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  • 1. Life Span Development Spring 2010
    Chapter 1 –
    Introduction to Life Span Development/ Introduction to Freud and Erikson’s Theories
  • 2. Introduction to Life Span Development
    Basic terms:
    Development: The progressive and continuous change in an organism from birth to death
    Developmental Psychology: Studies of pre- and post-natal growth, maturation of behavior, stages of development, and the effects of experiences on our development
    Lifespan Development: The field of study that examines patterns of growth, change and stability in behaviors that occur throughout the entire life span.
  • 3. Topical areas
    Throughout this course, as we discuss each of the phases of life, we will discuss the following topical areas for each stage
    Physical development: focuses on the physical make-up of the human body and emphasizes the brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities as well as our basic needs (food, drink, sleep).
    Cognitive development: emphasizes intellectual abilities, including learning, memory, problem-solving and intelligence.
    Personality and social development: emphasizes the characteristics that differentiate one person from another as well as interactions with one another and how social relationships change over the lifetime.
  • 4. Age ranges
    Age ranges are typically divided into the following categories:
    Prenatal period (conception to birth),
    Infancy and toddlerhood (birth to age 3)
    The preschool period (ages 3 to 6)
    Middle childhood (ages 6 to 12)
    Adolescence (ages 12 to 20)
    Young adulthood (ages 20 to 40)
    Middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65)
    Late adulthood (age 65 to death)
  • 5. Controversy: Continuity versus Discontinuity
    Do developmental changes occur gradually (continuous) or in major qualitative leaps?
    Some believe continuous: effects of learning are gradual
    Achievements at each level building on those of the previous level
    Maturational theorists point out that the environment helps us very little until we are ready
    Stage theorists (discontinuous change)
    Others believe number of rapid qualitative changes usher in new stages of development
    Discontinuous, biological changes provide potential or psychological changes (personality and cognitive development)
    Sequences are the same, but timing is different.
  • 6. Nature vs. Nurture:
    The extent to which human behavior is result of heredity vs. environment
    Nature: internal processes that guide development according to genetic code
    Nurture: external processes that influence development
    Developmental Psychologists reject the idea that behavior is the result of solely one or the other
  • 7. The Scientific Method
    How Do We Study Child Development?
    The Scientific method is a way of formulating and answering research questions.
    Allows scientists to test theories.
    Step 1: Formulating a research question
    Step 2: Developing a Hypothesis
    Specific statement about behavior that is tested by research
    An educated guess about research question
    Step 3: Testing the Hypothesis
    Test through carefully controlled information-gathering techniques and research methods
    Naturalistic observation, case study, correlation, experiment
    Step 4: Draw Conclusions about Hypothesis
    Draw conclusions of accuracy based on results of research findings
    When rejected, may modify their hypothesis and retest.
    Step 5: Publishing Findings
    Publish in professional journals and make available to public for scrutiny
  • 8. Gathering Information
    Psychologists use various methods to gather information:
    Naturalistic Observation
    Method of observation which subjects are observed in their natural environment
    Field studies – observe kids at home, on playground, in classroom.
    Try not to interfere to reduce bias (one way mirror)
    Typically first type of study in new areas of investigation
    Gather an initial impression of what happens n certain situations.
    Case Study
    Carefully drawn biography of the life behavior of an individual.
    Parents who keep diaries of children’s activity.
    May include observation, surveys, standardized tests, and interviews
  • 9. Gathering Information
    Correlations
    Math method to determine whether one behavior/trait is related to another.
    TV violence and aggression – assign numbers and obtain correlation coefficient
    Correlation Coefficient
    The strength and direction of the relationship between two factors is represented by the correlation coefficient
    Number ranges from +1.0 to -1.0.
