Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm & persistence to pursue a certain course of action It represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension, causing the individual to make a goal oriented pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need.
NATURE OF MOTIVATION It refers to the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways It is the inner feeling which energizes a person to work more The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a particular work
Importance of motivation High performance Low employee turnover Better organizational image Better industrial relations Acceptability to change Better quality orientation Better productivity
HERZBERG 2 FACTORTHEORY Herzberg conducted a motivational study on 200 accountants and engineers There are certain factors that tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction (Motivational factor) & on the other hand there are certain factors which are consistently related to job dissatisfaction (Hygiene factor).
Hygiene factors They do not motivate people much. If these factors are present they don’t motivate but if absent leads to dissatisfaction. There are 10 maintenance and hygiene factors:
Company policy or administration Technical supervision Interpersonal relationship with supervisor Interpersonal relationship with peers Salary Job security Personal life Working conditions Status
Motivation factors These factors have a positive effect on job satisfaction and often results in increase in output. They enhances morale, satisfaction, efficiency and productivity. If these factors are present they motivate, if absent does not lead to dissatisfaction. There are 6 factors:
Achievement Advancement Growth Recognition Responsibility Work itself
McGREGOR THEORY He developed 2 theories : Theory X & Y Theory X workers could be described as: - Individuals who dislike work and avoid it. - Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility - Individual who desire security Theory Y could be described as: - Consider effort at work as just like rest or play - They don’t dislike work. - Individuals who seek responsibility
TAYLOR – SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT Man is a rational, economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain People respond as individuals not as groups People can be treated in a standardized fashion like machines
Implications The main form of motivation is high wages A manager’s job is to tell employees what to do A workers job is to do what they are told and get paid accordingly
MOTIVATION IN PRACTICE Financial Incentives Commission Performance related pay Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment