Habitat of the living


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Habitat of the living

  2. 2. FORESTS A forest is an area of land with many trees. Many animals need forests to live and survive. Forests are very important and grow all over the world. They are an ecosystem which includes many plants and animals. There are three types of forests: Tropical forest Temperate Forests Boreal Forests
  3. 3. TROPICAL FOREST A tropical forest is an ecosystem . It lies(in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall. Rainforests can be found in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean islands.
  5. 5. TEMPERATE FOREST Temperate forests correspond to forest concentrations formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions. Main characteristics include: wide leaves, large and tall trees and non seasonal vegetation. Temperate forests can be further distinguished by weather patterns and geographical features that favor the predominance of certain kinds of trees.
  7. 7. BOREAL FOREST Boreal Forest , also known as taiga, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. The taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. In North America it covers most of inland Canada and Alaska as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States . In northern Minnesota through the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Upstate New York and northern New England and is known as the Northwood's.
  9. 9. ABOUT GRASSLANDS is dominated  Grasslands are areas where the vegetation by grasses (Poaceae), however sedge (Cyperaceous) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. Grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. For example there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome ('ecosystem'), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface.
  11. 11. DESERTS  Deserts are areas that receive very little rainfall. Sahara, Kalahari, and Thar are some deserts on our planet. In hot deserts, daytime temperature in summer can reach 45° c. Annual rainfall is less to be hot, some are very cold . Organisms such as cactus , camel, rattlesnake, Gila monster , and kangaroo rat are found in deserts.
  13. 13. MOUNTAINS  A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth by over 10,000 feet (3,000 m). Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers.
  15. 15. POLAR REGIONS  Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles also known as frigid zones. The North Pole and South Pole being the centers, these regions are dominated by the polar ice caps, resting respectively on the Arctic Ocean and the continent of Antarctica.
  17. 17. AQUATIC HABITAT  When considering aquatic habitats, many variables come to mind. Obviously, there is a continuum of salinity ranging from essentially distilled water at glacier faces and high mountain streams, to other freshwaters, to estuaries where fresh and salt waters mix, to oceans, to hyper saline environments such as the Great Salt Lake. Current is another factor; water may be still and stagnant, or flow in currents of various velocities. Currents may be unidirectional, such as in streams, or multidirectional, such
  19. 19. FRESHWATER HABITAT  Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth's aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes and ponds, rivers, streams and springs, and wetlands. They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content. Freshwater habitats can be classified by different factors, including temperature, light penetration, and vegetation.
  20. 20. MARINE HABITAT  Marine habitats can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats. Coastal habitats are found in the area that extends from as far as the tide comes in on the shoreline out to the edge of the continental shelf. Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only seven percent of the total ocean area.
  21. 21. COASTAL HABITAT  The coastal zone of the United States contains a wide range of natural habitats such as sand dunes, marshes, coastal and mangrove forests, coral reefs, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds. These coastal habitats are economically and ecologically valuable. They provide food, shelter, and breeding grounds for coastal and marine species, including commercially important species such as crabs, shrimp and salmon.
  22. 22. ESTUARIES  Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and reverie influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflows of both sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world .
  23. 23. CORAL REEFS  Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps belong to a group of animals known as Cnidaria.
