Chap 6 life span development.pptxPresentation Transcript
Life Span Development Spring 2010 Social and Personality Development during Infancy – Chapter 6
Social and Personality Development in Infancy
Humans are born with the capacity to show basic emotions:
Researchers believe we are born with the capacity to display basic emotions (even nonverbally)
Across every culture, infants show similar facial expressions relating to basic emotions
Nonverbal encoding (nonverbal expression of emotion) is fairly consistent throughout the life span.
First smiles typically occur by approximately 6-9 weeks of age
At this point, smiling will occur reliably at the sight of something pleasurable (e.g. toys, mobiles, people)
Social smile – the first smile in response to another person as opposed to nonhuman stimuli
While first smiles are somewhat indiscriminate, as babies get older, their smiles will be directed at certain individuals, not just anyone
The intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances/events
Social referencing is used to:
Clarify the meaning of a situation (unusual toy, unfamiliar face)
Decide what an appropriate response might be
This first occurs at approximately 8 – 9 months
Social referencing implies that infants have an understanding of:
Facial expressions and their contexts for use
Other social cues
Stranger anxiety emerges during the second half of an infant’s first year of life (typically 7-8 months)
Stranger anxiety refers to the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person.
Infants with more experience with strangers tend to show less anxiety
Infants tend to show less anxiety to female strangers and other children than males
Separation Anxiety describes the distress displayed by infants when their parent or care provider departs.
This typically emerges by 7-8 months of age and peaks at 14 months.
Both stranger anxiety and separation anxiety reflect both cognitive advances as well as the social and emotional bonds between infants and their caregivers
Attachment is the positive social bond hat develops between a child and a particular, special individual.
Forming attachments to a particular person enables the child to feel pleasure around them as well as comfort in times of distress.
The nature of our attachment during infancy affects how we relate to others throughout the life span.
Theories of Attachment
Harry Harlow - Attachment is formed as a source of comfort, rather than feeding.
Harlow devised a series of studies in which infant rhesus monkeys were raised in cages without their natural mothers, but with two surrogate objects instead.
One surrogate "mother" was a wire form that the monkey could approach to receive food.
The other “mother” offered no food, but was wrapped in terry cloth so the infant could cling to a softer and more cuddly surface.
What happened when a large, threatening mechanical spider was introduced into the cage?
The infant monkeys ran to the terry cloth surrogates, demonstrating that contact comfort was more important than just meeting basic hunger needs for the establishment of a relationship from which the infant might derive security.
Bowlby suggested that attachment has a biological basis based on infant’s needs for safety and security
He indicated that mother-child attachment has an evolutionary basis, promoting the child's survival by increasing mother-child proximity, particularly when the child is stressed or fearful.
The mother thus serves as a secure base for the young child's exploration of the world.
Ainsworth created a method known as the “Strange Situation” to examine that bond between a parent and child.
The Strange Situation is a sequence of staged episodes that illustrates the strength of an attachment between a child and his or her mother (typically).
The method is to examine the child playing for approximately twenty minutes while the parent and the person who is unknown to the child enters and exit the room.
For some children this type of situation can be very stressful.
First the guardian and the child are presented in the room.
The guardian and the child are by themselves in the room. The child is discovering the area without any engagement from the guardian.
Then the person who is unknown enters the room. This person communicates with the guardian. Then the person tires to engage with the child. The guardian leaves the room.
This is the first separation episode. The person focuses on the child.
The guardian reunites with the child. The guardian comforts the child. Then guardian exit the room also the person leaves the room.
The child is alone. This is the second stage of separation episode.
The person comes back into the room. The person who is unknown to the child tries to comfort them.
The guardian reunites with the child. The guardian is now able to touch and comfort the child. The person who is unknown leaves the room quickly and quietly.
In the experiment, the examiner observed two types of child’s behaviors:
The observer examines the child’s reaction to their new environment such as the room and their engagement with the new play materials.
The observation that was in the experiment was noticed in the child’s behavior towards their mother entering and exiting the room.
From this study, Mary Ainsworth created three types of attachment relationships with the child’s mother.
Patterns of Attachment
Mary Ainsworth – Strange Situation Technique
1. Secure Attachment
2. Avoidant Attachment
3. Ambivalent Attachment
Secure Attachment Pattern
Children use the mother as a “home base” (as Bowlby had described)
Approximately 2/3’s of infants
Infants possessing this style of attachment will:
Engage in active exploration, returning to mother occasionally.
Be upset by separation.
Have a positive response to the mother upon return.
Be quite wary of strangers during infancy.
Avoidant Attachment Pattern
This occurs in approximately 10-20% of 1 year old children
Infants will not interested in mother but will focus on toys.
Infant do not seek proximity to the mother.
They do not become distressed when she leaves.
