Additional Conversions Used In Health Ca

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Additional Conversions Used In Health Ca

  1. 1. Calculate with Confidence 5 th edition Gray Morris Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  2. 2. Additional Conversions Useful in the Health Care Setting Unit Two: Chapter 9 Mosby items and derived items © 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  3. 3. Additional Useful Conversions: Objectives <ul><li>After reviewing this chapter, you should be </li></ul><ul><li>able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert between units of length: inches, centimeter, and millimeters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert between units of weight: pounds and kilograms, pounds and ounces to kilograms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit <ul><li>Temperature reading followed by F = Fahrenheit (e.g., 98° F) </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by C = Celsius (formerly centigrade) (e.g., 36° C) </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing point of H 2 O is 32° F and 0° C </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling point of H 2 O is 212° F and 100° C </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 9-1 Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales. (From Clayton BD, Stock YN: Basic pharmacology for nurses, ed. 14, St. Louis, 2007, Mosby.) Note: Glass thermometers pictured here are for demonstration purposes only. Electronic digital temperature devices are more commonly used in health care settings. Figure 9-2 Ranges of normal temperature values and physiological consequences of abnormal body temperature. (From Potter PA, Perry AG: Fundamentals of nursing, ed. 7, St. Louis, 2009, Mosby.)
  6. 6. Temperature Conversion Formulas <ul><li>To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 or and add 32 </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Convert 37.5° C to °F </li></ul><ul><li>°F = 1.8(°C) + 32 or °F = 9/5(°C) + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>°F = (1.8) × 37.5 + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>°F = 67.5 + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>°F = 99.5° </li></ul>
  7. 7. Temperature Conversion Formulas (cont’d) <ul><li>To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 and divide by 1.8 or </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Convert 68° F to °C </li></ul><ul><li>Formula: °C = (°F - 32)  9/5 </li></ul><ul><li>°C = (68 - 32)  9/5 </li></ul><ul><li>°C = 36  9/5, which inverts to be °C = 36 × 5/9 </li></ul><ul><li>°C = 180/9 </li></ul><ul><li>°C = 20° </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conversions: Metrics and Length <ul><li>Metric measures are used for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupil size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby’s head circumference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wounds and incisions (length  width  depth in cm or mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversion factor: 1 cm = 10 mm </li></ul><ul><li>If incision is 25 cm, how many mm is it? </li></ul><ul><li>25 mm = 25  10 = 2.5 cm or 25 = 2.5 cm </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conversions: Metrics and Length (cont’d) <ul><li>Convert 30 cm to inches (in) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion factor: 1 in = 2.5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Think smaller to larger (divide) </li></ul><ul><li>30  2.5 = 12 in </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conversions Relating to Weight <ul><li>Body weight is important in calculating doses for certain medications </li></ul><ul><li>Delivered in mg or mcg per kilogram </li></ul><ul><li>Nurse needs to calculate safety of doses documented as mg/kg </li></ul><ul><li>May need to convert pounds and ounces in pediatric calculations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conversions Relating to Weight (cont’d) <ul><li>Pounds to Kilograms </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion factor: 2.2 lb = 1 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller to larger (divide lb value by 2.2) </li></ul><ul><li>Round answers to nearest tenth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Convert 65 lb to kilograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> kg = 65  2.2 = 29.54 rounds to 29.5 kg </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Conversions Relating to Weight (cont) <ul><li>Pounds and ounces to kilograms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert oz to nearest tenth of lb and add to pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent: 16 oz = 1 lb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert total lb to kg, then round to nearest tenth </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conversions Relating to Weight (cont’d) <ul><li>Pounds and ounces to kilograms (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A child weighs 10 lb 2 oz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think smaller to larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 oz  16 = 0.12 rounds to 0.1 lb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 lb + 0.1 lb = 10.1 lb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think smaller to larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10.1  2.2 = 4.59 rounds to 4.6 kg </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Conversions Relating to Weight (cont’d) <ul><li>Kilograms to Pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by 2.2 (think larger to smaller) </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent: 1 kg = 2.2 lb </li></ul><ul><li>A child weighs 24.7 kg; convert to pounds </li></ul><ul><li>lb = 24.7  2.2 = 54.34 rounds to 54.3 lb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(weight in kg)  (equivalent) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Military Time <ul><li>International time </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a 24-hour clock </li></ul><ul><li>Helps prevent errors by eliminating repetition of numbers </li></ul><ul><li>No colon (:) or a.m./p.m. designations </li></ul><ul><li>Midnight = 0000 and 2400 </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 a.m. = 0100 </li></ul><ul><li>Now referred to as “Computer Time” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 9-3  Clocks showing traditional and military time.
  17. 17. Time: Traditional to Computer <ul><li>To convert a.m. time, omit the colon and “a.m.,” then add a zero to the beginning to make a four-digit number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 8:45 a.m. = 0845 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To convert p.m. time, omit the colon and “p.m.,” then add 1200 to the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 7:50 pm = 1950 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Time: Computer to Traditional <ul><li>To convert times between 0000 and 1200, delete any zero at the beginning, insert colon, and add “a.m.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 0845 = 8:45 a.m. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To convert times between 1200 and 2400, subtract 1200, insert colon, and add “p.m.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 1950 = 7:50 p.m. </li></ul></ul>

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