  25. 25. Habitats  Where an animal or plant lives  Where it gets food  Where it gets water
  26. 26. Different Habitats  Desert  Woodland  Ponds  Streams
  27. 27. Desert  Gets little rain  Is extremely hot and dry or extremely cold  Not many plants or animals
  28. 28. Camels  Humps have fat  They can use it for energy Good at walking in sand Shelter in sandstorms
  29. 29. Light  Very bright  No shade
  30. 30. Moisture  Very little rain  Not many ponds or lakes
  31. 31. Temperature  Very hot during the day  Very cold at night
  32. 32. Plants and use it later  Store water  Cactus/Cacti  Yucca  Saguaro Cactus
  33. 33. Animals  Get water from food  Many are nocturnal  Lizards  Insects  Birds  Reptiles
  34. 34. Sahara Desert  World’s biggest desert  3 ½ million square miles
  35. 35. Cold Deserts  Gobi Desert in Asia  Antarctica
  36. 36. Woodland  Lots of trees  Plenty of water  Variety of plants and animals
  37. 37. Light  Lots of shade
  38. 38. Moisture  Moist  Often has ponds or streams
  39. 39. Temperature  Varies, depending on where the woodland is
  40. 40. Plants  Trees  Shrubs  Rich dirt because of fallen leaves
  41. 41. Animals  Deer  Insects  Birds  Wild cats  Foxes  Bears  Snakes  Rabbits
  42. 42. Pondfreshwater habitat  Small  Things live in the water, on the water, and around the water
  43. 43. Light  Lots of light  Some shade around the edges  Shade under the water
  44. 44. Moisture  Very moist/wet, even in the dirt around a pond
  45. 45. Temperature  Varies, like the temperature around the pond  Water is cooler than the air
  46. 46. Plants  Water plants  Water lilies, bulrushes  Animals use plants as shelter  Insects use plants as food
  47. 47. Animals  Frogs  Birds  Otters  Insects  Turtles  Fish
  48. 48. Streams  Freshwater that moves through an area  Empties into a larger body of water  Often have rocks
  49. 49. Light  Usually bright, but bordered by shade
  50. 50. Moisture  Moist/wet  Running water
  51. 51. Temperature  Temperature varies, depending on the area
  52. 52. Plants  Trees and low plant lining the banks  Ferns
  53. 53. Animals  Beavers  Frogs  Fish  Other pond animals
  54. 54. Let's see how much you know!  Remember the pictures.  Think about what we talked about.  Think about what you learned.
  55. 55. Which of the habitats was the driest?  Pond  Desert  Woodland  Stream
  56. 56. Which habitat was the wettest?  Stream  Pond  Desert  Woodland
  57. 57. Which habitat has the most big animals living in it?  Pond  Stream  Woodland  Desert
  58. 58. Which habitat would be the hardest to find food in?  Stream  Woodland  Pond  Desert
  59. 59. Name two animals you can find in a pond and in a stream.
  60. 60. What would a bear at a stream eat?
  61. 61. What is an environment?  Plants and animals live together in many different environments all around the world.  An environment is all the living and nonliving things in a place.  The environment is the surroundings: air, water, plants, and animals.  Each kind of environment has many different kinds of animal habitats.
  62. 62. What is a habitat? Every animal has a habitat. The place where an animal or plant lives and grows is called its habitat. A habitat is where an animal finds the food, water, and shelter it needs to live. For example, a toucan’s habitat is the rainforest.
  63. 63. Different Land Habitats Desert Grasslands Tundra Forest Rainforest
  64. 64. Desert Habitats  A desert is a very warm place. The air is very hot and dry.  There is very little rain. The soil is very sandy.  Most animals that live in the desert sleep during the day because it is too hot. They come out at night to eat. They are called nocturnal.  Some desert animals burrow in the ground during the day  Many plants have thick leaves in the desert to retain water.  Most desert animals get their water from the food they eat.
  65. 65. Rain Forest Habitats  A rain forest is an     environment where rain falls almost every day. A rain forest has warm weather year round. A rain forest has millions of plants and animals. Many of these plants are used to make medicines to fight diseases and illnesses. Rain forests are located along the equator.
  66. 66. Forest Habitats  A forest is an environment that gets enough rain and warm temperatures for lots of trees to grow.  When the fall arrives, the leaves will turn red, orange, and yellow.  Once winter comes, the trees lose their leaves.
  67. 67. Tundra Habitats  A tundra is an environment      that is very cold and windy. It is a treeless area. It is the coldest environment. The land is covered with snow and ice most of the year. Much of the land has ground that is permafrost, permanently frozen. The summers are short.
  68. 68. Freshwater Habitats  Pond  Lake  Stream  River You might find frogs, ducks, beavers, turtles, dragonflies, and many kinds of fish in a freshwater habitat.
  69. 69. Saltwater Habitats  Oceans Sharks, starfish, whales, dolphins, lobster, and coral are some of the animals found in the ocean.
  70. 70. Think: What would happen if an animal’s habitat were destroyed?
  71. 71. Animal Adaptations An adaptation is anything about an animal that helps it live or survive in its environment. Animals are always in danger of being eaten and have developed many ways of protecting themselves from hungry animals. Animals may find winter shelter in holes in trees or logs, under rocks or leaves, or tunnel underground. If animals do not adapt to their environment, they die!  Camouflage  Migrate  Body Coverings Hibernate Estivate
  72. 72. Camouflage  Camouflage is when the animal blends in with the surrounding environment to help it hide.  Some animals’ fur or skin can change color. This helps to protect them.
