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The why and how of moving to php 5.4/5.5
 

The why and how of moving to php 5.4/5.5

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With PHP 5.5 out and many production environments still running 5.2 (or older), it's time to paint a clear picture on why everyone should move to 5.4 and 5.5 and how to get code ready for the latest ...

With PHP 5.5 out and many production environments still running 5.2 (or older), it's time to paint a clear picture on why everyone should move to 5.4 and 5.5 and how to get code ready for the latest version of PHP. In this talk, we'll look at some handy tools and techniques to ease the migration.

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  • part 2 look at difficulties you might encounter in upgrading. I'll provide solutions not a magician can't solve everything ;-)
  • 5.3.3 = Debian Squeezy = 12% Wait a second... that means people aren't even on 5.3 ? And there was 3 year gap between the release of 5.2 and 5.3, so 5.3 brought a lot of cool things.

The why and how of moving to php 5.4/5.5 The why and how of moving to php 5.4/5.5 Presentation Transcript

  • The Why and How of moving to PHP 5.4/5.5
  • Questions during the talk ? Ask at http://wpc13.cnf.io
  • Who am I ? Wim Godden (@wimgtr) Founder of Cu.be Solutions (http://cu.be) Open Source developer since 1997 OpenX, PHPCompatibility, Nginx SCL, ... Speaker at PHP and Open Source conferences
  • Why vs How Part 1 : why upgrade ? Bad reasons : It's cool to have the latest version Annoy sysadmins Oh cool, a new toy ! Part 2 : how to upgrade ? The nightmare of compatibility The joy of automation No miracles here !
  • Show of hands 3 / 4 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.0 (just kidding)
  • The numbers W3Techs (http://w3techs.com/technologies/details/pl-php/all/all) Now May 2013 PHP 4 : 2.9% 2.7% PHP 5 : 97.1% 97.3% 5.0 : 0.1% 0.1% 5.1 : 2.2% 2.6% 5.2 : 40.2% 43.5% 5.3 : 51.7% 49.7% 5.4 : 5.7% 4.1% 5.5 : 0.1 % < 0.1% 5.6 : < 0.1%
  • 5.3 quick recap Namespaces () Late static binding Closures Better garbage collection Goto Mysqlnd Performance gain
  • 5.3 – people are not even using it ! 40.2% still on PHP 5.2 No : Symfony 2 Zend Framework 2 Other frameworks that need namespaces Problematic for developers
  • PHP 5.4/5.5 – what's changed ? New features Performance and memory usage Improved consistency Some things removed
  • New things – short array syntax (5.4) $yourItems = array('a', 'b', 'c', 'd'); $yourItems = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']; $yourItems = ['a' => 5, 'b' => 3];
  • New things – function array dereferencing (5.4) function getCars() { return array( 'Mini', 'Smart', 'Volvo', 'BMW' ); } $cars = getCars(); echo $cars[1]; function getCars() { return [ 'Mini', 'Smart', 'Volvo', 'BMW' ]; } echo getCars()[1];
  • New things – Traits Reuse methods across classes Classes have no common parent
  • Traits - example Log output : abcd trait Logger { public function log($data) { echo "Log output : " . $data; } } class SomeClass { use Logger; } $someObject = new SomeClass(); $someObject->log('abcd');
  • Traits - example class SomeClass { public function log($data) { echo "Log output : " . $data; } } $someObject = new SomeClass(); $someObject->log('abcd');
  • Traits – careful ! trait Logger { private $foo; } class SomeClass { private $foo; use Logger; } will throw E_STRICT !
  • New things – Webserver (5.4) Built-in webserver Development only ! Handles requests sequentially Ideal for quick testing Ideal for unit testing of webservices
  • Webserver – how to /var/www/php54test/html> php -S localhost:8000 PHP 5.4.15 Development Server started at Sat May 2 00:41:12 2013 Listening on http://localhost:8000 Document root is /var/www/php54test/html Press Ctrl-C to quit. /var/www/php54test/html> php -S localhost:8000 -t /var/www/other-path/html PHP 5.4.15 Development Server started at Sat May 2 00:41:12 2013 Listening on http://localhost:8000 Document root is /var/www/other-path/html Press Ctrl-C to quit. /var/www/php54test/html> php -S localhost:8000 bootstrap.php PHP 5.4.15 Development Server started at Sat May 2 00:41:12 2013 Listening on http://localhost:8000 Document root is /var/www/php54test/html Press Ctrl-C to quit.
  • New things – SessionHandler (5.4) New session handling class Groups all methods for session handling : close() destroy() gc() open() read() write()
  • SessionHandler class MySessionHandler extends SessionHandler { public function read($session_id) { // Get the session data } public function write($session_id, $session_data) { // Set the session data } ... } $handler = new MySessionHandler(); session_set_save_handler($handler, true); session_start();
  • New things – more session stuff (5.4) File upload extension → file upload registers in session → readable through AJAX calls New function session_status() Return values : PHP_SESSION_ACTIVE / PHP_SESSION_NONE
  • New things – Generators (5.5) Simple way of implementing iterators Simply put : foreach over a function Say what ?
