In today’s economy, an investment in business software is an
investment in the future of your company. To succeed, you
must ensure that all internal and external business processes
are well managed. At SAP, we focus on the active participation
of employees, and we recognize that employees are the focal
point of your business processes.
By providing the mySAP™ Product Lifecycle Management
(mySAP™ PLM) solution and the integrated mySAP™ PLM
Quality Management (mySAP™ PLM QM), SAP AG has turned
this vision into a reality. mySAP PLM QM allows you to control
and maintain the quality of your products and assets throughout the entire life cycle. It also helps you to react to unexpected events quickly and effectively.
If you are considering implementing or have already implemented mySAP PLM QM in your company, and you want
information on current themes and new developments, then
this brochure contains all the information you need.
• Further chapters describe how standard quality management
tasks are supported by mySAP PLM QM:
– Chapter 3 describes inspection planning.
– Chapter 4 describes quality inspections.
– Chapter 5 describes quality certificates.
– Chapter 6 describes the processing of unplanned events
– Chapter 7 describes quality control and different evaluation methods.
– Chapter 8 describes test equipment management.
For detailed information about mySAP Product Lifecycle
Management (mySAP PLM), visit our homepage:
We hope this brochure fulfills your requirements.
This brochure targets project planners, decision makers,
and people interested in implementing mySAP PLM QM. It
explains how mySAP PLM QM is integrated in the mySAP.com®
e-business platform, an Internet-based business platform. This
brochure provides you with insight into the current functional
scope of mySAP PLM QM. It also shows how mySAP PLM QM
is integrated in mySAP PLM and the business processes of the
This brochure is organized as follows:
• Chapter 1 explains the inclusion of mySAP PLM QM in
• Chapter 2 describes the influence of mySAP PLM QM
throughout the product life cycle and across the supply
An Internet-based platform that can include all SAP products
and those of other manufacturers.
mySAP™ ENTERPRISE PORTAL
A combination of functions tailored to the specific requirements of the individual user and displayed in a browser.
An information or service that can be displayed in a Web
browser. iViews provide employees with basic information
and direct access to their most frequently used functions.
Collaboration between companies using a regulated exchange
of information and data on the Internet.
Business processes that involve an exchange of data between
mySAP.com and mobile devices.
MODERN QUALITY MANAGEMENT:
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INTEGRATION
QUALITY MANAGEMENT – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
mySAP™ PLM Quality Management (mySAP™ PLM QM)
recognizes the importance of e-Business and global communication. Quality management is no longer simply about
integrating internal business processes. The focus has shifted to
the employees and their dedication and skills, while efficient
business relationships remain critical factors for success. The
fast, direct exchange of internal process information and a
worldwide information flow are key to staying ahead of the
In the integrated mySAP.com platform, mySAP PLM functions
are incorporated into other solutions, such as mySAP™ Supply
Chain Management (mySAP™ SCM) or mySAP™ Customer
Relationship Management (mySAP™ CRM). You can therefore
access all important processes.
mySAP PLM QM provides the following advantages:
• One quality management system covers all your company
• Employees play a central role. They can access important
information and thereby perform a wide variety of tasks
quickly and efficiently.
• Direct communication and controlled data exchange with
employees and business partners is always possible.
mySAP PLM QM not only offers all the advantages of integrated software as part of mySAP.com, but it also provides you
with access to a global business environment. Your company
can use mySAP PLM QM in the mySAP™ Enterprise Portal with
intelligent solutions for collaborative business and mobile business allowing you to exchange information with external
The exchange of data with other areas prevents information
from being duplicated. For example, when a goods receipt is
posted, mySAP.com automatically starts a quality inspection
and transfers any available information relating to material,
vendor, and lot size to the inspection lot data record.
mySAP PLM Quality Management is directly linked to various
functions, which help you efficiently manage your business
processes. Examples of such functions include:
• Business Workflow
A tool for targeted process control. Using the Business
Workflow, you can establish a clearly defined information
and processing network to quickly and efficiently process
inspection lots and quality notifications.
A tool for storing documents. ArchiveLink stores documents
that are linked to application functions in an optical archive.
(Such documents include quality records, certificates,
customer complaints, and other original internal or external
The openness of mySAP.com and the seamless integration of
mySAP PLM QM into a complete business system support
you in total quality management and satisfy the criteria for
ISO 9000 or the good manufacturing practice (GMP).
Fig. 1-1: Internal and External Integration of mySAP PLM QM
QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND mySAP.com
With mySAP PLM QM, you have a global quality management
system that covers all aspects of your company. You can use
the mySAP Enterprise Portal as a cockpit for all your business
processes in mySAP PLM QM. It is a portal that allows all
employees to access business processes on the Internet or
intranet at any time and from any location.
In addition to mySAP PLM, you can integrate other independent SAP solutions in the mySAP Enterprise Portal, such
as mySAP™ Business Intelligence (mySAP™ BI) with the Business
Information Warehouse or Knowledge Warehouse. You can
also integrate non-SAP products. As a result, you can adapt
and enhance your working environment to suit your own
Using clearly defined roles, users of the mySAP Enterprise
Portal can access their own work areas. A role describes a
specific activity profile and groups together the corresponding
functions of that profile. Users can then target their involvement in business processes. The flexible mySAP Enterprise
Portal allows you to adapt the roles to suit your individual
mySAP PLM QM supplies the following roles for the various
tasks in quality management:
• Quality manager
• Notification processor
• Quality inspector
• Inspection planner
• Test equipment manager
With the mySAP Enterprise Portal, role users always have
immediate access to current information. iViews supply you
with the key figures and work lists relevant to your role.
If you decide to use the SAP® Knowledge Warehouse as a solution for your company-specific quality manual, the role user
can access the most up-to-date version of the manual using
the mySAP Enterprise Portal. This means that you can immediately access the procedures and work instructions that are
relevant to your business processes.
You can use mySAP PLM QM to control which inspections
should be performed on a mobile basis. The inspector records
the results on location using a mobile recording device. Using
the docking station, the inspector starts a synchronization run
to transfer the inspection results to mySAP.com or load the
work list for additional inspections to the mobile recording
device. Mobile results recording is both simple and reliable.
The mySAP PLM QM Internet scenarios have opened up a new
range of possibilities. You can record results on the Internet
during a source inspection at the vendor site, and vendors can
supply a quality certificate on the Internet for supplied goods
or electronically transfer certificate data to a specified destination. With mySAP.com, you can establish lasting partnerships.
Often, inspection results are not directly recorded at the
work center. This is the case, for example, for inspections of
machines that are not in the vicinity of your work center. In
such situations, you can use mobile results recording.
Fig. 1-2: Mobile Results Recording with mySAP PLM QM
Employees can enter internal requests or problems on the
intranet and then forward them for further processing quickly
and efficiently. This involves all employees in the continuous
improvement of business processes in your company.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT WITH mySAP™ PRODUCT LIFECYCLE
mySAP PLM Quality Management (mySAP PLM QM) supports
you, both internally and externally, throughout the entire life
cycle of a product. It provides complete support, from product
and process planning in research and development (the planning phase), through procurement, production, and sales and
distribution (the implementation phase), to service and usage
(the usage phase).
THE PLANNING PHASE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
Fig. 2-1: Quality Loop According to ISO 9004
mySAP PLM QM supports the process of quality management
in the planning phase of the product life cycle. This phase
consists of the following:
• Life-Cycle Data Management provides an environment
where you can manage specifications, bills of material,
routing and resource data, project structures, installation
structures, and master recipes, along with the corresponding
technical documentation during the entire product and
installation life cycle. The functions of Life-Cycle Data
– Document management
– Product structure management to support product and
– Links to different computer aided design (CAD),
supervisory control and data aquisition (SCADA),
and geographical information systems
– Engineering change management and configuration
management, including the release of technical changes
for production purposes
• Program and Project Management supports the planning,
MASTER DATA MANAGEMENT
administration, and controlling of the entire product
development process. It allows project managers to control
project structures, schedules, costs, and resources. The
functions of Program and Project Management include:
– Portfolio management and strategic program
– Product profitability analysis
– Investment projects, development projects, customer
projects, maintenance projects, and service projects
• Life-Cycle Collaboration allows collaboration between
business partners, customers, vendors, and virtual
development teams by facilitating the transfer of data
(project plans, documents, service sheets, information,
and product structures) between them. The functions of
Life-Cycle Collaboration include:
– Collaborative engineering
– Cross-company project management
– Engineering marketplaces and enterprise portals
You make the product-related settings that must be made in
mySAP PLM QM during the implementation phase in the
material master record in the Quality Management view.
