Chap 1 life span development


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Chap 1 life span development

  1. 1. Life Span Development Spring 2010<br />Chapter 1 – <br />Introduction to Life Span Development/ Introduction to Freud and Erikson’s Theories<br />
  2. 2. Introduction to Life Span Development <br />Basic terms:<br />Development: The progressive and continuous change in an organism from birth to death <br />Developmental Psychology: Studies of pre- and post-natal growth, maturation of behavior, stages of development, and the effects of experiences on our development<br />Lifespan Development: The field of study that examines patterns of growth, change and stability in behaviors that occur throughout the entire life span. <br />
  3. 3. Topical areas<br />Throughout this course, as we discuss each of the phases of life, we will discuss the following topical areas for each stage<br />Physical development: focuses on the physical make-up of the human body and emphasizes the brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities as well as our basic needs (food, drink, sleep). <br />Cognitive development: emphasizes intellectual abilities, including learning, memory, problem-solving and intelligence.<br />Personality and social development: emphasizes the characteristics that differentiate one person from another as well as interactions with one another and how social relationships change over the lifetime.<br />
  4. 4. Age ranges<br />Age ranges are typically divided into the following categories:<br />Prenatal period (conception to birth), <br />Infancy and toddlerhood (birth to age 3)<br />The preschool period (ages 3 to 6) <br />Middle childhood (ages 6 to 12)<br />Adolescence (ages 12 to 20)<br />Young adulthood (ages 20 to 40)<br />Middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65)<br />Late adulthood (age 65 to death)<br />
  5. 5. Controversy: Continuity versus Discontinuity<br />Do developmental changes occur gradually (continuous) or in major qualitative leaps?<br />Some believe continuous: effects of learning are gradual<br />Achievements at each level building on those of the previous level<br />Maturational theorists point out that the environment helps us very little until we are ready<br />Stage theorists (discontinuous change)<br />Others believe number of rapid qualitative changes usher in new stages of development<br />Discontinuous, biological changes provide potential or psychological changes (personality and cognitive development)<br />Sequences are the same, but timing is different.<br />
  6. 6. Nature vs. Nurture:<br />The extent to which human behavior is result of heredity vs. environment<br />Nature: internal processes that guide development according to genetic code<br />Nurture: external processes that influence development<br />Developmental Psychologists reject the idea that behavior is the result of solely one or the other<br />
  7. 7. The Scientific Method<br />How Do We Study Child Development?<br />The Scientific method is a way of formulating and answering research questions.<br />Allows scientists to test theories.<br />Step 1: Formulating a research question<br />Step 2: Developing a Hypothesis<br />Specific statement about behavior that is tested by research<br />An educated guess about research question<br />Step 3: Testing the Hypothesis<br />Test through carefully controlled information-gathering techniques and research methods<br />Naturalistic observation, case study, correlation, experiment<br />Step 4: Draw Conclusions about Hypothesis<br />Draw conclusions of accuracy based on results of research findings<br />When rejected, may modify their hypothesis and retest.<br />Step 5: Publishing Findings<br />Publish in professional journals and make available to public for scrutiny<br />
  8. 8. Gathering Information<br />Psychologists use various methods to gather information:<br />Naturalistic Observation<br />Method of observation which subjects are observed in their natural environment<br />Field studies – observe kids at home, on playground, in classroom.<br />Try not to interfere to reduce bias (one way mirror)<br />Typically first type of study in new areas of investigation<br />Gather an initial impression of what happens n certain situations.<br />Case Study<br />Carefully drawn biography of the life behavior of an individual.<br />Parents who keep diaries of children’s activity.<br />May include observation, surveys, standardized tests, and interviews<br />