    Positive Correlations
    Higher scores on one variable are matched by high scores on another
    Hours of violent TV and aggressive behavior
    Negative Correlations
    Higher scores on one variable are matched by low scores on another
    Hours of child-friendly TV and aggressive behavior
    Limitations
    Reveal relationships, but do not show cause and effect (Correlation does not equal causation!!)
    What if children to watch violent TV prefer it b/c they are aggressive?
    What if aggression and TV viewing are caused by poor parenting?
  • 10. Gathering Information
    The Experiment
    Preferred method for testing cause and effect.
    Experiment: Group of participants receives a treatment & another does not.
    Participants are observed to determine whether the treatment affects behavior.
    Some children are exposed to TV violence and others are not.
    Independent Variables
    Condition that is manipulated for changed to observe its effects
    Violent TV
    Dependent Variables
    Measure of the assumed effect of the IV
    Aggressive behavior
    Experimental Group
    Participants who receive the treatment
    Control Group
    Participants who do not receive the treatment
    All other conditions are held constant
    Random Assignment
    Subjects assigned to groups on a chance or random basis.
  • 11. Gathering Information
    Longitudinal Studies: Development over Time
    The processes of development occur over time.
    Longitudinal Research
    Taking repeated measures of the same group of children at various stages
    Gains in height, approaches to problem solving
    Some ambitious studies have followed people for 50 years
    Most studies span months or a few years
    Studies relationship between behavior at earlier and later ages
    Allows researchers to follow development over time
    Problems: volunteer rates, attrition, death
    Subjects who stay in are more motivated (systematic differences)
    Patience: to compare 3 & 6 year olds – wait 3 years
    Other options?
  • 12. Gathering Information
    Cross-Sectional Research
    Measures of children of different age groups at the same time
    More common b/c of drawbacks of longitudinal studies
    Can be completed in a shorter period of time
    Problems: does not study development across time (differences at ages)
    Cohort Effect: group of people born at the same time experience cultural and other events unique to their age group.
  • 13. The Psychoanalytic Perspective
    Freud’s theory that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality and behavior
    Our thoughts and actions are due to unconscious motives and conflicts.
  • 14. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
    Freud proposes that unconscious forces act to determine our personality and behavior.
    Freud believed that our wishes, desires, demands and needs were hidden from conscious awareness, due to their disturbing nature.
    He believed that the unconscious was responsible for most of our everyday behaviors.
    Freud’s theory divided our personalities into three aspects: the id, the ego and the superego.
  • 15. Freud’s Structure of Personality
    Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
    Structure of personality
    Id: Pleasure principle
    Reservoir for all psychic energy
    Primitive, instinctive component of personality
    Raw, unorganized, inborn part of our personality and represents the primary drives of hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
    Wants immediate gratification of urges - the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension
    Ego: Reality principle
    The mediator - buffer between the id and the real world
    Decision making component of personality
    Part of personality that is rationale and reasonable
    Seeks to delay gratification of urges to satisfy society’s norms
    Superego: Morality principle
    Moral component that internalizes social standards about right and wrong.
    Conscience
    The superego typically develops when we are about 5 or 6 years of age
  • 16. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development
    Both of Freud’s theories based on levels of awareness – emphasis on the unconscious
    Conceptualized 3 main structures of the mind (Levels of Awareness)
    1. Conscious: Currently aware of
    2. Preconscious: Near the surface; presently beyond awareness but can become conscious by paying attention to them
    What ate for breakfast; sad due to death
    3. Unconscious: genetic instincts and urges (hunger, sex, aggression) that can only partly perceive.
  • 17. Freud’s internal conflicts & defense mechanisms
    Internal conflict
    Behavior is the outcome of series of internal conflicts b/t id, ego, & superego
    Id wants immediate gratification, but norms of society dictate otherwise
    Conflicting personality structures lead to anxiety/tension
    Sex and aggression cause the most tension
    Conflicts lead to anxiety & guilt….
  • 18. Defense Mechanisms
    Conflicts lead to anxiety & guilt, which cause ego to construct defense mechanisms
    Defense Mechanisms:
    Protect the Ego.