Life-Cycle Data Management
Life-Cycle Data Management helps you plan product-related
master data (such as products, plans, specifications, bills of
material, and documents).
An important tool in mySAP.com is the document management system. You can use this central document management
system to create links between inspection outlines, design
drawings, technical delivery terms, specifications, product
specifications, inspection methods, and other quality-relevant
documentation and the corresponding master data in
mySAP PLM QM. You can manage data within this system
according to validity, version, and status.
For the management of quality information related to
materials, vendors, and customers, and for the control of
vendor and customer-related processes, you can maintain
appropriate quality information records (you can, for example,
assign quality assurance agreements and perform model
In material-related inspection plans, you can define either
customer- or vendor-specific inspection specifications. When
you are performing an inspection during production, these
elements are integrated into the routing or recipes.
You can make changes to the master data centrally, and you
can transfer the data from one source system to one or more
target systems. In addition, there are tools available for research
and analysis of master data linked in a hierarchy, such as
where-used lists and the product structure browser.
ENGINEERING CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Central engineering change management coordinates the
changes you make to master data. You can run such changes
through an approval procedure (for example, according to
GMP requirements). You can create different versions and
then distribute them using the workflow. It is also possible
for you to allocate a revision level with regard to a specific
valid-from date when a change is made.
Using the integrated classification system, you can specify and
assign data that is available in mySAP.com (such as materials,
documents, and inspection plans), in order to be able to locate
this data later according to specific search criteria (such as
Program and Project Management
Several program and project management tools are available to
help you strategically plan and control the product-development process.
The QM manual contains the basic quality policy of a company, and a description of the organizational and process
structures within this company. The QM manual also lists
responsibilities within the company.
A central system administration is responsible for data security
and protection. You can assign individual system authorizations
for the processing of master data and movement data. This
enables you, for example, to set up users so that they have to
provide a digital signature when performing certain operations.
Life-Cycle Collaboration makes it possible for you to transfer
product information across the entire supply chain. Partners,
manufacturers, vendors, and customers can communicate
directly with one another. They can, for example, exchange
CAD files, specifications, and inspection results.
INTERNET SCENARIO: QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS
In the product development stage, if you are cooperating
with customers or partners, mySAP PLM QM offers you the
opportunity to initiate product ideas or changes to products
using quality notifications. Customer complaints that can be
entered on the Internet can thereby be used to determine the
product quality. Vendors can ask for permission to deviate
from specifications if they cannot strictly adhere to customer
INTERNET SCENARIO: CERTIFICATES
You can use the business workflow to control certain complex
processes and the output associated with these processes. For
example, corrective tasks within a problem notification can automatically be transferred to the organizational unit responsible.
Working with your customers or vendors, you use certificate
profiles to plan exactly which characteristics are to appear on the
certificate. This certificate data can be exchanged electronically
using Quality Data Interchange (QDI), or it can be stored on the
Internet. For example, you can store it as a PDF document.
INTERNET SCENARIO: RESULTS RECORDING
You can enter, collect, and bill costs related to prevention of
defects, inspections, and nonconformity to different account
assignment objects using orders in Controlling.
You can record inspection results using the Internet or
intranet. Results can be recorded by external service providers
(for example, commercial analysts) and internal inspectors
(for example, in a source inspection) at their respective work
KEY FIGURE ANALYSIS
With its quality key figures, mySAP Business Intelligence
(mySAP BI) offers a wide range of possibilities for monitoring
and controlling your quality processes.
Defect catalogs provide you with a basis for failure mode and
effect analysis (FEMA) evaluations and quality audits. The
analysis of defects helps bring problems within a company to
light and improves relationships with vendors.
INTERNET SCENARIO: SERVICE REQUESTS
Internet service requests are used to enter and process queries
and problems. This tool is particularly useful when combined
with the solution database and used as an intranet solution. You
can use it, for example, to report a printer problem or send
improvements to the internal recommendations department.
THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE PRODUCT
agent with information about the quality management system
used by the vendor and the quality of previously delivered
goods. In order to do this, mySAP.com summarizes quality
scores from vendor audits, goods receipt inspections, and
complaints against the vendor.
mySAP PLM QM ensures quality across the entire supply chain
and beyond company boundaries. It supports your
quality management department in the following:
• Procurement. mySAP PLM QM manages vendor-related
master data, controls the purchasing process according to
certain quality criteria, and handles inspection certificates
and goods receipt inspections.
• Production. mySAP PLM QM integrates inspection specifications in routings and recipes, allows inspections during
production and goods receipt inspections for the manufacturing order to take place, monitors the production
process using control charts, and confirms quality, quantity,
• Sales and distribution. mySAP PLM QM manages
customer-related master data, controls the sales and distribution process according to quality criteria, and handles
inspection certificates and inspections at goods issue.
In some industry sectors, vendors must have a quality management system in their company. Such a system might, for example, be required to be compliant with the ISO 9000 series of
standards. Such vendors must have this system certified by an
accredited organization. Your mySAP PLM QM system checks if
the quality management system used by the vendor is adequate for certain materials and then either releases or blocks
the supply relationship accordingly.
You can limit the release of this supply relationship to a
specific time frame and a maximum delivery quantity. If the
vendor has serious quality problems, you can block requests
for quotations, purchase orders, or goods receipts for specific
materials supplied by this vendor.
mySAP PLM QM also monitors the step-by-step release of a
material. Vendor deliveries must sequentially pass through a
series of user-defined statuses, such as model, preliminary
series, and production series, using appropriately assigned
In many industry sectors, suppliers are middlemen (distributors).
Therefore, the quality of produced goods is dictated primarily by
the manufacturer rather than the vendor. Consequently, you
can also apply the following functions to a manufacturer: vendor
release, inspection planning, dynamic modification of the inspection scope, and complaints against the vendor.
QUALITY ASSURANCE AGREEMENT, TECHNICAL DELIVERY
TERMS, CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENT
Materials Management provides information for the purchasing agent about vendor delivery reliability, price record,
and service record. mySAP PLM QM provides the purchasing
When the purchasing agent requests a quotation and issues a
purchase order, the vendors that are released automatically
receive information about the technical delivery terms and the
current quality assurance agreement. The vendors may also be
required to include a quality certificate with the delivery.
Occasionally, inspections can be performed at the vendor’s
premises to replace a goods receipt inspection. If this occurs,
the system takes the target delivery deadline into account and
creates an inspection lot in time for the source inspection. You
can now perform a source inspection at the vendor’s site,
because it is possible for you to access mySAP.com using the
mySAP Enterprise Portal in an Internet browser. This is possible
even if the vendor does not use mySAP.com.
If the quality of a supply relationship is consistently high, you
may want to waive the goods receipt inspection, particularly if
the vendor has a certified QM system. For partial lots, you can
set the system to inspect a goods receipt only once for each
purchase order, goods receipt, or batch. If you do not want to
waive the goods receipt inspection completely, you can reduce
the scope of the inspection as far as the quality level allows.
The reduction of the inspection scope may lead to a skip lot.
If you allow a skip lot and an automatic usage decision for a
material, the system processes the skipped lots without intervention. It then immediately posts the inspection lot quantity
to unrestricted-use stock (ship-to-stock).
GOODS RECEIPT CERTIFICATE
If you have identified a material as requiring a certificate, the
receipt of this certificate must be confirmed. mySAP.com takes
appropriate action if the certificate is missing (for example,
posting the goods to blocked stock). mySAP.com supports the
management of the certificate receipt process and sends reminders if necessary. You can manually create the certificate
and store it in the optical archive (ArchiveLink), or you can
send it in electronic form. Using the electronic quality data
interchange system (QDI), certificate data can be transferred
directly to the goods receipt inspection lot.
Confirm receipt when
or after making the
NO INSPECTION LOT:
Post goods to blocked
If the prerequisites for ship-to-stock are not fulfilled,
mySAP.com automatically triggers inspection lot processing
upon goods receipt. In addition to the goods receipt document, the system also creates an inspection lot record, selects
an appropriate inspection plan, and determines the sample
size based on the quality level.
