When dynamic becomes static – the next
step in web caching techniques

Wim Godden
Cu.be Solutions
Disclaimer
The next step

as in : what you will be doing in the future

Not as in : go home and run it ;-)
Who am I ?
Wim Godden (@wimgtr)
Founder of Cu.be Solutions (http://cu.be)
Open source developer since 1997
Developer of Op...
Who are you ?
Developers ?
System/network engineers ?
Managers ?
To understand the present
Understand the past
The Stone Age
New blog post by : caveman003
Pre-PHP : draw it and make html
The Egyptian Era
Old-school PHP : 'rebuild-every-time'
The Industrial Revolution
PHP : let's cache
Extra ! Extra !
PHP : dynamic content in static content
The Modern Era
PHP : multiple webservers
PHP : push updates to cache
Today
Adding reverse proxy caching
Website X with ESI
Header

Latest news

Article content page
Navigation
Page content
Website X with ESI
Header
(TTL = 2h)
Latest news

Article content page
Navigation
(TTL = 1h)

Page content
Website X with ESI
Header
(TTL = 2h)
Latest news (TTL = 2m)

Article content page
Navigation
(TTL = 1h)

Page content (TTL...
Going to /page/id/732

<esi:include src="/header"/>
<esi:include src="/nav"/>
<esi:include src="/latest-news"/>
<esi:inclu...
Varnish - ESI
Perfect for caching pages
<esi:include src="/top"/>
<esi:include src="/news"/>

Article content page
<esi:in...
A simple benchmark – 2KByte JPEG

Apache 2.2

4210

IIS 7.5

3960

Varnish 3.0

11400
A dynamically generated, but static page

Apache 2.2 + PHP (3 DB queries)

18

IIS 7.5 + .Net (3 DB queries)

16

Varnish ...
Varnish - what can/can't be cached ?
Can :
Static pages
Images, js, css
Static parts of pages that don't change often (ESI...
ESI → no caching on user-specific content ?
Logged in as : Wim Godden

TTL = 0s ?

TTL=1h

5 messages

TTL = 5min
Nginx
Web server
Reverse proxy
Lightweight, fast
12.81% of all Websites
Nginx
No threads, event-driven
Uses epoll / kqueue
Low memory footprint
10000 active connections = normal
ESI on Nginx
Logged in as : Wim Godden
5 messages

Menu

NEWS
ESI SCL on Nginx
<scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" />

<scl:include
key="menu"
src="/menu"
ttl="1h...
Requesting /page (1st time)

Nginx
1

Shared memory
/page

4

/page

3
2
Requesting /page ESI subrequests (1st time)

Nginx
1
2
3

/menu
/news
/top (in ESI session)
Requesting /page (next time)

Nginx
Shared memory

1

/page

2

/page
/menu
/news
/top (in ESI session)
New message is sent...

POST /send
o
i nt
rt
e
ins

...

se
t

(..
.)

DB

top (in ESI session)
Advantages
No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore !
At login : POST → warm up the cache !
No repeated hits for user-spe...
News added

addnews() method
o
i nt
rt
e
ins

...

se
t

(..
.)

DB

Memcache key /news
Advantages
No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore !
At login : POST → warm up the cache !
No repeated hits for user-spe...
How many Memcache requests ?
Logged in as : Wim Godden
<scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" />
5 mess...
First release : ESI
Part of the ESI 1.0 spec
Only relevant features implemented
Extension for dynamic session support
But ...
Rebuilt from scratch : SCL
Session-specific Caching Language
Language details :

Control structures : if/else, switch/case...
SCL code samples

You are logged in as : <scl:session_var("person_name") />
You are logged in as : <@s("person_name") />
SCL code samples

<scl:switch var="session_var('isAdmin')">
<scl:case value="1">
<scl:include key="admin-buttons" src="/ad...
SCL code samples

<scl:foreach item="messageId" src="global_var('thread' + query_var('threadId'))">
<scl:include key="'thr...
ESI code samples

<esi:foreach items="message"
collection="$(ESIGLOBAL{'thread_' + $(QUERY_STRING{'threadId'})})">
<esi:in...
Why Nginx ?
Native Memcached support
Excellent and superfast subrequest system
Including parallel subrequests

Handles tho...
What's the result ?
Figures
2nd customer :

No. of web servers : 72 → 8
No. of db servers : 15 → 4
Total : 87 → 12 (86% reduction !)

Last cus...
Why is it so much faster ?
A real example : vBulletin
A real example : vBulletin

isAdmin session variable

Thread

isModerator session variable
A real example : vBulletin
35

30

25

20

Standard install
With Memcached
Nginx + SCL + memcached

15

10

5

0
DB Server...
Availability
Good news :
It will become Open Source
It's solid : ESI version stable at 4 customers

Bad news :
First custo...
So...
Questions ?
Questions ?
Contact
Twitter
Web
Slides
E-mail

@wimgtr
http://techblog.wimgodden.be
http://www.slideshare.net/wimg
wim.godden@cu.be

P...
Thanks !
Please rate my talk :
http://joind.in/9568
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When dynamic becomes static: the next step in web caching techniques

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Although tools like Varnish can improve performance and scalability for static sites, when user-specific content is needed, a hit to the PHP/Ruby/Python/.Net backend is still required, causing scalability issues. We'll look at a brand-new Nginx module which implements an ultra-fast and scalable solution to this problem, changing the way developers think about designing sites with user-specific content.

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  • When dynamic becomes static: the next step in web caching techniques

    1. 1. When dynamic becomes static – the next step in web caching techniques Wim Godden Cu.be Solutions
    2. 2. Disclaimer The next step as in : what you will be doing in the future Not as in : go home and run it ;-)
    3. 3. Who am I ? Wim Godden (@wimgtr) Founder of Cu.be Solutions (http://cu.be) Open source developer since 1997 Developer of OpenX, PHPCompatibility, ... Speaker at PHP and Open Source conferences
    4. 4. Who are you ? Developers ? System/network engineers ? Managers ?
    5. 5. To understand the present Understand the past
    6. 6. The Stone Age New blog post by : caveman003
    7. 7. Pre-PHP : draw it and make html
    8. 8. The Egyptian Era
    9. 9. Old-school PHP : 'rebuild-every-time'
    10. 10. The Industrial Revolution
    11. 11. PHP : let's cache
    12. 12. Extra ! Extra !
    13. 13. PHP : dynamic content in static content
    14. 14. The Modern Era
    15. 15. PHP : multiple webservers
    16. 16. PHP : push updates to cache
    17. 17. Today
    18. 18. Adding reverse proxy caching
    19. 19. Website X with ESI Header Latest news Article content page Navigation Page content
    20. 20. Website X with ESI Header (TTL = 2h) Latest news Article content page Navigation (TTL = 1h) Page content
    21. 21. Website X with ESI Header (TTL = 2h) Latest news (TTL = 2m) Article content page Navigation (TTL = 1h) Page content (TTL = 30m)
    22. 22. Going to /page/id/732 <esi:include src="/header"/> <esi:include src="/nav"/> <esi:include src="/latest-news"/> <esi:include src="/article/id/732"/>
    23. 23. Varnish - ESI Perfect for caching pages <esi:include src="/top"/> <esi:include src="/news"/> Article content page <esi:include src="/nav"/> <esi:include src="/article/732"/> In your Varnish config : sub vcl_fetch { if (req.url == "/news") { esi; /* Do ESI processing */ set obj.ttl = 2m; } elseif (req.url == "/nav") { esi; set obj.ttl = 1m; } elseif …. …. }
    24. 24. A simple benchmark – 2KByte JPEG Apache 2.2 4210 IIS 7.5 3960 Varnish 3.0 11400
    25. 25. A dynamically generated, but static page Apache 2.2 + PHP (3 DB queries) 18 IIS 7.5 + .Net (3 DB queries) 16 Varnish 3.0 11400
    26. 26. Varnish - what can/can't be cached ? Can : Static pages Images, js, css Static parts of pages that don't change often (ESI) Can't : POST requests Very large files (it's not a file server !) Requests with Set-Cookie User-specific content
    27. 27. ESI → no caching on user-specific content ? Logged in as : Wim Godden TTL = 0s ? TTL=1h 5 messages TTL = 5min
    28. 28. Nginx Web server Reverse proxy Lightweight, fast 12.81% of all Websites
    29. 29. Nginx No threads, event-driven Uses epoll / kqueue Low memory footprint 10000 active connections = normal
    30. 30. ESI on Nginx Logged in as : Wim Godden 5 messages Menu NEWS