  9. 9. Gathering Information<br />Correlations<br />Math method to determine whether one behavior/trait is related to another.<br />TV violence and aggression – assign numbers and obtain correlation coefficient<br />Correlation Coefficient<br />The strength and direction of the relationship between two factors is represented by the correlation coefficient<br />Number ranges from +1.0 to -1.0. <br />Positive Correlations<br />Higher scores on one variable are matched by high scores on another<br />Hours of violent TV and aggressive behavior<br />Negative Correlations<br />Higher scores on one variable are matched by low scores on another<br />Hours of child-friendly TV and aggressive behavior<br />Limitations<br />Reveal relationships, but do not show cause and effect (Correlation does not equal causation!!)<br />What if children to watch violent TV prefer it b/c they are aggressive?<br />What if aggression and TV viewing are caused by poor parenting?<br />
  10. 10. Gathering Information<br />The Experiment<br />Preferred method for testing cause and effect.<br />Experiment: Group of participants receives a treatment & another does not.<br />Participants are observed to determine whether the treatment affects behavior.<br />Some children are exposed to TV violence and others are not.<br />Independent Variables<br />Condition that is manipulated for changed to observe its effects<br />Violent TV<br />Dependent Variables<br />Measure of the assumed effect of the IV<br />Aggressive behavior<br />Experimental Group<br />Participants who receive the treatment<br />Control Group<br />Participants who do not receive the treatment<br />All other conditions are held constant<br />Random Assignment<br />Subjects assigned to groups on a chance or random basis.<br />
  11. 11. Gathering Information<br />Longitudinal Studies: Development over Time<br />The processes of development occur over time.<br />Longitudinal Research<br />Taking repeated measures of the same group of children at various stages<br />Gains in height, approaches to problem solving<br />Some ambitious studies have followed people for 50 years<br />Most studies span months or a few years<br />Studies relationship between behavior at earlier and later ages<br />Allows researchers to follow development over time<br />Problems: volunteer rates, attrition, death<br />Subjects who stay in are more motivated (systematic differences)<br />Patience: to compare 3 & 6 year olds – wait 3 years<br />Other options? <br />
  12. 12. Gathering Information<br />Cross-Sectional Research<br />Measures of children of different age groups at the same time<br />More common b/c of drawbacks of longitudinal studies<br />Can be completed in a shorter period of time<br />Problems: does not study development across time (differences at ages)<br />Cohort Effect: group of people born at the same time experience cultural and other events unique to their age group.<br />
  13. 13. The Psychoanalytic Perspective<br />Freud’s theory that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality and behavior<br />Our thoughts and actions are due to unconscious motives and conflicts.<br />
  14. 14. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory<br />Freud proposes that unconscious forces act to determine our personality and behavior. <br />Freud believed that our wishes, desires, demands and needs were hidden from conscious awareness, due to their disturbing nature. <br />He believed that the unconscious was responsible for most of our everyday behaviors. <br />Freud’s theory divided our personalities into three aspects: the id, the ego and the superego.<br />
  15. 15. Freud’s Structure of Personality<br />Freud’s psychoanalytic theory<br />Structure of personality<br />Id: Pleasure principle<br />Reservoir for all psychic energy<br />Primitive, instinctive component of personality<br />Raw, unorganized, inborn part of our personality and represents the primary drives of hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. <br />Wants immediate gratification of urges - the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension<br />Ego: Reality principle<br />The mediator - buffer between the id and the real world<br />Decision making component of personality <br />Part of personality that is rationale and reasonable<br />Seeks to delay gratification of urges to satisfy society’s norms<br />Superego: Morality principle<br />Moral component that internalizes social standards about right and wrong.<br />Conscience<br />The superego typically develops when we are about 5 or 6 years of age<br />
  16. 16. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development<br />Both of Freud’s theories based on levels of awareness – emphasis on the unconscious <br />Conceptualized 3 main structures of the mind (Levels of Awareness)<br />1. Conscious: Currently aware of<br />2. Preconscious: Near the surface; presently beyond awareness but can become conscious by paying attention to them<br />What ate for breakfast; sad due to death<br />3. Unconscious: genetic instincts and urges (hunger, sex, aggression) that can only partly perceive.<br />
  17. 17. Freud’s internal conflicts & defense mechanisms<br />Internal conflict<br />Behavior is the outcome of series of internal conflicts b/t id, ego, & superego<br />Id wants immediate gratification, but norms of society dictate otherwise<br />Conflicting personality structures lead to anxiety/tension<br />Sex and aggression cause the most tension<br />Conflicts lead to anxiety & guilt….<br />