    Operate Unconsciously.
    Distort Reality.
    Defense Mechanisms
    Created by the ego to decrease internal tension
    Displacement
    Repression
    Rationalization
    Reaction Formation
    Projection
    Sublimation
  • 19. Defense Mechanisms
    Repression
    Motivated forgetting – repress memories into unconscious
    Keeping distressful or anxiety-arousing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
    Repress desires that make them guilty; or painful memories
    Reaction Formation
    Unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
    Behaving in ways that are the opposite of one’s true feelings.
    Rationalization
    Creating false, but plausible excuses to justify behavior
    “Everyone does it”
  • 20. Defense Mechanisms
    Projection
    Own threatening impulses are attributed to others.
    Ex: An unfaithful husband suspects his wife of infidelity
    Displacement
    Diverting emotions from their original source onto another
    Ex: Aggressive impulses directed toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
    Sublimation
    Rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities
  • 21. Psychosexual Stages of Development
    The ways that children deal with immature sexual urges (physical pleasure) during different stages shape personality.
    Developmental periods with characteristics sexual focus that leave mark on adult personality.
    Focus shifts as progress from one stage to another.
    Process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development.
    Each stage named for focus of erotic energy during that period.
    Each stage has its own unique developmental challenge.
    The way these challenges are handed shapes personality.
  • 22. Psychosexual Stages of Development
    1. Oral Stage (birth to 12 to 18 months)
    Main source of stimulation from mouth (eating, sucking)
    Handling of feeding experiences is crucial to development.
    Fixation can lead to obsessive eating, smoking, talking, drinking, nail biting
    2. Anal Stage (1 to 1 ½ to about 2 or 3)
    Pleasure from bowel movements; expulsion or retention of feces
    Crucial events: toilet training (societies first attempt to regulate biological urges)
    Excessive punishments leads to hostility toward trainer (mother, women)
    Association b/t genitals and anxiety; sexual dysfunction later
    Fixation: stubbornness; cleanliness; orderly; detail oriented
    Expulsive personality; messy; dirty; disorganized
  • 23. Psychosexual Stages of Development
    3. Phallic Stage (3 to 5 years)
    Genitals become focus for energy; largely through self stimulation
    Parental punishment for masturbation
    Oedipal complex: manifest desires for opposite sex parent; hostility toward same
    Oedipus: killed father and married mother
    Girls develop attachments to father; learn that boys have different genitals
    Penis Envy: mad at mother for anatomic deficiency
    Little boys view father as competitor for mothers attention/affection
    Castration Anxiety: fear retaliation from father
    Child must resolve dilemma and identify with same sex parent
    Crucial for development of superego; gender roles; sexual orientation
    4. Latency (5 or 6 – puberty)
    Child’s sexuality is suppressed: becomes latent
    Expanding social contacts beyond immediate family; playing with same sex peers
    5. Genital Stage (puberty +)
    Sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals
    Normally channeled to peers of the same sex (rather than oneself)
  • 24. Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 25. Evaluation of Freud’s Theory
    Major contribution to 20th century thought
    Rich theory explaining origins of behaviors and traits; stimulating research on attachment; gender roles; morality; and identification
    Implications for toilet training
    Defensive mechanisms based on guilt & anxiety (repression; displacement; rationalization)
    However, criticized on many grounds
    Developed based on individual contacts with female patients with emotional problems
    Based on recollections versus childhood observations
    Too much emphasis on sex, instincts, and unconscious motives
    People are not motivated only by sex & aggression but learning, social relationships, conscious desires.
    Cultural and prejudice stereotypes about women.
  • 26. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
    • Erikson versus Freud
    • 27. Modified Freud’s theory to focus on the development of self-identity.
    • 28. Development results from social relationships versus intra-psychic conflict
    • 29. Psychosocial Development
    Stages are life crises that child experiences at certain stages.
