Cattle Nutrition


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Cattle Nutrition

  1. 1. Cattle Nutrition<br />Ruminant Herbivores<br />Calf- young animal<br />Heifer- female calf that has not given birth and is less than 30 months old<br />Cow- older than 30 months old, or has given birth<br />Bull- intact male<br />Steer- castrated male up to 4 years old<br />Ox- castrated male, more than 4 years old<br />
  2. 2. Dairy Cattle<br />Main objective- increase dry matter intake to produce higher levels of milk production<br />Key factors: energy, ration digestibility, rumen fill, palatability, body weight( BCS), environment, frequency of feeding and water<br />
  3. 3. Phase feeding program<br />Phase feeding<br /><ul><li>Changing the nutrient concentration in a series of diets formulated to meet an animal’s nutrient requirements more precisely at a particular stage of growth or production
  4. 4. Based on lactation and gestation cycle</li></li></ul><li>Phase 1<br />First 10 weeks of lactation<br />Peak milk production happens in this phase<br />Negative energy balance develops, so cow uses body stores to make up difference ( can borrow fat, but cannot borrow protein)<br />
  5. 5. What to feed in Phase 1<br />Increased grain for energy ( corn, wheat, soybeans)<br />Protein supplementation to meet amino acid requirements ( dried brewers grain, distillers grain, corn gluten meal)<br />Increased concentrates and fats to increase energy density of feed ( soybeans, sunflower seeds)<br />Sodium bicarbonate “ buffer” to reduce acidosis and maintain ruminal ph<br />
  6. 6. Phase 2<br />Begins 10 weeks post calving and can continue to 20th week<br />Highest dry matter intake happens here<br />Nutrient intake is finally in balance with nutrient needs<br />
  7. 7. What to feed in Phase 2<br />Lower protein levels because requirement is met by supplementation in Phase 1<br />Adequate fiber<br />Limited grain intake<br />Frequent feeding ( minimizes digestive upset)<br />
  8. 8. Phase 3 <br />“late lactation period”, cow is pregnant again<br />Nutrient intake exceeds requirement for production<br />Main period for restoring body reserves for next lactation<br />
  9. 9. What to feed in Phase 2<br />Easiest phase to manage because cow is pregnant and milk production is declining<br />Increased amount of forage instead of concentrates<br />Lower protein<br />
  10. 10. Phase 4<br />Most of the “ dry” period<br />Final regaining of any lost body weight happens here<br />Goal is to get cow in good condition for parturition, but not excessively fat ( BCS of 3.5 out of 5.O scale)<br />
  11. 11. What to feed in Phase 4<br />High protein, energy, Ca and P needs<br />Combination of legume-grass hay and corn silage ( with added vitamins and P0<br />Long stem grass hay ( length of hay matters)<br />Limit grain to energy and protein needs<br />
  12. 12. Body Condition Scoring<br />A numeric system to subjectively assess and animal’s degree of fatness<br />Fat Cow Syndrome<br /><ul><li>High blood lipids and fatty liver from eating excess energy from grain or corn silage
  13. 13. Can lead to calving difficulties, displaced abomassum and ketosis</li></li></ul><li>Phase 5<br />Last 1-3 weeks of “dry” period, just before calving<br />Referred to as a “transition period”<br />Increase grain intake to prepare rumen for high energy diets that will be needed postpartum<br />
  14. 14. What to feed in Phase 5<br />Gradual increase in grains<br />Small amounts of all ingredients used in the lactation ration<br />Maybe decrease Ca in “ milk fever” prone cows<br />
  15. 15. Beef Cattle Nutrition<br />Most critical factor influencing performance of cattle on forage diet is the amount of Dry Matter Intake<br />Young, growing grass and pasture crops usually have ample nutrients<br />old pastures, crop residues and harvesting methods cause reduction in nutrients<br />
  16. 16. Biological Cycle<br />Goal: optimal nutrition at each stage, not maximum nutrition<br />Cycle is made up of 4 periods that span 1 year: 3 trimesters and 1 postpartum period<br />
  17. 17. First Trimester ( 95 days)<br />Begins the 1st day of conception<br />Nutrient needs are for maintenance and lactation if the cow has a calf with her <br />Milk production is declining at this stage<br />
  18. 18. Second Trimester ( 95 days)<br />Calf is weaned, lactation requirements end<br />Lowest nutrient requirements at this point<br />Feed minimally <br />Easiest and most economical time to increase a thin cows BCS<br />
  19. 19. Third Trimester ( 95 days)<br />Rapid fetal growth causes rapidly increasing nutrient needs<br />Watch BCS carefully, cow gains 1 lb per day<br />Too thin cows experience dystocias, weak calves and decreased milk production<br />