  18. 18. Defense Mechanisms<br />Conflicts lead to anxiety & guilt, which cause ego to construct defense mechanisms<br />Defense Mechanisms:<br />Protect the Ego.<br />Operate Unconsciously.<br />Distort Reality.<br />Defense Mechanisms<br />Created by the ego to decrease internal tension<br />Displacement<br />Repression<br />Rationalization<br />Reaction Formation<br />Projection<br />Sublimation<br />
  19. 19. Defense Mechanisms<br />Repression <br />Motivated forgetting – repress memories into unconscious<br />Keeping distressful or anxiety-arousing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.<br />Repress desires that make them guilty; or painful memories<br />Reaction Formation<br />Unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites.<br />Behaving in ways that are the opposite of one’s true feelings.<br />Rationalization<br />Creating false, but plausible excuses to justify behavior<br />“Everyone does it”<br />
  20. 20. Defense Mechanisms<br />Projection<br />Own threatening impulses are attributed to others.<br />Ex: An unfaithful husband suspects his wife of infidelity<br />Displacement<br />Diverting emotions from their original source onto another<br />Ex: Aggressive impulses directed toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person<br />Sublimation<br />Rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities<br />
  21. 21. Psychosexual Stages of Development<br />The ways that children deal with immature sexual urges (physical pleasure) during different stages shape personality.<br />Developmental periods with characteristics sexual focus that leave mark on adult personality.<br />Focus shifts as progress from one stage to another.<br />Process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development.<br />Each stage named for focus of erotic energy during that period.<br />Each stage has its own unique developmental challenge.<br />The way these challenges are handed shapes personality.<br />
  22. 22. Psychosexual Stages of Development<br />1. Oral Stage (birth to 12 to 18 months)<br />Main source of stimulation from mouth (eating, sucking)<br />Handling of feeding experiences is crucial to development.<br />Fixation can lead to obsessive eating, smoking, talking, drinking, nail biting<br />2. Anal Stage (1 to 1 ½ to about 2 or 3)<br />Pleasure from bowel movements; expulsion or retention of feces<br />Crucial events: toilet training (societies first attempt to regulate biological urges)<br />Excessive punishments leads to hostility toward trainer (mother, women)<br />Association b/t genitals and anxiety; sexual dysfunction later<br />Fixation: stubbornness; cleanliness; orderly; detail oriented <br />Expulsive personality; messy; dirty; disorganized <br />
  23. 23. Psychosexual Stages of Development<br />3. Phallic Stage (3 to 5 years)<br />Genitals become focus for energy; largely through self stimulation<br />Parental punishment for masturbation<br />Oedipal complex: manifest desires for opposite sex parent; hostility toward same<br />Oedipus: killed father and married mother<br />Girls develop attachments to father; learn that boys have different genitals<br />Penis Envy: mad at mother for anatomic deficiency<br />Little boys view father as competitor for mothers attention/affection<br />Castration Anxiety: fear retaliation from father<br />Child must resolve dilemma and identify with same sex parent<br />Crucial for development of superego; gender roles; sexual orientation<br />4. Latency (5 or 6 – puberty)<br />Child’s sexuality is suppressed: becomes latent<br />Expanding social contacts beyond immediate family; playing with same sex peers<br />5. Genital Stage (puberty +)<br />Sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals<br />Normally channeled to peers of the same sex (rather than oneself)<br />
  24. 24. Psychosexual Stages of Development<br />
  25. 25. Evaluation of Freud’s Theory<br />Major contribution to 20th century thought<br />Rich theory explaining origins of behaviors and traits; stimulating research on attachment; gender roles; morality; and identification<br />Implications for toilet training<br />Defensive mechanisms based on guilt & anxiety (repression; displacement; rationalization)<br />However, criticized on many grounds<br />Developed based on individual contacts with female patients with emotional problems<br />Based on recollections versus childhood observations<br />Too much emphasis on sex, instincts, and unconscious motives<br />People are not motivated only by sex & aggression but learning, social relationships, conscious desires.<br />Cultural and prejudice stereotypes about women.<br />
  26. 26. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development<br /><ul><li>Erikson versus Freud
  27. 27. Modified Freud’s theory to focus on the development of self-identity.