    31. 31. ESI SCL on Nginx <scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="menu" src="/menu" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
    32. 32. Requesting /page (1st time) Nginx 1 Shared memory /page 4 /page 3 2
    33. 33. Requesting /page ESI subrequests (1st time) Nginx 1 2 3 /menu /news /top (in ESI session)
    34. 34. Requesting /page (next time) Nginx Shared memory 1 /page 2 /page /menu /news /top (in ESI session)
    35. 35. New message is sent... POST /send o i nt rt e ins ... se t (.. .) DB top (in ESI session)
    36. 36. Advantages No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore ! At login : POST → warm up the cache ! No repeated hits for user-specific content Not even for non-specific content
    37. 37. News added addnews() method o i nt rt e ins ... se t (.. .) DB Memcache key /news
    38. 38. Advantages No repeated GET hits to webserver anymore ! At login : POST → warm up the cache ! No repeated hits for user-specific content Not even for non-specific content No TTLs for non-specific content
    39. 39. How many Memcache requests ? Logged in as : Wim Godden <scl:include key="top" src="/top" session="true" ttl="1h" /> 5 messages <scl:include key="menu" src="/menu" ttl="1h" /> <scl:include key="news" src="/news" ttl="5m" />
    40. 40. First release : ESI Part of the ESI 1.0 spec Only relevant features implemented Extension for dynamic session support But : unavailable for copyright reasons
    41. 41. Rebuilt from scratch : SCL Session-specific Caching Language Language details : Control structures : if/else, switch/case, foreach Variable handling Strings : concatenation, substring, ...
    42. 42. SCL code samples You are logged in as : <scl:session_var("person_name") /> You are logged in as : <@s("person_name") />
    43. 43. SCL code samples <scl:switch var="session_var('isAdmin')"> <scl:case value="1"> <scl:include key="admin-buttons" src="/admin-buttons.php" /> </scl:case> <scl:default> <div id="just-a-user"> <scl:include key="user-buttons" src="/user-buttons.php" /> </div> </scl:default> </scl:switch>
    44. 44. SCL code samples <scl:foreach item="messageId" src="global_var('thread' + query_var('threadId'))"> <scl:include key="'thread-message_' + messageId" src="'/thread/message.php?id=' + messageId" /> </scl:foreach>
    45. 45. ESI code samples <esi:foreach items="message" collection="$(ESIGLOBAL{'thread_' + $(QUERY_STRING{'threadId'})})"> <esi:include key="'thread-message' + $message" src="'/thread/message.php?id=' + $message" /> </esi:foreach>
    46. 46. Why Nginx ? Native Memcached support Excellent and superfast subrequest system Including parallel subrequests Handles thousands of connections per worker With minimal memory footprint Integrates with php-fpm Additional features (chroot, slow request log, offline processing, ...) Graceful rolling upgrades
    47. 47. What's the result ?
    48. 48. Figures 2nd customer : No. of web servers : 72 → 8 No. of db servers : 15 → 4 Total : 87 → 12 (86% reduction !) Last customer : No. of total servers : +/- 1350 Expected reduction : 1350 → 300 Expected savings : €1.6 Million per year
    49. 49. Why is it so much faster ?
    50. 50. A real example : vBulletin
    51. 51. A real example : vBulletin isAdmin session variable Thread isModerator session variable
    52. 52. A real example : vBulletin 35 30 25 20 Standard install With Memcached Nginx + SCL + memcached 15 10 5 0 DB Server Load Web Server Load Max Requests/sec (1 = 282)
    53. 53. Availability Good news : It will become Open Source It's solid : ESI version stable at 4 customers Bad news : First customer holds copyrights Total rebuild → Open Source release No current projects, so spare time Beta : Dec-Jan Final : Q1-Q2 (on Github !)
    54. 54. So...
    55. 55. Questions ?
    56. 56. Questions ?
    57. 57. Contact Twitter Web Slides E-mail @wimgtr http://techblog.wimgodden.be http://www.slideshare.net/wimg wim.godden@cu.be Please rate my talk : http://joind.in/9568
    58. 58. Thanks ! Please rate my talk : http://joind.in/9568
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