  • Generators - example <?php function returnAsciiTable($start, $end) { for ($i = $start; $i <= $end; $i++) { yield $i => chr($i); } } foreach (returnAsciiTable(97, 122) as $key => $value) { echo $key . " - " . $value . "n"; } Output : 97 - a 98 - b 99 - c 100 - d 101 - e 102 - f 103 - g 104 - h 105 - i 106 - j 107 - k 108 - l 109 - m 110 - n 111 - o 112 - p 113 - q 114 - r 115 - s 116 - t 117 - u 118 - v 119 - w 120 - x 121 - y 122 - z
  • Finally : finally (5.5) Exception handling Until now : try {} catch() {} Now : <?php try { doSomething(); } catch (Exception $e) { echo 'Caught exception: ', $e->getMessage(), "n"; } finally { echo "We're always going here !"; }
  • Password hashing (5.5) To create : $hash = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT); To verify : password_verify($password, $hash); Currently only supports Blowfish Also has password_needs_rehash() → check if hash was strong enough
  • Zend Optimizer+ (5.5) Name in PHP 5.5 : OPcache Opcode cache (like APC, Xcache, ...) APC users : no userland (variable) caching in OPcache → Use APCu
  • Also new New cURL bits and pieces Lists in foreach statements Empty() function accepts expressions New GD bits and pieces
  • What else is new ? Binary notation Decimal : 123 Octal : 0173 Hex : 0x7B Binary : 0b1111011 Class member access on object instantiation $fooObj = new Foo(); echo $fooObj->bar(); echo (new Foo)->bar(); New reserved keywords : (5.4) trait insteadof Callable
  • Other changes Error handling : 5.3 : Parse error: syntax error, unexpected T_STRING, expecting '{' in index.php on line 1 5.4 : Parse error: syntax error, unexpected 'bar' (T_STRING), expecting '{' in index.php on line 1 Array to string conversion : 5.3 : Array 5.4 : Note: Array to string conversion in test.php on line 8 <?= always works (even with short_tags off) Default charset = UTF8 (be careful !) class foo bar $var = array(); echo $var;
  • Time to remove ! register_globals (5.4) magic_quotes (5.4) safe_mode (5.4) Removed (5.4) : Still working : break $var; break 2; continue $var; continue 3; session_register() php_logo_guid() session_unregister() php_egg_logo_guid() session_is_registered() php_real_logo_guid() → use $_SESSION zend_logo_guid() (5.4) (5.5)
  • More stuff removed Timezone guessing → date.timezone in php.ini (5.4) sqlite extension → use sqlite3 (5.4) Windows XP and 2003 support (5.5)
  • Performance and memory usage Performance : 10 – 30% How ? Core optimizations New internal caches (functions, constants, …) Better (un)serialization Inlining often-used code paths … Reduced memory usage : up to 50% ! Big impact on large frameworks Even bigger impact on codebases such as Drupal
  • So... Should you upgrade today ?
  • Upgrade : yes / no Yes No Using removed extensions x Using removed functions x Need extra performance / reduced memory x Really need new feature x Want to use recent framework x No unit tests x No package available (.rpm, .deb, ...) x
  • Postponing upgrades End-Of-Life In the past : we'll see Now : minor release + 2 = out → EOL 5.5 = OUT → 5.3 = EOL 5.6 = OUT → 5.4 = EOL (next year !) Critical security patches : 1 year No bugfixes Framework support Developer motivation
  • So you want to upgrade... Option 1 : run your unit tests Option 2 : visit each page (good luck !) + check error_log Or : record visits, then replay log on test environment Option 3 : automated static analysis
  • Back in 2010... PHP Architect @ Belgian Railways 8 years of legacy code 40+ different developers 40+ projects Challenge : migrate all projects from PHP 5.1.x (on Solaris) to PHP 5.3.x (on Linux)
  • The idea Automate it How ? → Use the CI environment Which tool ? → PHP_CodeSniffer
  • PHP_CodeSniffer PEAR package (pear install PHP_CodeSniffer) Detect coding standard violations Supports multiple standards Static analysis tool → Runs without executing code → Splits code in tokens Ex. : T_OPEN_CURLY_BRACKET T_FALSE T_SEMICOLON
  • PHP_CodeSniffer Let's see what it looks like
  • PHPCompatibility New PHP_CodeSniffer standard Only purpose : find compatibility issues Detects : Deprecated functions Deprecated extensions Deprecated php.ini settings and ini_set() calls Prohibited function names, class names, … … Works for PHP 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5
  • PHPCompatibility – making it work Via GIT : git clone git://github.com/wimg/PHPCompatibility.git PHPCompatibility Download from Github : http://github.com/wimg/PHPCompatibility Install in <pear_dir>/PHP/CodeSniffer/Standards Run : phpcs --standard=PHPCompatibility <path>
  • Important notes Large directories → can be slow ! Use --extensions=php,phtml No point scanning .js files Test PHP 5.5 compatibility → need PHP 5.5 on the system Static analysis Doesn't run code Can not detect every single incompatibility Provides filename and line number
  • PHPCompatibility Let's see what it looks like
  • The result Zend Framework 1.7 app PHP 5.2 : working fine PHP 5.3 : fail ! function goto()
  • Conclusion No 100% detection But : 95% automation = lots of time saved ! First : PHPCompatibility on local machine Then : upgrade CI/test environment and run unit tests Start upgrading !
  • Questions ?
  • Questions ?
  • Contact Twitter @wimgtr Web http://techblog.wimgodden.be Slides http://www.slideshare.net/wimg E-mail wim.godden@cu.be Please rate my talk at http://joind.in/9142
  • Thanks ! Please rate my talk at http://joind.in/9142