  28. 28. Development results from social relationships versus intra-psychic conflict
  29. 29. Psychosocial Development</li></ul>Stages are life crises that child experiences at certain stages.<br />Positive resolution sets the stage for resolution of later life crises<br />Early experiences exert a continued influence on future development.<br />With proper parental support during early years, most resolve productively<br />Bolsters sense of identity; who they are and what they stand for; expectation for future success.<br />Stages of psychosocial development<br />Each carries developmental task<br />Successful completion depends on child’s social relationships at each stage<br />Theory influenced child rearing; education; and child therapy.<br />
  30. 30. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development<br />
  31. 31. Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust<br />Trust vs. Mistrust<br />Task: trust caregivers and environment; satisfaction; and contentment<br />Infant depends on adults who take care of basic needs; must be able to trust them<br />If needs are met: develop secure attachments; optimistic trusting attitude<br />If needs are not met: distrusting, insecure personality<br />
  32. 32. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt<br />Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt<br />Task: develop desire to make choices and gain self control<br />Begin to potty train; regulate child (walking, talking)<br />Self control & confidence emerge<br />Child takes responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing<br />If parents are supportive & reassuring with mistakes: self-sufficiency, confidence needed to cope with future events.<br />If parents are overprotective & never satisfied: personal shame & self-doubt<br />
  33. 33. Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt<br />Initiative vs. Guilt<br />Task: gain initiative; become proactive<br />Challenge to function socially within the family<br />Children begin to exercise wills, develop independence and initiate activities. <br />Balance between eagerness for adventure & responsibility and control<br />If parents encouraging, consistent with discipline: learn to accept without guilt that some things are not allowed.<br />If parents feel children are selfish: instill guilt about independence; uncertain of doing things for themselves.<br />
  34. 34. Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority<br />Industry vs. Inferiority<br />School is important; child learned to be a worker & potential provider<br />Challenge to learn to socially function beyond family<br />Pleasure in intellectual stimulation; able to function outside nurturing environment: sense of competence<br />If not: sense of inferiority<br />
  35. 35. The Behavioral Perspective<br />The Behavioral Perspective<br />Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment<br />John B. Watson: argued that by effectively controlling the environment, it was possible to produce virtually any behavior.<br />Theories of learning play an integral role in the study of human development<br />Learning<br /> A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.<br />
  36. 36. Also referred to as Pavlovian Conditioning or Respondent Conditioning<br />Form of associative learning first developed by Ivan Pavlov<br />Pavlov’s great discovery was that, through experience, stimuli that previously had no relation to a specific reflex could come to trigger the reflex. <br />Classical Conditioning<br />
  37. 37. Pavlov’s dogs<br />Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning were an extension of his research of the process of digestion<br />Discovered by accident. Dogs began to salivate when they saw the lab technician who normally fed them (psychic secretions)<br />Pavlov predicted that, if a particular stimulus in the dog’s surroundings was present when the dog was presented with meat powder, then this stimulus would become associated with food and cause salivation on its own <br />
  38. 38. The experiment<br />Pavlov used bells to call the dogs to their food and, after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the bell. <br />Thus, a neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US).<br />Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a conditional reflex (now called Conditioned Response). <br />
  39. 39. Classical Conditioning: Key Phrases<br />Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – A stimulus which elicits a natural and automatic response (reflexively elicits a response)<br />Unconditioned Response (UR) – A response naturally and reflexively elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.<br />Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A neutral stimulus (which does not elicit a natural and automatic response) which, after conditioning, is able to elicit a non-reflexive response.<br />Conditioned Response (CR) – A response that, after conditioning, is elicited by a conditioned stimulus.<br />
  40. 40. Operant Conditioning<br />Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)<br /> Learning by consequences<br /> Individuals tend to repeat behaviors followed by favorable consequences and not <br /> repeat behaviors followed by undesirable consequences<br /> Operant Conditioning Terminology<br /> Reinforcement – providing stimuli following a response to increase frequency<br /> Positive Reinforcer: increase behavior when applied<br /> Negative Reinforcer: increase behavior when removed<br /> Extinction – cessation of response performed in the absence of reinforcement<br /> Punishment – providing stimuli following a response to decrease frequency<br /> Often undesirable due to adverse side effects<br /> Shaping – procedure for teaching complex behavior by reinforcing small steps toward target behavior.<br />
  41. 41. Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement<br />
  42. 42. Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment<br />