If goods are delivered in containers, you can take samples in
accordance with a sample-drawing procedure. The documents
you need (such as sample-drawing instructions, sample labels,
and inspection instructions) are available for printing immediately. You can then proceed with the inspection.
RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS AND DEFECTS
You can record the results for the goods receipt inspection in
the form of inspection characteristic values and/or defect data
records or texts. If serious problems arise at goods receipt
inspection, a quality notification can be created automatically.
Inspection results can also be recorded automatically using
electronic measuring equipment.
Fig. 2-2: Certificate Processing at Goods Receipt
There are costs associated with every inspection and defect.
Appraisal costs are determined using the activity confirmations
of the people involved in an inspection. You can allocate the
costs that are calculated on the basis of these confirmations for
one or more inspection lots in several QM orders, and you can
then pass them on to the cost object. Costs associated with
defects are settled using quality notifications.
mySAP PLM QM can trigger a series of user-defined follow-up
actions on the basis of the usage decision. For example, you can
print specific inspection reports.
If invoices for the delivery of goods are received before the
usage decision is made for the goods receipt inspection lot, you
can prevent an automatic payment during invoice verification.
COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE VENDOR
The processing of an inspection lot in mySAP PLM QM ends
after the inspection is completed and the usage decision is
made. The accepted inspection lot quantity is manually or
automatically posted to unrestricted-use stock. Special stock
postings are available to you for rejected quantities. This includes posting to blocked stock, transfer posting to a different
material, returning to the vendor, or posting to scrap. If the
material is handled in batches, the system proposes a batch
status that is compatible with the usage decision.
Defects in a delivered material that have been caused by the
vendor or manufacturer can be documented in a quality
notification. You can use the business workflow to pass this
notification on to the processor responsible. The processor can
then initiate various tasks (such as posting to blocked stock or
sending a complaint against the vendor). Complaints can be
entered on the Internet on the vendor’s Web site.
INDUSTRY SECTOR INDEPENDENT
Fig. 2-3: Inspection Lot Processing at Goods Receipt
Once the usage decision is made, mySAP.com updates the
quality level and the QM information system and makes the
inspection lot quality score available for the vendor evaluation.
mySAP.com also updates material and vendor information in
the quality data record. For example, once the inspection lot
has been completed, it updates the status of the supply
relationship from model delivery to regular delivery.
mySAP PLM QM integrates quality inspections into the
production process. It thereby supports different types of production, from order-related, lot-based production and the
assembly process in mechanical engineering, through
repetitive manufacturing in the automotive industry, to
batch-based process manufacturing in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and foodstuff industries.
MANUFACTURING ORDER INSPECTIONS
You can initiate inspections on the basis of different types of
goods movements. Inspection lots can therefore be automatically created when a material component is removed or when
a product for the production or process order is processed at
When you are inspecting raw materials or semifinished
products, the planned duration of the receiving inspection is
taken into account in materials planning.
INSPECTION DURING PRODUCTION
• Partial lots
Inspection lots for an inspection during production can be
created in the following ways:
• As an inspection lot during production when a production
order is released. This is not stock relevant.
• As an early inspection lot at goods receipt. This is stock
relevant; in other words, the stock in the quality inspection
is managed using the usage decision for the inspection lot.
• When goods are received from a subcontractor for external
Production quantities of the same quality can be grouped
The inspection results can be used for batch determination
at a later stage (for example, they can be applied when
choosing products at the delivery stage, or when deciding
which subcomponents to use for production).
• Serial numbers
This applies if the inspection results are to be assigned to a
single unit. In this case, the serial numbers can be copied
from the production order.
The sample size is calculated, and the shop papers (such as
sample drawing, inspection instructions, and sample labels)
are printed at previously determined work centers after the
valid routing or master recipe has been selected.
Defects can be recorded for inspection characteristics,
inspection operations, or inspection lots.
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)
You can set the system to require a digital signature (electronic
signature) from the user who releases the physical-sample
drawing or makes the usage decision to ensure that that user
has the appropriate authorization.
RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS AND DEFECTS
Inspection results can be recorded for the following objects:
• Inspection characteristics
The inspection results can be recorded in summarized form,
in classes, or as single values.
• Inspection points
Several inspections are performed for each inspection characteristic. Inspection points can be user-defined, and they can
be planned in advance if necessary. They can be related to
production quantities or production times (for example,
inspection of a wire basket or silo once during each shift or
every two hours).
• Physical samples
These can be planned in advance using a sample-drawing
procedure or they can be unplanned.
The inspection results are the basis for statistical process control
(SPC) using control charts. A control chart can be valid for several inspection lots and production orders. The warning and
action limits of a control chart are calculated using the most
recent inspection results or the results of an initial run. If an
action limit is exceeded, messages and notifications can be
INSPECTION POINT 1
CHARACTERISTIC TARGET ACTUAL
Fig. 2-4: Inspection During Production
APPRAISAL COSTS AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY
VARIANT CONFIGURATION IN THE SALES ORDER
At the time of sales order creation, customers can specify
quality characteristics for the desired variant. This information
then flows into all inspections during production in the form
of inspection specifications.
When you are recording inspection results, you can also
confirm production quantities and costs for the production
order. Such confirmations control the subsequent production
process (for example, the release of operations and inspection
operations or subsequent work that has yet to be performed).
MATERIAL NO.: BIKE 12
CH10 TIRE SIZE 58 + 0.5
CH20 TIRE PRESSURE 1-5 BAR
SALES ORDER 4713
INSPECTION LOT 4718
MATERIAL NO. BIKE 12
CH10 TIRE SIZE 58 + 0.5
CH20 TIRE PRESSURE 1-5 BAR
TIRE PRESSURE: 2-3 BAR
PRODUCTION ORDER 4715
TIRE TYPE: LOW-PROFILE
TIRE PRESSURE: 2-3 BAR
Fig. 2-5: Quantity Confirmation and Inspection Point Valuation
Fig. 2-6: Characteristic Specifications from Variant Configuration
The inspection is completed when the usage decision is made.
Users with the appropriate authorizations can post stock
quantities, classify charges according to their quality, and
perform follow-up actions. mySAP PLM QM provides a digital
signature for the usage decision.
If you manage the stock of a material in batches, mySAP PLM
QM allows you to select suitable batches at delivery using batch
Sales and Distribution
QUALITY ASSURANCE AGREEMENT AND TECHNICAL DELIVERY
You can store customer-related quality documents in the
quality information record for Sales and Distribution. In
addition, you can use this quality information record to
control the time and type of a quality inspection.
INSPECTION FOR DELIVERY OR FOR GOODS ISSUE
Inspection lots can be created at the picking stage or at goods
issue. After you have chosen a suitable inspection plan, the
sample size is calculated and the shop papers (sample-drawing
items, inspection instructions, sample labels) are printed.
When the inspection results have been recorded, the
inspection is completed with the usage decision.
CERTIFICATE AT GOODS ISSUE
THE USAGE PHASE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
At goods issue, you can use a quality certificate to document
that the inspection results are in accordance with the customer
specifications. You can enter inspection characteristics from
the inspection plan and characteristics that were defined in the
batch determination as inspection specifications on the certificate. The form, content, and means of output are customerspecific. These are derived from the specifications made by the
recipient of the certificate at picking or at goods issue.
QUALITY DATA INTERCHANGE
Formatted quality data contained in a quality certificate can be
sent electronically and then automatically transferred into an
inspection lot at the customer site. It is also possible to make
this data available on the Internet.
PROCESSING COMPLAINTS AND HANDLING RETURNS
You can create customer complaints as quality notifications
on the Internet. You can document defects and tasks, and you
can also perform various follow-up functions using the action
box. For example, you might process return or repair orders,
enter costs, perform stock postings, or trigger inspections.
In the usage phase of the product life cycle, service providers
can process inspections (outsourcing) with mySAP PLM QM.
Service providers can use mySAP PLM QM to identify serviceable items, plan and confirm services, and create invoices for
VARIANT CONFIGURATION IN THE SALES ORDER
Inspection laboratories perform inspections as a service
(commercial analysis). When creating the sales order, these
laboratories can select the inspections requested by the
customer from inspection plans and transfer them into a
SERVICE ORDER INSPECTION
The inspections can be selected using variant configuration
in the sales order or by selecting inspection operations in the
service order. Once the inspections have been selected, inspection lots can be created when the service order is released.