  73. 73. Some Animals Migrate  Some animals travel to far away places. This is called       migration. Animals move from one habitat to another to survive. Animals are looking for warmer weather or searching for food. Many birds migrate in the fall. Birds can fly very long distances. Many fish migrate. They may swim south, or move into deeper, warmer water. Many insects also migrate. Whales, butterflies, bats, hummingbirds, robins, geese, ducks, salmon are some animals that migrate.
  74. 74. Click the animals that migrate.
  75. 75. Body Coverings  Some animals will grow new, thick fur in the fall to keep warm in the winter.  An armadillo has a covering of hard plates to protect its body.  The porcupine uses its quills for defense.  A turtle can pull its head, feet, and tail inside its shell for protection.
  76. 76. The Coming Winter As the weather gets colder, people stay inside warm houses and wear heavy coats when they go outside. In the winter we get our food from the grocery store. What happens to the animals?
  77. 77. Some Animals Hibernate  Hibernation is when an animal goes through the winter into a long, deep sleep.  One way animals can adapt to the changing environment is by hibernating. Some animals hibernate for part or all of the winter. The animal's body temperature drops, and its heartbeat and breathing slow down. It uses very little energy. In the fall, these animals get ready for winter by eating extra food and storing it as body fat. They use this fat for energy while hibernating. Some also store food like nuts or acorns to eat later in the winter. Bears, skunks, chipmunks, and some bats hibernate. Insects look for winter shelter in holes in the ground, under the bark of trees, deep inside rotting logs or in any small crack they can find.
  78. 78. Click the animals that hibernate.
  79. 79. Some Animals Estivate  Estivate is when an animal sleeps during the summer.  What causes an animal to estivate? HEAT  Ground squirrels in the desert will estivate in their burrows to get out of the heat.  Some toads estivate to escape the hot, dry summer.  Many amphibians and reptiles estivate, as do some insects, snails, and fish.
  80. 80. How do plants help animals?  Plants provide food and shelter for many       animals. Plants are used to make medicines to fight disease and illnesses. Animals use plants for shelter. For example, birds build nests and beavers build dams. Plants provide oxygen that we need to live. Plants provide protection for animals hiding. Plants are used to make clothing, paper, and wood products. Plants also provide beauty for the Earth.
  81. 81. How do animals help plants?  Animals help spread seeds.  Some animals, like squirrels, bury seeds when they store them and forget to go back to get them. Some of these seeds that are left in the ground will germinate.  Seeds attach to animals that have fur. Later the seeds will fall off the animal and grow in a new place.  Insects and birds help pollinate flowers.
  82. 82. Ecosystem  An ecosystem is how plants, animals, and nonliving things in an environment effect each other.
  83. 83. NEW WORDS TO LEARN Before we discuss what a food chain is, we need to learn these new words.  herbivore  carnivore  omnivore producers consumers Let’s Begin . . .
  84. 84. Herbivores Some animals do not eat other animals. They survive on plants and are known as “herbivores”.
  85. 85. Carnivores the kingfisher, eat only other Some animals, like animals. These animals are called “carnivores”.
  86. 86. Omnivores  Some animals, like us, eat both plants and animals.  These animals are called “omnivores”.
  87. 87. Producers  Plants are living organisms. They need nourishment to survive.  But…  Plants do not eat other plants or animals.  Plants are called producers, because they produce their own food using sunlight.
  88. 88. Consumers  “Consume” means “eat”.  Animals are consumers because they “eat” (consume) food provided by plants or other animals.
  89. 89. What is a how each living thing gets its food. food chain?  Food chains show  A food chain is the order in which animals eat plants and other animals.  The sun is the primary source of a food chain. Plants get their energy from the sun. Without the sun, we would not have any plants. A food chain always starts with a plant.  Next in the food chain is an animal, because plants cannot eat plants.  A food chain always ends with an animal. plant animal animal animal
  90. 90. Food chains always start with a plant. The beetle eats the plant. The frog eats the beetle. The turtle eats the frog.
  91. 91. Food Chain The lettuce is eaten by the rabbit. The rabbit is eaten by the fox.
  92. 92. Food Chain The plant is eaten by the small fish. The small fish is eaten by a larger fish. The larger fish is eaten by the man.
  93. 93. Food Chain The fly is nibbling on the plant. The fly is eaten by the bird. The bird is eaten by the cat.
  94. 94. Food Chains Let’s Think . . . If we suddenly had no Sun, what effect would it have on the food chain?
  95. 95. Food Chains Let’s Think Again . . . What would happen if there were no carnivores?
  96. 96. Where do the arrows point?