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MicroNano 12 12 2013 Sinke

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Nanotechnology for photovoltaics (PV)

Nanotechnology for photovoltaics (PV)

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  • 1. www.ecn.nl Where very small meets very large: nanotechnology for efficient solar energy conversion Wim Sinke ECN Solar Energy, University of Amsterdam & FOM Institute AMOLF
  • 2. Thank you: Albert Polman (AMOLF) Bonna Newman (AMOLF) Pierpaolo Spinelli (AMOLF) Tom Gregorkiewicz (UvA) Katerina Dohnalová (UvA) Patrick de Jager (ASML) Michel van de Moosdijk (ASML) Frank Lenzmann (ECN) Stefan Luxembourg (ECN) Arthur Weeber (ECN) for providing input and inspiration for this presentation!
  • 3. Content • Photovoltaic solar energy (PV): the challenge quantified • The building blocks: solar cells in fab and lab • Where nanotechnology comes in: to and beyond current performance and cost limits • Outlook: mature yet young 3
  • 4. Content • Photovoltaic solar energy (PV): the challenge quantified • The building blocks: solar cells in fab and lab • Where nanotechnology comes in: to and beyond current performance and cost limits • Outlook: mature yet young 4
  • 5. Solar energy contribution Solar Energy Perspectives – Testing the Limits (IEA, 2011) 5 (13% of final energy) = 40.000 km2 module area @ 30% efficiency = area The Netherlands
  • 6. Solar energy contribution Shell Lens Scenarios – Oceans (2013) 7
  • 7. Multi-terawatt use Quantifying the challenge • Competitive generation costs (from 0.10 €/kWh to 0.05 €/kWh – 0.5  1 €/Wp system price (dependent on region and market) • High module efficiencies (from 10  20% to 20  40%+) – cost reduction lever at all levels – facilitates large-scale use • From renewable to fully sustainable (earth-abundant materials?) – Materials & processes – Design for sustainability • Total quality (at very low cost)
  • 8. Content • Photovoltaic solar energy (PV): the challenge quantified • The building blocks: solar cells in fab and lab • Where nanotechnology comes in: to and beyond current performance and cost limits • The third dimension: sustainability • Outlook: mature yet young 10
  • 9. First SolarHyET SolarWürth Solar Cell & module technologies: commercial 11 Flat plate: wafer-based silicon (90%) - monocrystalline - multicrystalline (& quasi mono) Module efficiencies 14  22% ToyotaCity of the Sun (NL) Concentrator (<1%) - multi-junction III-V semiconductors - silicon Module efficiencies 25  30% Abengoa/ConcentrixFhG-ISE Flat plate: thin films (10%) - silicon - copper-indium/gallium-diselenide/sulphide (CIGSS) - cadmium telluride (CdTe) Module efficiencies 7  13% ECN’s Black Beauty
  • 10. First SolarHelianthosWürth Solar Cell & module technologies: commercial 12 Flat plate: wafer-based silicon (90%) - monocrystalline - multicrystalline (& quasi mono) Module efficiencies 14  22% ToyotaCity of the Sun (NL) Trends: • new cell and module architectures • high(er) efficiencies – closing lab/fab gap Trends: • increasing scale • differentiation according to application Concentrator (<1%) - multi-junction III-V semiconductors - silicon Module efficiencies 25  30% Abengoa/ConcentrixFhG-ISE Trends: • commercial applications taking off • race to 50% lab cell efficiencies Flat plate: thin films (10%) - silicon - copper-indium/gallium-diselenide/sulphide (CIGSS) - cadmium telluride (CdTe) Module efficiencies 7  13%
  • 11. Concepts & technologies Lab and pilot production • super-high-efficiency concepts – full use of all light colors (optimize cell or optimize spectrum) – advanced light management & concentration • super-low-cost concepts (& technologies for new applications) – very fast and non-vacuum processing – low-cost materials & low material use 13 Example: spectrum conversion using quantum dots (Univ. of Amsterdam) Example: polymer solar cell (Solliance)
  • 12. Concepts & technologies Lab and pilot production • super-high-efficiency concepts – full use of all light colors (optimize cell or optimize spectrum) – advanced light management & concentration • super-low-cost concepts (& technologies for new applications) – very fast and non-vacuum processing – low-cost materials & low material use 14 Example: spectrum conversion using quantum dots (Univ. of Amsterdam) Example: polymer solar cell (Solliance)
  • 13. www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpgwww.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg
  • 14. www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpgwww.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg nanotechnology as driver
  • 15. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration and curve loss 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ `   30% Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers)
  • 16. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration and curve loss 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ `   30% Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers) qVoc < Egap (JV)max < JmaxVmax Eph > Eg Eph < Eg
  • 17. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration and curve loss 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ `   30% Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers) qVoc < Egap (JV)max < JmaxVmax Eph > Eg Eph < Eg
  • 18. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration (and curve loss) 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ ` Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers) FhG-ISE   30%
  • 19. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration (and curve loss) 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ ` Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 AM15 GaInP GaInAs Ge   30%
  • 20. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration (and curve loss) 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ ` Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers)   30%
  • 21. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration (and curve loss) 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ ` Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers)   30%
  • 22. Ideal single-gap cells Loss factor Selected remedies recombination light management incl. concentration (and curve loss) 30%  40% spectral losses multi-gap & multi-band cells hot carrier cells multi-carrier generation spectrum shaping 40%  70%+ ` Routes to (very) high efficiency Potential & limits (rounded numbers)   30%
  • 23. Content • Photovoltaic solar energy (PV): the challenge quantified • The building blocks: solar cells in fab and lab • Where nanotechnology comes in: to and beyond current performance and cost limits • Outlook: mature yet young 25
  • 24. Nanopatterning for high-efficiency PV: finding the way in a jungle of options 27
  • 25. Challenge: combine the best of two worlds for a record efficiency 28
  • 26. Example: advanced light management to cross the 25% efficiency barrier for silicon 29
  • 27. Example: advanced light management for ultra-thin solar cells (1) 30
  • 28. Example: advanced light management for ultra-thin solar cells (2) 31
  • 29. Example: enhanced spectrum utilisation using QDs 32Courtesy: Tom Gregorkiewicz (UvA)
  • 30. Example: spectrum shaping to boost efficiency (“add-on” to solar cells) 33Courtesy: Tom Gregorkiewicz (UvA)
  • 31. Example: spectrum shaping by Space- Separated Quantum Cutting using QDs (1) 34Courtesy: Tom Gregorkiewicz (UvA) Eexc ≥ 2Egap
  • 32. Example: spectrum shaping by Space- Separated Quantum Cutting using QDs (2) 35Courtesy: Tom Gregorkiewicz (UvA)
  • 33. The Holy Grail? All-silicon tandem solar cell 36http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/labtalk-article/34339
  • 34. Content • Photovoltaic solar energy (PV): the challenge quantified • The building blocks: solar cells in fab and lab • Where nanotechnology comes in: to and beyond current performance and cost limits • Outlook: mature yet young 37
  • 35. Commercial module efficiencies History & projections (simplified estimates)
  • 36. Commercial module efficiencies History & projections (simplified estimates)
  • 37. The future at a glance 40 Current 2020 Long-term potential Commercial module efficiency flat plate/concentrator (%) 722 / 2530 1025 / 3035 2050 Turn-key system price (flat plate) (€/Wp) 13 0.82 (with sustainable margins) 0.51 Cost of electricity (LCoE, €/kWh) 0.050.30 0.040.20 0.030.10 Energy pay-back time (yrs) 0.52 0.251 0.250.5 Installed capacity (TWp) 0.1 0.51 10-50
  • 38. The future at a glance Current 2020 Long-term potential Commercial module efficiency flat plate/concentrator (%) 722 / 2530 1025 / 3035 2050 Turn-key system price (flat plate) (€/Wp) 13 0.82 (with sustainable margins) 0.51 Cost of electricity (LCoE, €/kWh) 0.050.30 0.040.20 0.030.10 Energy pay-back time (yrs) 0.52 0.251 0.250.5 Installed capacity (TWp) 0.1 0.51 10-50 x 23 x ½⅓ x 100+
  • 39. A view on the future 42 City of the Sun, Municipality of Heerhugowaard. Photo: KuiperCompagnons
  • 40. Thank you for your attention!