Then the inspection can begin and inspection instructions and
sample-drawing items can be printed.
RESULTS RECORDING – USING A MOBILE DEVICE,
THE INTERNET, OR QDI
Materials management can manage stocks for materials in
batches, and it can recognize the difference between batches in
unrestricted-use or blocked stock.
You can record inspection results using mobile devices or
directly in the customer system using the Internet. If required,
it is also possible to transfer inspection results in electronic
form using QDI.
After the inspection results have been confirmed, you are able
to invoice the customer for the inspection costs.
You can use mySAP PLM QM to monitor the shelf life of batches and deadlines for recurring inspections. In addition, you can
use it to change the batch status and perform stock postings
automatically. For example, you can post to blocked stock
when the expiry date is exceeded.
The batch where-used list helps you determine which raw
material batches or semifinished products make up the batch
of a finished product (top-down analysis) or, conversely, which
batches of semifinished or finished products are made up of a
particular batch of a raw material (bottom-up analysis). The
where-used list also forms the basis for printing inspection
results from the previous assembly stages (for example, semifinished products) for an end product on a quality certificate.
RESOURCE-RELATED BILLING DOCUMENT
Materials management categorizes inventory by the following
stock types: unrestricted-use, blocked, and in quality inspection. Usually, the specified quantity of a received material is
posted to inspection stock for the duration of the goods receipt
inspection. This stock can only undergo a transfer posting
during inspection lot processing. For example, when the usage
decision is made, it can be posted to unrestricted-use stock. In
the inspection lot, you can view all of the posting documents
that relate to the lot stock.
If you use Warehouse Management, mySAP PLM QM also
manages the inspection lot samples and units created due to
the usage decision or while locating a storage bin. The inspection lot identifies each unit and transfer requirement. The
system performs the following tasks according to the strategy
required for placement in storage: it triggers the transport of
samples and partial quantities, and it posts the stock.
HANDLING UNIT MANAGEMENT (HUM)
You can also use handling units as transport units. A handling
unit is a physical unit consisting of packaging and the goods
stored within or on this packaging. The system allows you to
move these handling units, as opposed to just moving the
materials. A quality inspection can therefore also be performed
with reference to handling units.
PUTTING QUALITY STRATEGIES INTO ACTION
As inspection planner, you implement predefined planning
strategies in your company. This includes:
• Defining the trigger, type, and scope of quality inspections
• Creating and managing task lists as the basis for quality
• Managing and processing the basic data used in task lists
• Determining the procedure for statistical process control
Task List Structure
A task list consists of the task-list header, operation, characteristic, and production resources and tools.
TASK LIST GROUP
INSPECTION PLAN 1
INSPECTION PLAN 1
INSPECTION PLAN 2
To complete these tasks, you can use the reusable basic data as
building blocks and a flexible planning tool.
TASK LIST HEADER
INTEGRATED INSPECTION PLANNING
With integrated inspection planning, you can create and
process different task-list types to adapt quality inspections to
suit the respective business processes:
• Inspection plan for inspections during goods movements
• Routing for inspections during production in discrete
• Rate routing for inspections during production
• Master recipe for inspections in the process industry
• Material specification for simplified inspection planning
Task lists that differ only slightly in terms of content can be
grouped together in task-list groups. The information that can
differ within a task-list group may consist of the task-list usage,
vendor assignment, or the validity of certain lot size intervals.
INSPECTION PLAN 3
INSPECTION PLAN 4
INSPECTION PLAN 5
INSPECTION PLAN 6
INSPECTION PLAN 7
Fig. 3-1: Task List Structure
You define the following information in the task-list header:
• Material task-list assignments
Assignment of a task list to materials. For example, you can
assign several materials to a task list and there can be several
task lists for one material. You can also assign inspection
plans to a vendor or customer, in addition to the material.
• Administrative data
This type of data can include the validity date, change status,
responsible planner group, task-list usage, and processing
• Control data
This type of data can include the dynamic modification rule
for adapting the inspection scope
BASIC DATA FOR INSPECTION PLANNING
You can store the following information for each inspection
• A description of the operation and control parameters for
• Reference to a work center
• Specifications for scheduling and calculating the appraisal
Basic data consists of reusable building blocks for inspection
planning. To simplify your work as an inspection planner, you
should plan and include this data in your task lists.
In the inspection characteristic, you can:
• Specify the characteristic description and define the control
parameters for results recording
• Reference an inspection method, sampling procedure, or a
dynamic modification rule
• Define qualitative or quantitative specifications for the
inspection and results recording, depending on the
• Define individual specifications for every task-list assignment
to a material, vendor, or customer. This means you do not
have to create redundant inspection plans to modify
customer- or material-dependent target values and tolerances.
Test equipment is listed for each operation. For each inspection
characteristic, you can specify with which equipment the
characteristic values must be measured.
TASK LIST HEADER
Dynamic modification rule
Reference operation set
Other production resources/tools
Master inspection characteristic
Dynamic modification rule
Fig. 3-2: Inspection Plan Structure and the Use of Master Data
in Inspection Plans
An inspection characteristic describes what should be inspected. You can create an inspection characteristic directly in
a task list or predefine it as an inspection characteristic master
record (master inspection characteristic). Master inspection
characteristics can be:
• Referenced in several task lists or material specifications
• Linked to characteristics in the classification system, for
example, to transfer inspection results for a batch to the
An inspection method describes how a characteristic is to be
inspected. You can also assign documents that are stored in the
document management system (such as drawings and descriptions) to an inspection method. Inspection methods are
assigned to master inspection characteristics or inspection
characteristics in task lists. You can assign several inspection
methods to a master inspection characteristic.
A catalog is a summary of codes for content-related terms.
Catalogs make it easier to uniformly describe qualitative data
(for example, attributes for qualitative characteristics, defect
types, or usage decisions). For each catalog, you can:
• Define code groups with codes and enter explanatory texts
in different languages.
• Select codes from one or more code groups and combine
them in a selected set. This allows you to create a value list
that applies to a specific application.
Sampling Procedure and Sampling Scheme
The sampling procedure specifies how the sample size is
calculated and how the inspection characteristic is valuated
(attributive, variable, or manual). You assign sampling
procedures in the material master or in the task list at
mySAP PLM QM supports all common sampling types (for
example, 100% inspection, sample based on percentage, fixed
sample, and sample in accordance with a sampling scheme). If
the sampling types and valuation rules provided with the standard system are not sufficient, you can supplement them with
your own self-defined function modules.
You can also plan independent and dependent multiple samples and record the inspection results from several samples for
an inspection characteristic. Each of these samples may contain
several values and each is valuated individually. On the basis of
the individual sample results, mySAP.com automatically determines the characteristic result (for example, based on the
Ready-to-use sampling schemes are contained in the delivery
system in accordance with ISO 2859-1 for qualitative inspections and ISO 3951 for quantitative inspections. You can
also create your own acceptable quality level (AQL) sampling
schemes and define rules for automatic stage changes up to an
inspection skip. You can also implement industry-specific procedures.
Dynamic Modification Rule
In a dynamic modification rule, you define the number of
inspections and skip stages and the rules that control such
stage changes, either in accordance with appropriate standards
such as ISO 2859-3 or to suit your own requirements. The
sample size may vary between a 100% inspection and a skip.
When you use a sampling scheme, the system switches
between a normal, reduced, and tightened inspection,
depending on the quality level.
The inspection stage is then changed depending on the inspection results for inspection lots or characteristics. You can
control the dynamic modification of the inspection stages
either by accepting or rejecting the inspection lot or inspection
characteristics. You can also assign a dynamic modification rule
to the inspection type in the material master (inspection type
level) or at the header or characteristic level in the task list.
Test equipment consists of fittings, objects, documents, or
materials that are needed for a quality inspection. Test equipment can be fixed parts of a work center or consist of moveable
equipment. In the inspection plan, you can represent test
equipment using various master records, such as production
resource/tools (PRT), material, equipment, or document.
The PRT master record contains administrative data and information relating to status, location, and a possible PRT
group assignment. If you use the classification system, you can
define additional properties. In addition, you can reference
document master records from the PRT master record or use
document master records as test equipment in task lists. Using
the document management interfaces to CAD systems or to
ArchiveLink, you can access drawings and other documents.
