Chapters 13 and 14 life span development.pptx

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Chapters 13 and 14 life span development.pptx

  1. 1. Life Span Development Spring 2010 PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD Chapter 13 SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD Chapter 14
  2. 2. Early Adulthood <ul><li>Period from end of adolescence to beginning of middle adulthood (20- 40) </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know what you’re an adult??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the defining characteristics of adulthood? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have these characteristics changed in the last century? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Adulthood” – physical vs. emotional development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Development <ul><li>Typically, physical development/ maturation already complete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small % still gain in height in early 20’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain continues to grow in height and weight, reaching its maximum during early adulthood and then contracting in size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senses are typically at their peak </li></ul><ul><li>Most of us are at our peak of psychomotor abilities during early adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction time quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle strength greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-eye coordination sharp </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Stress and Coping: Dealing with Life’s Challenges <ul><li>What is stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What causes stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are stressors in our lives? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Good vs. Bad Stress <ul><li>Good stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stress response (fight or flight) is critical during emergency situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: slamming on brakes to avoid a car accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A little of this stress can help keep you on your toes, ready to rise to a challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress doesn't always happen in response to things that are immediate or that are over quickly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing or long-term events( like coping with a divorce? can cause stress, too. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term stressful situations can produce a lasting, low-level stress that's hard on people. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Physical reaction to stress? <ul><li>What does stress do to our bodies? </li></ul><ul><li>The human body responds to stressors by activating the nervous system and specific hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus signals the adrenal glands to produce more of the hormones adrenaline and cortisol and release them into the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>These hormones cause physical changes to prepare a person to react quickly and effective, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased breathing rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open blood vessels wider, increasing blood flow and putting our muscles on alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils dilate to improve vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The liver releases some of its stored glucose to increase the body's energy. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Long-term effects <ul><li>While the immediate effects of stress might be beneficial in certain situations, long-term, continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body’s ability to deal with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress-related hormones constantly being secreted leads to deterioration of the heart, blood vessels and other body tissues </li></ul><ul><li>People become more susceptible to diseases/ decreased ability to fight off germs </li></ul><ul><li>People engage in negative methods of coping </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signs of Stress Overload <ul><li>Everyone experiences stress a little differently. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people become angry and act out their stress or take it out on others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people internalize it and develop eating disorders or substance abuse problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others may experience psychosomatic symptoms (medical problems caused by an interaction of psychological, emotional and physical difficulties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach aches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Signs of Stress Overload <ul><li>People who are experiencing stress overload may notice some of the following signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety or panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a feeling of being constantly pressured, hassled, and hurried </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irritability and moodiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical symptoms, such as stomach problems, headaches, or even chest pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allergic reactions, such as eczema or asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking too much, smoking, overeating, or doing drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sadness or depression </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Stress management <ul><li>These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more damage in the long run: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overeating or undereating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning out for hours in front of the TV or computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using pills or drugs to relax       </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procrastinating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling up every minute of the day to avoid facing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking out your stress on others (lashing out, angry outbursts, physical violence) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Coping with Stress <ul><li>Coping – the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-focused coping : attempting to manage a stressful situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: changing jobs, decreasing work load, working less hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused coping : the conscious regulation of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion focused strategies involve releasing pent-up emotions, distracting one-self, managing hostile feelings, meditating, using systematic relaxation procedures, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Other coping methods <ul><li>Defensive coping describes unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Deny the seriousness/ importance of a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional insulation is a form of defensive coping which involves unconscious prevention of feeling emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People try to remain unaffected by positive and negative experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This prevents the person from facing the reality of the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of drugs and alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also provides a means of avoiding reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents the person from dealing with stress/ problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasurable means of escape </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Higher Education <ul><li>How important is a college education in today’s society? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of a college degree? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the percentage of high school graduates who go to college? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Demographics of Higher Education <ul><li>69% of white high school graduates, 61% of African American graduates, and 47% of Hispanic graduates enter college, </li></ul><ul><li>Only around 40% of those who start college graduate 4 years later with a degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although about half of those who do not graduate will eventually finish, the other half never obtain a college degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More women that men attend college and graduate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women receive 133 bachelor’s degrees for every 100 men receive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This proportion continues to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why this gender gap in college attendance? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Adjusting to the demands of college <ul><li>Often multiple life changes come along with entering college </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High stress with demands of coursework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional financial stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in social groups/ peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being away from home for the 1 st time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First-year adjustment reaction – a cluster of psychological symptoms often experienced by first-year college students, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loneliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Adjusting to the demands of college <ul><li>How do students adjust? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining teams, clubs, fraternities/ sororities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having academic success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some students benefit from counseling to support them during the transition </li></ul><ul><li>Possible signs that professional help is warranted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological distress that lingers, interferes with a person’s well-being and ability to function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling unable to cope with stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopeless or depressed feelings (sometimes without an apparent reason) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to develop close relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Relationships During Early Adulthood <ul><li>Intimacy and Love </li></ul><ul><li>According to Erik Erikson, the focus of early adulthood is the intimacy vs. isolation stage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must develop the ability to form deep, intimate relationships with other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not directed specifically toward sexual intimacy, but toward forming long-lasting emotional bonds with another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s components of intimacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selflessness – sacrificing one’s own needs for those of another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality – gratification of joint pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep devotion – fusing of identities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulties during this stage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loneliness, isolation, fear of relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible result from failure to resolve conflict of previous stage </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Friendship <ul><li>Humans have a need for belongingness – leads people in early adulthood to form and preserve relationships that allow them to experience