They avoid her when she returns, as if angry or indifferent towards her
Ambivalent Attachment Pattern
Infants with this attachment patter display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers.
Infants are in such close proximity to their mothers that they hardly explore the environment.
Infant is preoccupied with mother's availability.
Infants are anxious even before mother leaves and they appear distressed upon separation.
When mother returns, infant will show ambivalent reactions (seeking to be near her, but also hitting/ kicking her”
Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment Pattern
Although Ainsworth only identified three categories, a fourth was discovered in a more recent expansion of her work.
Disorganized-disoriented attachment pattern is a style of attachment in which children show inconsistent behaviors (contradicting behaviors)
Ex: approach mother, but not look at her
Ex: appear happy when mother returns, but then start weeping
Confusing, contradicting behaviors suggest these children are the least securely attached.
Although attachment style during infancy can be a indictor for how we relate to others throughout our lives, early attachment is not always compatible with our relationships later in life.
Some infants who do not develop a secure attachment style have good adjustment later on
Some children with secure attachment at age one experience difficulties later in life
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Development of attachment severely disrupted
Reactive attachment disorder ( RAD ) - a severe and relatively uncommon attachment disorder that can affect children.
RAD is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate ways of relating socially in most contexts.
RAD arises from a failure to form normal attachments to primary caregivers in early childhood.
Could result from:
Severe early experiences (6 mos – 3 yrs) of neglect, abuse, abrupt separation from caregivers
Frequent change of caregivers
Lack of caregiver responsiveness to a child's communicative efforts.
The individual and unique characteristics of personality begin to emerge during infancy
Personality is defined as the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
According to Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development, infants’ early experiences determines key aspects of their personality.
Identity develops over 8 stages of life
Each stage is marked by a crisis
Outcome of each stage is dependent on:
Outcome of previous stage &
Successful negotiation of each stage’s ego crisis
Strengths result from successful resolution of the crises
Disruption: feeling mistrust & abandonment-insecurity, suspicion of environment-world cannot be trusted
EGO STRENGTH: Hope
Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
18 months – 3 years…
GOAL: successful difference between right & wrong, control over impulses
Disruption: if over controlled & punitive-negative self-image. I am bad, I can never succeed
EGO STRENGTH: Independence
Temperament refers to patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent with a person’s individual characteristics
Categorization of infant temperament:
Easy babies (40%):
Emotions moderate to low in intensity
Difficult Babies (10%):
More negative moods
Slow to adapt
Tend to withdraw from new situations
Slow-to-warm Babies (15%):
Relatively calm reactions to environment
Generally negative moods
Slow to adapt to new situations
Fathers interact more with sons than daughters; mothers more with daughters.
Infants wear different clothes and are given different toys based on gender.
Infants' behavior is interpreted differently depending on gender.
Male infants are more active and fussier than females.
By age one, infants are able to distinguish between males and females.
Gender differences become increasingly influenced by gender roles in society.
Gender roles can be defined as the behaviors and attitudes expected of males and females by a particular culture or society.
Gender roles vary.
Different cultures impose different expectations upon the men and women who live in that culture.
The United States has experienced tremendous upheaval and revising of its traditional gender roles in the last generation.
These changes in gender roles affect the home, the workplace, and the school, and they affect all Americans to some degree.
Where Do Gender Roles Come From?
A person's sexuality comes from within him or her, making a person heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual, depending on the partners he or she is (or is not) attracted to.
Unlike sexuality, however, gender roles are impacted by a variety of social influences.
Gender role issues influence people throughout their lives; conflict can arise when some one does not feel at ease with his or her gender role.
The first and one of the strongest influences on a person's perceived gender role is his or her parents. Some parents still hold traditional definitions of maleness and femaleness and what kind of activities are appropriate for each.
Parents start early in treating their baby boys and baby girls differently.
Although baby boys are more likely to die in infancy than girls, and are actually more fragile as infants than girls are, studies have shown that parents tend to respond more quickly to an infant daughter's cries than they are to those of an infant son.
Parents also tend to cuddle girls more than they do boys.
They are also more likely to allow boys to try new things and activities--such as learning to walk and explore--than they are girls; parents tend to fear more for the safety of girls.
More on gender roles
According to Dr. Benjamin Spock, people are likely to appreciate girls' cuteness and boys' achievements.
For example, a girl may receive the comment, "You look so pretty!" for the outfit she is wearing.
While this compliment isn't harmful in itself, repeated over and over the message the girl gets is that she is most appreciated for her looks, not for what she can do.
Boys, on the other hand, are praised for what they can do--"Aren't you a big boy, standing up by yourself!"
Many parents encourage and expect boys to be more active, to be more rough-and-tumble in their play than girls.
A boy who does not like rough play (and so goes against the gender role he has been assigned) may be labeled a "sissy."
A girl who prefers active play to more passive pursuits may be called a "tomboy."