The work center specifies where an operation is to be performed and who should process it. The available personnel
and machine capacities are also managed by the work center.
You provide the basis for capacity planning and scheduling of
operations when you specify the work centers in which the
operations are to be performed in the task lists.
Each work center is assigned to a cost center. The activities in a
work center are valuated using rates that are determined by
cost centers and activity types (for example, working time or
quantity). In a single step, you can record both inspection
results and the activities performed. You can also generate
work lists for specific work centers when you record results or
make the usage decision.
Reference Operation Set
In a reference operation set, you define frequently required
inspection operations and corresponding inspection
characteristics. A reference operation set can be used as a
part of inspection plans or routings, or as a template.
The following sections discuss various planning tools provided
with mySAP PLM QM. Such tools include the engineering
workbench, product structure browser, where-used lists,
The engineering workbench is an efficient tool that you can
use to process several task lists simultaneously (routings,
reference operation sets, and inspection plans). The data you
require can be read from different task lists and restructured.
You can perform a variety of tasks using the engineering workbench, including the following:
• Generate work lists for processing data within task lists
(for example, by selecting task lists that use a certain
dynamic modification rule or sampling procedure)
• Process individual operations from different task lists in one
• Simultaneously process complex task lists by selectively
blocking objects (at task list header or operation level)
• Create where-used lists (for example, for production
resources/tools, dynamic modification rules, sampling
procedures, sample-drawing procedures, and selected sets)
• Display documents defined in the document management
system in your own screen area (for example, technical
Mass Data Changes
With the function mass data change, you can adapt objects
from the where-used list (master inspection characteristics,
inspection methods, or sampling procedures) to suit new
conditions. You can also use this function to create and
change inspection setup data in the material master.
Engineering Change Management
mySAP PLM QM maintains separate engineering change
statuses for each structural element in a task list. When you
make a change using a change number, you can determine
what was contained in a plan at a specific date and the date on
which a change is to become effective.
Fig. 3-3: Inspection Planning with the Engineering Workbench
Product Structure Browser
Using the product structure browser, you can hierarchically
display related objects in a product structure. During inspection planning, for example, you can determine whether
or not task lists or material specifications exist for a certain
material. If you expand the product structure further,
additional detailed information can be displayed (such as
inspection characteristics and documents).
A where-used list shows you the task lists in which master
inspection characteristics, inspection methods, and sampling
procedures are used.
Cross-System Transfer of Master Data
Using SAP Application Link Enabling (ALE), you can transfer
specific basic data (for example, inspection setups, inspection
methods, inspection characteristics, and catalog or code
groups) from a source system to one or more target systems.
This means that it is quick and easy to transfer basic data used
in one plant to another plant.
• Integrated inspection planning
• Lighter workload as a result of modular, re-usable
• Efficient management of inspection data using mass
• Parallel task list processing using the Engineering
• Time and money savings by using our cross-system data
transfer by means of ALE
QUALITY INSPECTIONS: ACHIEVING RELIABLE RESULTS
As quality inspector, you are responsible for proving that a
material meets predefined quality requirements. With
mySAP PLM QM, you can show that these requirements have
been met. Inspections can be triggered for inspection points
during production, physical samples in the process industry,
or automatically for goods movements.
CREATE INSPECTION LOT
SELECT INSPECTION SPECIFICATIONS
PRINT SHOP PAPERS
Planned inspections in mySAP PLM QM can be used to document quality using quantitative and qualitative inspection
results. In addition, you can also create a record of unplanned
events in the form of defect data or quality notifications.
For all quality inspection tasks, the mySAP Enterprise Portal
provides you with the tools you require for the role of quality
inspector, as well as the opportunity to customize the settings.
• With collaborative business, it is possible for your internal
and external business partners to record inspection results
on the intranet or Internet.
• Using mobile computing, you can record inspection results
on-site and later transfer the data to your mySAP PLM QM
INSPECTION LOT PROCESSING
Supported by quality-planning specifications, inspections
supply important data for quality control purposes. The
inspection lot is the central element for the quality inspection
in mySAP PLM QM. It contains all information related to the
quality inspection, such as inspection specifications, inspection
results, and usage decisions.
RECORD DEFECT DATA
REQUEST CHARAC. INSP. RESULTS
PERFORM FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS
UPDATE QM INFORMATION SYSTEM
UPDATE QUALITY LEVEL
DETERMINE QUALITY SCORE
MAKE USAGE DECISION
Fig. 4-1: Stages in Inspection Lot Processing
There are different variants for inspection lot processing.
In mySAP PLM QM, these are defined as inspection types
(for example, goods receipt inspection and inspection during
production). The variants include:
• Inspection with or without a task list or material
• Recording of inspection characteristic results and
• Manual or automatic specification assignment, sample
determination, and usage decisions
• Control of inspection stock posting
Inspection Lot Creation
mySAP PLM QM generally creates inspection lots automatically, but you can also create these lots manually. Inspection lots
may be created as a result of the following:
• Goods movements (for example, goods receipt, goods issue,
stock transfer, and return delivery from a customer)
• Deadline monitoring for batches (recurring inspection)
• Release of production orders, process orders, maintenance
orders, service orders, and production versions
• Delivery creation in shipping
Fig. 4-2: Inspection Lot Creation
For inspections with an inspection plan, mySAP.com selects
the corresponding inspection specifications (for example, the
inspection plan or material specification). If a customer has
specific product requirements, these can be copied from variant configuration or batch determination to the inspection.
Shop papers are printed and inspection results are recorded on
the basis of the inspection specifications.
Some examples of shop papers include:
• Sample-drawing instructions
Contain the information required for the physical-sample
drawing and for distributing samples to work centers or
• Physical-sample labels
Are used to label samples.
• Inspection instructions
Lists information about the test equipment and inspection
characteristics for each inspection operation and specifies the
inspection methods, specifications, and sample size for each
inspection characteristic. Quality inspectors can record
inspection results on the inspection instructions, if the
layout is suitable.
During an inspection, you can:
• Record, valuate, and close inspection results for
• Record defect data and quality notifications.
• Confirm activities
Direct transfer of inspection results is possible if you link
electronic test equipment to mySAP PLM QM. You can also
record inspection results for serial numbers and batches, and
you can transfer the inspection results recorded in mySAP PLM
QM to batch classification.
Inspection Lot Completion
After results recording is completed or the inspection is
cancelled, you make the usage decision for the inspection lot.
An automatic usage decision can be made if no inspection
characteristics have been rejected and no defects are recorded. If
a material requires documentation, you must enter a comment
for the usage decision if the inspection is cancelled or the usage
decision differs from the valuation for the inspection results.
Fig. 4-3: Inspection Lot Completion
If materials are posted to inspection stock using an inspection
lot, they can only be posted from this stock using the usage
decision (for example, posting to unrestricted-use stock or
return to vendor).
There are two types of inspection results in mySAP PLM QM.
• Results for the planned inspection of inspection
characteristics (characteristic inspection results)
• Unplanned defects defined during the inspection
Characteristic inspection results are generally recorded for
each operation. For this, inspection specifications must be
assigned to the inspection lot and sample calculation must be
completed. You can record both characteristic inspection
results and defect data for an inspection lot with a task list.
If characteristics are rejected, defect data records can be created
automatically. Also, you can record defects in an inspection
without inspection specifications.
If the usage decision has been made, mySAP.com determines
the quality score for the inspection lot using a procedure
defined in the inspection setup for the material master record.
It then updates the vendor evaluation.
The quality level is also updated. Consequently, the inspection
stages for the next inspection are determined.
The usage decision can also trigger a chain of automatic
follow-up actions, such as sending a message to purchasing if
an inspection lot is rejected. In addition, the statistical data for
the inspection lot is updated in the information system.
mySAP PLM QM logs all user actions using the name, date, and
time. This means that you have the ability to track all actions.
You can also create an electronic batch record for materials
that are managed in batches.
AUTHORIZATION FOR THE USAGE DECISION
The usage decision has significant consequences. Using material-specific authorizations and digital signatures, you can
ensure that only authorized users can make the usage decision.
RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS
• DEFECT TYPE
• DEFECT LOCATION
Fig. 4-4: Types of Inspection Results
You record and valuate characteristic results according to
• Calculate results using calculated characteristics. For calcu-
You can record inspection results for the following types of
• Qualitative characteristics
Nonnumerical characteristic values or variables stemming
from these values (for example, the number of defects) are
entered as results.