  20. 20. Postpartum Period ( 80 days)<br />High lactation requirements<br />Feed intake is 35-50% higher than non-lactating cow<br />Nutritional stress at this point causes problems during the cow’s next breeding ( usually 80 days post partum)<br />
  21. 21. Energy Requirement<br />Energy is considered first in balancing diet for beef cattle, it’s the largest portion of the ration<br />Energy utilization determines cow’s ability to use other nutrients<br />Good quality forage satisfies adult energy requirements<br />Poor quality forages need to be supplemented with concentrates<br />
  22. 22. Protein Requirements<br />50% of all protein and amino acid needs are met by microbial protein synthesis<br />Protein deficiency is common when cows consume straw and low quality hay<br />Urea is commonly used as a protein supplement<br />
  23. 23. Beef Cattle, Water requirements<br />Need abundant supply at once daily<br />Range cows consume 2 ½ gallons daily in winter and up to 12 gallons per head in summer<br />When salt is added, water need is increased<br />Fresh succulent feeds or silage help reduce need<br />
  24. 24. Beef Cattle mineral requirements<br />Salt- need more when eating succulent forages than when eating drier forage<br />Calcium- depends of Ca concentration in soil, higher needs in growing and lactating cows<br />Phosphorus- Low P levels in roughage, so P is often offered free choice in a mineral mix<br />Cobalt- required for rumen microorganisms to synthesize vitamin B 12<br />
  25. 25. Minerals continued<br />Copper- Simental and Charlois have a higher requirement than Angus<br />Iodine- deficiencies in Northwest and Great Lakes area soil; supply via iodized salt<br />
  26. 26. Beef Cattle Vitamin Requirements<br />C, D, E, K and B complex- no need for supplementation; ruminalmicroflora synthesizes B complex and K, Vitamin C is synthesized in tissues, Sun dried forages contain lots of Vit D and E<br />A- roughage and grains are low in Vit A, causing a deficiency. Cattle on pasture can store large amounts of Vit A for 2 months in liver, so deficiency isn’t immediately apparent. Look for signs of rough coat, diarrhea, excessive lacrimation<br />
  27. 27. Grazing Systems and Management<br />Continuous Grazing<br /><ul><li>Most common type of grazing scheme
  28. 28. Cow grazes 1 area for the entire season up to 1 year
  29. 29. Low maintenance, but production suffers</li></li></ul><li>Grazing systems continued<br />2. Deferred rotational grazing<br /><ul><li>4 pasture system
  30. 30. 1 pasture would not be grazed from spring to mid summer in order to allow desirable plants to flower and reach seed maturity
  31. 31. The following year another pasture would not be grazed
  32. 32. After 4 years, all four pastures will have had time to rest</li></li></ul><li>Grazing systems continued<br />3. Rest rotation<br /><ul><li>Uses 3-5 pastures
  33. 33. 1 pasture is not grazed for an entire year, while herd uses other pastures</li></li></ul><li>Grazing Systems continued<br />4. Short duration grazing<br /><ul><li>Developed in France
  34. 34. 8-40 pastures grazed intensively for 2-3 days, then not grazed again for several weeks</li></li></ul><li>Nutritional Disorders<br />Pasture bloat<br /><ul><li>Comes from consuming lush legumes ( alfalfa, red clover)
  35. 35. Relieve bloat by inserting stomach tube into rumen and giving anti-foam material ( ex vegetable oil)
  36. 36. A trocar is used in extreme cases to release pressure ( large “needle” puncture through skin and gas rushes out)</li></li></ul><li>Nutritional disorders continued<br />Grass tetany<br /><ul><li>Low Mg levels in blood from grazing lush green grass pastures
  37. 37. Common in cows nursing calves under 2 months
  38. 38. Symptoms: excitability, cows act blind
  39. 39. Fix by feeding free choice mineral supplement containing Mg, early in grazing season</li></li></ul><li>Nitrite toxicity<br /><ul><li>Caused when intake of nitrite is in excess of the rumen’s ability to convert it to ammonia
  40. 40. Causes hemoglobin in blood to change into a form which cannot transport oxygen to the tissues
  41. 41. Cow dies from asphyxiation
  42. 42. Treat with injection of IV methylene blue</li></li></ul><li>Fescue toxicity<br /><ul><li>Caused by grazing or consuming harvested hay from tall fescue pastures
  43. 43. Cow eats the endophytic fungus that grows between the fescue cells
  44. 44. signs: soreness in hind limbs, “ fescue foot” hooves and tail slough off, hypersalivation and polyuria</li></li></ul><li>Acute Pulmonary Emphysema “ Asthma’<br /><ul><li>Occurs in western US when cattle are moved from dry rangelands to lush meadow pastures abruptly
  45. 45. Signs seen in 4-5 days after diet change
  46. 46. Symptoms: labored breathing, extended neck, open mouth breathing, grunting
  47. 47. Prevention: ( no treatment) slowly introduce cattle to new pasture and supplement with monensin</li>