a sense of belonging with others </li></ul><ul><li>How are friendships formed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender differences – much more evident in this phase of life than any other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>females: emotional sharing of confidences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>males: shared activities, interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>females tend to discuss things in greater depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more self-revealing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confide less about strengths, victories, achievements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One theory – control – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females - less desire for control, more willing to show dependency, vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males - must protect against loss of control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Two Faces of Love <ul><li>Not all love is the same </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of love/ ways of loving others? </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of love: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companionate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passionate love (romantic love) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of powerful absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense physiological arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid emotional swings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companionate love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong affection for those with whom we are deeply involved </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cultural Differences? <ul><li>Western cultures – passionate love is desirable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayed in movies, TV shows, magazine ads, books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this unrealistic portrayal? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What fuels the fires of romantic love? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only positive emotions? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romantic love acceptable/ desirable in all cultures? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sternberg <ul><li>Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg believed that love has three basic components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of these basic components form eight basic subtypes of love . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The three basic components are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy , the emotional component, which involves liking and feelings of closeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion , the motivational component, which contains drives that trigger attraction, romance and sexual desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment , the cognitive component, which reflects the decision to make a long-term commitment to a loved partner. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The combinations of love <ul><ul><li>Intimacy alone is described as liking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion alone is described as infatuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of intimacy and passion is called romantic love . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment alone is called empty love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of commitment and passion is referred to as fatuous love (foolish and silly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of commitment and intimacy is known as companionate love , a secure and trusting partnership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of all three components is known as consummate love , (a relationship that is in the highest degree, near perfect). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of all three components results in non-love . </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Progression of romantic relationships <ul><li>The emphasis of each component shifts as a romantic relationship develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Passion - Passionate arousal tends to occur at the beginning of relationships, peaks relatively quickly and then reduces to a stable level as a result of habituation. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy - Intimacy tends to peak slower than passion and then gradually reduces to a relatively low level of manifest intimacy as interpersonal bonding increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment - In successful relationships, the level of commitment rises relatively slowly at first, speeds up, and then gradually levels off. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Choosing a life partner <ul><li>What are the most important factors in choosing a spouse? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is “love”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable to marry without love? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary factors influencing mate selection? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of a mate with characteristics that will likely maximize the availability of beneficial genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males – choose mates who have high reproductive capacity (young, attractive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females – genetically programmed to seek out providers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Cohabitation vs. Marriage <ul><li>Cohabitation – couples living together without being married </li></ul><ul><li>Various reasons for choosing cohabitation over marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not ready for lifelong commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Practice” for marriage (problems with this?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reject marriage altogether </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why marry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate culmination of a loving relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Right” thing to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire support of a spouse (economic, sexual, social roles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children out of wedlock not accepted by all sects of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal benefits (insurance/ survivor benefits) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. What makes marriage work? <ul><li>Relationships face a variety of challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict in marriage is not unusual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly half of newly married couples experience a significant degree of conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many others view the early years of marriage as deeply satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a good marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate relatively little negativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners hold similar interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners agree on distribution of roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View themselves as an interdependent couple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This awareness has not helped prevent the epidemic of divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly half of all marriages in the U.S. end in divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Most divorces occur during the first ten years of marriage </li></ul>
  27. 29. Why do couples divorce? <ul><li>Possible Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>poor communication; lack of support; lack of intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>women are now more financially independent, less likely to remain in bad marriages </li></ul><ul><li>young people expect more from marriage than previous generations </li></ul><ul><li>couples realize that exposing children to continued conflict does greater damage </li></ul><ul><li>At-Risk for Divorce: </li></ul><ul><li>teens have higher divorce rates </li></ul><ul><li>high school or college drop-out </li></ul><ul><li>if the father is unemployed, under age 30, or living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>those who cohabitated before marriage </li></ul>
  28. 30. Adjusting to Divorce <ul><li>adjustment depends on how people feel about themselves and former partners </li></ul><ul><li>involves relief, sadness, guilt, apprehension and anger </li></ul><ul><li>rejection, loss of control, powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>requires emotional detachment </li></ul><ul><li>those with more personal resources and friends adjust better </li></ul><ul><li>divorce lowers the standard of living </li></ul>
  29. 31. Parenthood <ul><li>What does it mean to be a parent? What does parenting involve? </li></ul><ul><li>In what respects is parenthood a biological or natural relationship, and in what respects a social one? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the scope and limits of parental rights and responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>What should parents be allowed to do/not do, and when may/must public agencies intervene? </li></ul>
  30. 32. Choosing to become a parent <ul><li>Why do young adults decide to become parents? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect to derive pleasure in watching their children grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfillment from their children’s accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonding with children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal norm – “First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes baby in the baby carriage.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-serving element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children care for/ provide for parents in old age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run family business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide companionship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For some couples, there is no “decision” to have children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/ absence of birth control methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90% of married couples have at least one child </li></ul>
  31. 33. The Transition to Parenthood <ul><li>The arrival of a child alters every aspect of family life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in day-to-day life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic shift in the roles spouses play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study in 2001 indicated that the average middle class family with 2 children spends 233,000 on each child by the time they are 18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working after baby? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Becoming a single parent </li></ul><ul><li>Co-parenting? </li></ul>
  32. 34. Choosing a Career <ul><li>Another critical aspect of early adulthood is choosing a career path </li></ul><ul><li>Ginzberg’s Career Choice Theory – suggests that people move through a series of stages in choosing a career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy period – Until age 11 – Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities, or job availability. Focus on what sounds appealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tentative period – Through adolescence – Begin thinking about the requirements of certain jobs as well as tying in their own abilities and interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic period – Early Adulthood – Adults explore specific career options either through actual experience or training </li></ul></ul>

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