• Quantitative characteristics
Measured values or variables stemming from these values
(for example, the mean value) are entered as results.
If the sampling procedure specifies independent multiple samples, you can record results for more than one sample for each
inspection characteristic. The number of samples may then be
greater than the number specified in the sampling procedure.
Depending on the detail you require, you can choose from the
following recording forms for a characteristic:
• Summarized values
For example, the mean value and standard deviation of
several measured values or an individual measured value
• Classed values
Number of results within value classes
• Single values
For example, several measured values. In addition to single
values, you can note the serial numbers of the items to be
Within results recording, you can also:
• Define unplanned characteristics.
• Process conditional characteristics. This deals with planned
characteristics that must be inspected only if a corresponding
controlling characteristic has either been accepted or rejected.
• Record inspection results for characteristics that are in a
lated characteristics, you calculate results using the results
for other characteristics.
In an attributive inspection, you can also plan dependent double and multiple samples. If the result for the current sample
lies between the acceptance and rejection numbers, the sample
size is increased according to the sampling scheme. Once you
have recorded the results for this new sample, the sample is
valuated again using the updated valuation parameters.
You can confirm the characteristic inspection results recorded
in different inspection operations. During results recording, an
inspection characteristic undergoes a series of status changes.
The authorization management function controls who has
the authorization to record, valuate, or close results. To fulfill
special security requirements for example, good manufacturing practices, (GMP), a digital signature may be required.
You can use the following valuation modes to accept or reject
an inspection result:
• Manual valuation
• Attributive inspection based on the number of nonconforming units or defects
• Decision based on the attribute codes of qualitative
• Decision based on the tolerance range of quantitative
• Variable inspection with single-sided or double-sided
• Valuation based on the action limits of a control chart
Characteristics with independent, multiple samples are valuated at sample level. For example, you might valuate such samples based on the worst-case principle, last-case principle, or
best-case principle. You must also valuate inspection points.
You can use inspection points to perform several inspections
on one characteristic. You can define various inspection points
in the system, including:
• Time-dependent (for example, one inspection every hour)
• Quantity-related (for example, an inspection after 100 units
have been produced)
• Freely-defined (for example, one inspection per shift)
After results recording, the system determines the fraction of
nonconforming units for all inspection characteristics and uses
this information to estimate the fraction of nonconforming
units in the inspection lot. The most common mathematical
distribution methods are supplied (normal, binomial, and
You can display the following graphics in results recording:
A histogram illustrates the frequency distribution of the
sample results in the form of a bar chart. In this chart, you
can identify typical and extreme values for a sample, as well
as the location, dispersion range, and form of the
• Run chart
This displays the run of measured values for a characteristic
over a period of time as a line chart. You can identify the dispersion and systematic location changes. You can also display
• Control chart
The control chart shows the time-run of characteristic
values in the production process with warning and action
Process-Optimized Results Recording
Personalized work lists provide you with a flexible selection of
inspection lots. Examples of work lists include the following:
• Results recording for samples during laboratory inspections
• Results recording for equipment or functional locations
during calibration inspections
TABULAR RESULTS RECORDING
You can also record inspection results in tabular form as
• Processing characteristics for several inspection lots
In this view, you can record results for the inspection characteristics that occur in several inspection lots. In the recording
table, the inspection lots selected in the work list are
displayed in columns; the characteristics are displayed in
• Processing several inspection points in an operation
In this view, you can record results for several inspection
points in an operation. In the recording table, the inspection
characteristics are displayed in columns; the corresponding
inspection points are displayed in rows.
• Processing master inspection characteristics for all inspection
lots . In this view, you can record the results for a specific
master inspection characteristic for all inspection lots. In the
recording table, the inspection lots are displayed in rows for
the master inspection characteristic that has been selected.
Results Recording on the Web
The Internet provides you with new possibilities for results
recording. An example of this is recording results for source
INSPECTION DATA INTERFACE (QM-IDI)
You provide your vendor with access to a specific Internet or
intranet page. This requires special authorizations. The vendor
records inspection results directly on the Web and saves the
data. As a result, the quality management data can be further
processed in your mySAP PLM QM system.
During inspection planning, you decide in which system an
inspection operation should be processed. The inspection
specifications are transferred to the external system during
inspection lot creation in mySAP PLM QM. After results are
recorded in a subsystem, the inspection results or usage
decisions are confirmed in mySAP PLM QM. Your capital is
protected using a certification for subsystem providers.
Mobile Results Recording
The mobile results recording function in mySAP PLM QM
supports you when performing quality inspections in inaccessible locations, when there is no PC available. You plan when
mobile results recording should be used for inspections and
transfer the inspection specifications to the mobile recording
device using a docking station. As a result, the inspector can
record measured values, codes, nonconforming units, and the
number of defects. When these inspections are completed, the
data is transferred to mySAP PLM QM using a docking station.
mySAP PLM QM Link for External Inspections
mySAP PLM QM offers interfaces to connect to external
systems for special tasks within quality inspection. These are
discussed in the following sections:
The QM Inspection Data Interface (QM-IDI) supports data
exchange with external quality systems, such as CAQ/LIMS.
You use these interfaces to process inspections in a subsystem.
Defects recording provides information to control quality and
optimize processes. It enables Pareto analyses of defect types
and causes, according to their weighting or how frequently
they occur. It also provides empirical values for risk indicators
in failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA).
You record defects with reference to an inspection lot,
inspection operation, or inspection characteristic. To record
defects, you do not need inspection specifications. If an
inspection plan is available, the defect data records can be
assigned to an inspection characteristic contained in the plan.
mySAP PLM QM then suggests the type of defects recording
that is suitable for the material, work center, or user.
You can link test equipment, such as electronic caliper gauges,
barcode readers, or laboratory balances, using a keyboard
wedge. Various interface boxes are available on the market.
These differ in the number and type of test equipment that
can be connected. Keyboard interfaces convert the measured
values that have been entered into keyboard entries.
You can transfer inspection results from a measuring device
to QM using a file transfer. You can trigger the results transfer
from both external systems and mySAP PLM QM using driver
programs. SAP provides examples for the driver programs.
You can describe qualitative defect data with the help of
cataloged terminology (for example, defect type, defect
location, or defect cause) and additional text.
A defect data record can be converted into a quality notification. As a result, the whole range of functions in notifications can be used (for example, the link to workflow).
When sample management is active in mySAP PLM QM, you
can use the system to manage samples. To allow you to manage
samples effectively, a unique physical-sample record is created in
the system for each physical sample. The physical-sample record
contains the following information for the sample:
• Physical-sample number
• Physical-sample type, such as sample from goods receipt,
production, or customer complaint
• Physical-sample category, such as primary sample, pooled
sample, or reserve sample
• Information for the physical-sample drawing with data on
the sample origin, such as material, batch, material
document, and order
• Detailed information about the physical sample, such as the
inspection lot or storage information
• Processing status of the physical sample
When the system creates the physical-sample records for the
inspection lot, it assigns a unique physical-sample drawing
number. This number helps you identify the physical samples
that were drawn from the lot. You can also identify how many
pooled and reserve samples were formed.
When the inspection planner defines a sample-drawing procedure and assigns it to the inspection plan, routing, or master
recipe, physical-sample records are automatically created for
the inspection lot. You define the following information in the
• Type and number of samples
– Primary samples (one-stage physical-sample drawing)
– Primary and pooled samples (two-stage physical-sample
– Reserve samples (to be stored for subsequent inspections).
• Whether the system should calculate the physical samples
on the basis of the lot container type or the lot quantity
• Whether the drawing of the physical samples needs to be
The following functions are available for the physical-sample
• Confirmation of the physical-sample drawing and release of
You can control whether or not the physical-sample drawing
must be confirmed. A confirmation would result in the
release of all samples associated with the relevant physicalsample drawing. A digital signature may be required to make
the confirmation. This digital signature ensures that only
people with the relevant authorization can confirm a
• Label printing
You can trigger label printing for physical samples using the
physical-sample drawing. The labels can be printed with bar
The physical samples are displayed automatically in a work list
for results recording. You can process these samples immediately, provided that they have the appropriate status.