    Positive resolution sets the stage for resolution of later life crises
    Early experiences exert a continued influence on future development.
    With proper parental support during early years, most resolve productively
    Bolsters sense of identity; who they are and what they stand for; expectation for future success.
    Stages of psychosocial development
    Each carries developmental task
    Successful completion depends on child’s social relationships at each stage
    Theory influenced child rearing; education; and child therapy.
  • 30. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
  • 31. Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust
    Trust vs. Mistrust
    Task: trust caregivers and environment; satisfaction; and contentment
    Infant depends on adults who take care of basic needs; must be able to trust them
    If needs are met: develop secure attachments; optimistic trusting attitude
    If needs are not met: distrusting, insecure personality
  • 32. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    Task: develop desire to make choices and gain self control
    Begin to potty train; regulate child (walking, talking)
    Self control & confidence emerge
    Child takes responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing
    If parents are supportive & reassuring with mistakes: self-sufficiency, confidence needed to cope with future events.
    If parents are overprotective & never satisfied: personal shame & self-doubt
  • 33. Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
    Initiative vs. Guilt
    Task: gain initiative; become proactive
    Challenge to function socially within the family
    Children begin to exercise wills, develop independence and initiate activities.
    Balance between eagerness for adventure & responsibility and control
    If parents encouraging, consistent with discipline: learn to accept without guilt that some things are not allowed.
    If parents feel children are selfish: instill guilt about independence; uncertain of doing things for themselves.
  • 34. Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
    Industry vs. Inferiority
    School is important; child learned to be a worker & potential provider
    Challenge to learn to socially function beyond family
    Pleasure in intellectual stimulation; able to function outside nurturing environment: sense of competence
    If not: sense of inferiority
  • 35. The Behavioral Perspective
    The Behavioral Perspective
    Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
    John B. Watson: argued that by effectively controlling the environment, it was possible to produce virtually any behavior.
    Theories of learning play an integral role in the study of human development
    Learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
  • 36. Also referred to as Pavlovian Conditioning or Respondent Conditioning
    Form of associative learning first developed by Ivan Pavlov
    Pavlov’s great discovery was that, through experience, stimuli that previously had no relation to a specific reflex could come to trigger the reflex.
    Classical Conditioning
  • 37. Pavlov’s dogs
    Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning were an extension of his research of the process of digestion
    Discovered by accident. Dogs began to salivate when they saw the lab technician who normally fed them (psychic secretions)
    Pavlov predicted that, if a particular stimulus in the dog’s surroundings was present when the dog was presented with meat powder, then this stimulus would become associated with food and cause salivation on its own
  • 38. The experiment
    Pavlov used bells to call the dogs to their food and, after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the bell.
    Thus, a neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US).
    Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a conditional reflex (now called Conditioned Response).
  • 39. Classical Conditioning: Key Phrases
    Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – A stimulus which elicits a natural and automatic response (reflexively elicits a response)
    Unconditioned Response (UR) – A response naturally and reflexively elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A neutral stimulus (which does not elicit a natural and automatic response) which, after conditioning, is able to elicit a non-reflexive response.
    Conditioned Response (CR) – A response that, after conditioning, is elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
  • 40. Operant Conditioning
    Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)
    Learning by consequences
    Individuals tend to repeat behaviors followed by favorable consequences and not
    repeat behaviors followed by undesirable consequences
    Operant Conditioning Terminology
    Reinforcement – providing stimuli following a response to increase frequency
    Positive Reinforcer: increase behavior when applied
    Negative Reinforcer: increase behavior when removed
    Extinction – cessation of response performed in the absence of reinforcement
    Punishment – providing stimuli following a response to decrease frequency
    Often undesirable due to adverse side effects
    Shaping – procedure for teaching complex behavior by reinforcing small steps toward target behavior.
  • 41. Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement
  • 42. Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment