>involves relief, sadness, guilt, apprehension and anger </li></ul><ul><li>rejection, loss of control, powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>requires emotional detachment </li></ul><ul><li>those with more personal resources and friends adjust better </li></ul><ul><li>divorce lowers the standard of living </li></ul>
  29. 31. Parenthood <ul><li>What does it mean to be a parent? What does parenting involve? </li></ul><ul><li>In what respects is parenthood a biological or natural relationship, and in what respects a social one? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the scope and limits of parental rights and responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>What should parents be allowed to do/not do, and when may/must public agencies intervene? </li></ul>
  30. 32. Choosing to become a parent <ul><li>Why do young adults decide to become parents? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect to derive pleasure in watching their children grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfillment from their children’s accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonding with children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal norm – “First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes baby in the baby carriage.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-serving element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children care for/ provide for parents in old age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run family business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide companionship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For some couples, there is no “decision” to have children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/ absence of birth control methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90% of married couples have at least one child </li></ul>
  31. 33. The Transition to Parenthood <ul><li>The arrival of a child alters every aspect of family life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in day-to-day life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic shift in the roles spouses play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study in 2001 indicated that the average middle class family with 2 children spends 233,000 on each child by the time they are 18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working after baby? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Becoming a single parent </li></ul><ul><li>Co-parenting? </li></ul>
  32. 34. Choosing a Career <ul><li>Another critical aspect of early adulthood is choosing a career path </li></ul><ul><li>Ginzberg’s Career Choice Theory – suggests that people move through a series of stages in choosing a career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy period – Until age 11 – Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities, or job availability. Focus on what sounds appealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tentative period – Through adolescence – Begin thinking about the requirements of certain jobs as well as tying in their own abilities and interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic period – Early Adulthood – Adults explore specific career options either through actual experience or training </li></ul></ul>