Processing Physical Samples
For a planned physical-sample drawing, the system can print a
sample-drawing instruction at inspection lot creation. This
instruction contains information from the inspection plan and
physical-sample drawing procedure about drawing, processing,
and distributing samples at work centers or laboratories.
Once you have performed all inspection operations and have
recorded the inspection results, the physical samples must be
valuated on the basis of the operations (that is, accepted or
rejected). When all physical samples in the inspection lot are
valuated, you make the usage decision for the lot.
Automatic creation of physical samples
at inspection lot creation
Manual creation of physical samples
Manual creation of physical-sample drawing
with reference to an inspection lot
Manual creation of inspection lots for existing
Fig. 4-5: Types of Planning and Processing for Physical Samples
It is also possible for you to manage unplanned samples using
mySAP PLM QM. You can perform the following tasks:
• Create the physical samples manually without reference to
an existing physical-sample drawing or inspection lot
• Supplement an existing physical-sample drawing by creating
additional physical samples
• Create a new physical-sample drawing manually, with reference to an existing inspection lot, production order, process
order, or production version
You must create inspection lots manually to be able to record
inspection results for unplanned physical samples. You can use
this function to perform the following tasks:
• Check the stability of reserve samples
• Inspect samples from competitors
• Inspect samples from a customer complaint
• Integrated in the processes of the product life cycle and the
• Allows you to work independently of the system with
mobile results recording or by recording results on the
GUARANTEED RELIABILITY – PRINTED OR ON THE INTERNET
CERTIFICATE PROCESSING IN SALES AND
Your company produces high-quality products. As quality
manager, it is your responsibility to provide evidence of the
quality of your goods for your customers. Whether you
require certificates of analysis for the chemical or pharmaceutical industry, or certificates of conformity, test certificates,
works test certificates, or inspection certificates for material
inspection laboratories in the steel industry – the quality
certificate will fulfill all of your requirements.
In addition to the usual output forms for certificates (printer
or fax), you can make certificates available to your customers
on the Internet or transfer certificate data electronically for
Flexible Certificate Planning
You define the layout and content of a certificate in certificate
planning. The form determines the layout of the document –
that is, the appearance and logo. You define required content
in the copy model. Due to the flexible interaction of the
certificate profile and form, you can meet multiple
requirements using few forms.
You specify the data origin for each characteristic in the
certificate profile. For each characteristic, you can include
texts (such as inspection methods) and values (specification
values and inspection results) in the certificate.
mySAP.com selects data from inspection lots, batch
specifications, or characteristic master records. Texts for
characteristics can also be obtained directly from the certificate
profile. Only those inspection lots that meet specific selection
criteria that have been defined in the certificate profile are
considered for data formatting.
Consequently, inspection lots that have, for example, reached
a predefined quality score can be selected. If there is no inspection result for a characteristic due to a skip, mySAP.com
searches for other data sources using predefined strategies.
The data procurement functions and replacement strategies
available in mySAP.com can be enhanced using function
modules programmed by the user.
The form master record allows you to tailor your certificates
to your company's needs. mySAP.com contains an example of
a form to simplify this process.
In addition to printing characteristics that are directly linked
to the product requiring the certificate, you can also define
which characteristic data (from raw materials and semifinished products used when creating the finished product)
are printed on the certificate.
At this point, you can refer to inspections or batch classifications. mySAP.com selects batches for data formatting that
are linked to one another by production orders, process orders,
or production versions. The characteristic values for these
materials in the production chain can also be taken from other
completed or goods are issued. If you want to make certificates
available to customers before goods delivery, you can make
them accessible on the Internet or send them electronically.
The mySAP.com e-business platform finds the correct certificate profile, recipient, and shipping terms with the help of the
flexible condition technique. The system can search for the
Apart from the characteristic data defined in the certificate
address of the certificate recipient by using, for example, the
profile, you can structure the certificate to contain all other
sold-to party, the ship-to party, delivery type, or shipping
information that is available at certificate creation. Such inforpoint. The system then decides whether the certificate is to be
mation might, for example, include data from the sales order.
issued in printed form, by fax, or electronically. Next, the
system searches for the
corresponding profile for
the material group, mateCH
rial, customer, or a comPRODUCT RAW01
bination thereof. All the
information required for
these searches is conPRODUCT FIN01
tained in data for the
Fig. 5-1: Example of a Quality Certificate for a Finished Product with
Characteristic Values from Raw Materials and Semifinished
Certificate Creation – Meeting Your Requirements
For single delivery items, certificates are issued automatically
when goods are shipped, together with delivery notes. These
certificates are then included with goods deliveries. You can
create certificates at any stage of the shipment process, as long
as the data required is accessible; for example, when picking is
As a last step, mySAP.com
determines the contents
of the certificate based on
the requirements in the
certificate profile, such as
characteristic values in
picking batches. It structures the information according to the specified form and it
transfers the resulting certificate to the output medium, and, if
required, the optical archive.
You can also manually trigger the creation of certificates for
deliveries, inspection lots, or batches, and control their output.
You can create a print preview to check the contents of the
certificate, before it is finally issued.
The processing status of delivery item data is consistently
maintained so that you can always tell if a certificate was
CERTIFICATE PROCESSING AT GOODS RECEIPT
As quality inspector, you are responsible for monitoring the
receipt of certificates during the procurement process. If you
have marked a material as requiring a certificate, you must
confirm that a quality certificate has been received for
purchase orders or goods receipts.
COLLABORATIVE BUSINESS: CERTIFICATE DATA FOR
THE WHOLE COMPANY
Certificate Access on the Internet
As the vendor, you can allow your customers to access
mySAP.com over the Internet and call up a quality certificate
for their purchased goods. Depending on their needs, it is
possible for customers to call up a certificate that is created
when called or one that was created for a delivery item and is
already stored using ArchiveLink.
You generally confirm this information at goods receipt.
However, you can wait to confirm that a certificate has been
received until the usage decision is made for the incoming
inspection lot. If a certificate has not been received,
mySAP.com may post the stock to restricted-use stock.
You can store certificates that have been received using
ArchiveLink. You can also send reminders for missing certificates and monitor reminder statuses. In addition, you have
the ability to process the receipt of certificates before the
goods have actually been received. This is often the case with
certificates that are sent electronically. If you receive an
electronic certificate with reference to a delivery, you can copy
the quality data from the certificate for further processing.
Fig. 5-2: Quality Certificate
Quality Data Exchange
If you want to enable a recipient to use the quality data
displayed on your certificate, you must send the certificate
electronically (using EDI) to the target system.
If the quality certificate refers to a delivery to a customer, you
can automatically transfer the inspection results printed on
the certificate to a goods receipt inspection lot. You can also
manually copy the results to another inspection lot, for
example, a source inspection lot.
The certificate data can also be transferred to a recipient
system without a link to a specific delivery and be processed
further there. In such cases, the certificate data refers to the
inspection lot or batch.
• Easy creation of certificates, and warnings are sent
automatically if a certificate is missing at goods receipt
• Fewer errors by using electronic data transfer at goods
• Time and money savings through using individualized and
fully automatic certificate creation for deliveries
• System-independent accessing of certificates on the
Internet or intranet.
• Multiple output formats: XML, PDF, fax, or print
• Electronic transfer of quality data to your customers
It is also possible to transfer data to your business partners that
do not use SAP software.
Fig. 5-3: Quality Data Exchange
EFFICIENT PROBLEM MANAGEMENT WITH NOTIFICATIONS
IMPROVED QUALITY THROUGH TARGETED PROBLEM
• Feedback notification
For requests or problems related to mySAP.com
For documenting deviations from a project plan
(for example, schedule deviation or cost variance)
To optimize business processes in a company, you must
respond to requests and problems quickly and efficiently.
As notification processor, you coordinate the processing of
incoming requests or problem notifications and propose
suitable tasks. You can therefore ensure that all problems are
correctly assigned and solved. You are involved in the analysis,
cause determination, and handling of problems. You are also
responsible for checking the implemented tasks for their
Optimized Processing Using Notifications
Notifications are an efficient tool for processing exception
situations. Using quality notifications, you can deal with both
simple problems and problems related to complete processes in
the logistics supply chain (for example, complaints processing
for deliveries or processing of returns).
Notifications in the SAP Environment
The integrated notification system supports you when you
create and process various subjects and problems. As a special
feature of mySAP PLM QM, you can record quality problems,
document defects and causes, and implement corrective tasks
for quality improvement using the quality notification.
The following notifications are available to you in addition to
the quality notification:
• General notification
For general requests or subjects (without a business
• Maintenance notification
For recording and processing problem notifications for
• Service notification
For processing service activities
Entering costs Solution
Fig. 6-1: Notification System for Continuous Process Improvement in a
USING QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS
The subjects defined in quality notifications generally refer to
exceptions in everyday business processes. If you create a notification, you use the notification type to define the subject from
a business viewpoint. This then determines the remainder of
the process flow. mySAP.com contains the following quality
• Customer complaint
• Complaint against the vendor
• Internal problem notification
If you manually enter and process general notifications, you
can use simplified or enhanced processing views. The
simplified view is meant for occasional users who do not
require the whole range of notification functions. This view is
used to quickly record problems. All notification functions are
available in the enhanced view. This view is particularly useful
if the user’s responsibility extends beyond the creation of the
Fig. 6-2: Quality Notification Types
Requests or problems that cannot, at first, be assigned at a
business level are entered using the general notification. As the
responsible notification processor, you assign a suitable notification type to a general notification, depending on the subject
of the notification. This controls all further processing.
Quality notifications can be recorded manually or automatically:
• You can create a notification manually on the Internet,
intranet, or directly in mySAP.com.
• For defects recording during inspection processing, a quality
notification can be created automatically.
If you are responsible for creating the notification, you must
first describe the subject in text form, then name a reference
object, if possible (for example, a sales order or delivery), and
finally, assign an appropriate priority to the problem.
mySAP PLM QM copies the linked information to the
When you enter the notification, you can immediately see if,
for example, notifications already exist for the same material or
customer. You can immediately switch to one of these notifications and call up information about how to solve the problem.
As the responsible notification processor, you are informed
about notifications using work lists or the workflow. You can
implement tasks and record costs. You can also perform
defects analysis for the individual problems. You define the
necessary corrective tasks and assign them to the appropriate
You complete the problem notification after all tasks have
been successfully completed and their costs have been
calculated. The steps you perform mirror the status of the
individual tasks and the complete quality notification. You can
display the most significant processing steps of a notification in
the action log.
You can adapt the structure and information in a quality
notification to meet your requirements. In addition to the
notification types supplied by SAP, you can define your own
notification types. For each notification type, you can:
• Select a simple or enhanced processing view
• Determine screen areas and their content
• Structure notification data using tab pages
• Include your own functions in an action box
• Configure shop papers for printing
ELEMENTS OF THE QUALITY NOTIFICATION
Figure 6-3 shows the layout of data in a quality notification.
The header data record contains a description of the subject
matter and depending on the notification type, assigns objects
affected by the notification (for example, purchase order, material, vendor, and inspection lot, or sales order, material, and
customer). The priority and processing status are documented
in the notification header. You can also call up other objects
linked to the notification in the notification header, such as
documents or QM orders used for recording costs.
The partners involved in the creation or processing of a
notification (for example, vendors or customers) are listed in
the notification. You can also include departments and people
within your company who are involved in notification processing as partners.
Individual problems or errors that have occurred are documented as notification items. They contain information relating to defects analysis, such as the defect type and location.
You can assign various causes to a notification item. You can
access user-defined catalogs to describe the defect type,
location, and cause.
Tasks and Activities
The tasks and activities used to correct the defects are subordinate to the notification item. Tasks and activities can also
be assigned to the notification header, so that you can take
the first steps to resolve a problem even before the analysis is
Fig. 6-3: Structure of a Quality Notification
You can use the action box to flexibly enhance the functions in
the notification to suit your needs. You can simplify usage and
control problem processing with regard to procedures. The
action box includes typical tasks and activities for processing
notifications. These tasks or activities are known as follow-up
functions and can be executed with a mouse click. These
follow-up functions are available:
• Creating letters of complaint or 8D reports for complaints
against the vendor
• Sending request for permission to deviate from specifications
• Creating a new quality notification from an existing notification
• Sending decisions by e-mail, fax, or print preview
(for example, confirmation of receipt, interim notice,
or final notice)
• Calling up the solution database
• Documenting calls related to the notification
If you use the business workflow, all parties involved in notification processing are informed about their tasks. Depending
on the status of notifications or tasks, work items are entered
in the mailbox of the responsible parties.
The follow-up process is simplified through the use of colors
to mark the processing statuses of follow-up functions and
dependent follow-up functions. In this way, you can immediately recognize those follow-up functions that have already
been processed and those that are outstanding.
You can call up the necessary processing functions directly
from a work item. If the processor responsible is unable to
complete the task within the deadline, the workflow forwards
the operation to a department responsible for urgent outstanding tasks. This is also referred to as escalation.
Complaints must be processed quickly and efficiently. With the
integrated solution database, you can quickly find solutions
when processing notifications. You call up the solution database from the action box and start a free-text search in the
database using the entered problem description. You can
therefore quickly determine whether similar problems have
occurred in the past and which tasks were used to successfully
Depending on the priority of the notification, you can define a
sequence of standard tasks using a response profile. These tasks
can then be proposed on request in the notification; they must
be completed within a specified period of time.
Flexible Work Lists
Work lists are available to you for processing quality notifications, defect items, tasks, and activities. In particular, for
notifications or tasks, you can select and process objects
• Processed last
• Are responsible for processing or which are within your
area of responsibility
• Are responsible for processing within a specific partner
ANALYSIS OF ITEMS AND DEFECTS
You can display all documents that are linked to the
notification in a list or as a graphic.
Quality notifications are designed to analyze defects. There is
one notification item (defect data record) for each defect that
has been recorded. In this record, you can describe the defect
type and location, and you can document the problem using
company-specific codes. These codes can later be evaluated.
Additional input fields are available for each notification
item, including fields for defective quantities and a field for a
quantitative defect valuation.
Using the classification system, you can classify defects, define
additional defect characteristics, specify value ranges for these
characteristics, and record characteristic values. In addition,
you can enhance defect analysis by documenting the causes of
the defects and by defining corrective tasks.
A task is a processing step that is performed during notification
processing. With a user-defined status sequence, you can track
the processing status of the task. You can define the completion deadline and the person responsible for each task.
mySAP.com manages the status of each task and only allows
you to complete a quality notification once all the tasks have
been processed. The structure of the quality notification differentiates between immediate and corrective tasks.
The purpose of an immediate task is to provide an immediate
response to the problem that produced the quality notification, and to prevent any further damage from occurring.
These types of tasks are assigned to the quality notification
header and can be implemented without specifying a defect
or defect cause. Examples of immediate tasks include the
• Blocking the warehouse stock
• Triggering an additional inspection
• Sending a confirmation letter
The purpose of a corrective task is to eliminate the defect and
its cause, and to prevent it from recurring. You assign corrective tasks to an individual notification item (defect). Examples
of corrective tasks include the following:
• Changing a work instruction
• Implementing training
• Modifying a routing
You can link tasks with automatic follow-up actions. As a
result, you can, for example, initiate inspections, block supply
relationships, or create a purchase order for a return delivery.
You can also define activities. An activity merely documents
that a specific action has been implemented.
NOTIFICATIONS ON THE INTERNET AND INTRANET
Using the Internet connection for quality notifications, you
can reduce the resources and time needed for recording a
complaint, thereby improving notification processing. The
customer records the problem on the Internet. mySAP PLM
QM then triggers internal operations using the workflow. The
customer can display the processing status of the notification
at any time on the Internet.
If notifications are created for general requests or problems
from the user's working environment, the Internet service
request is the Internet and intranet medium for finding
answers and solutions quickly. The Internet service request is
the medium through which the following are performed:
• Recording of different subjects
• Searching for solutions using the integrated solution
• Triggering of multiple internal service processes
• Forwarding of the notification to the person responsible for
processing using the business workflow
SAPphone enables you to integrate computer and telephone
services. Quality notifications support incoming and outgoing
calls as follows:
• If a customer calls to complain, the customer data is copied
directly to the customer complaint.
• If you process a quality notification, you can initiate a
telephone call to the customer, vendor, or another partner
directly from the notification.
STORAGE WITH ARCHIVELINK
When processing a notification, you can send information to
an internal or external address as a fax or by e-mail.
Using ArchiveLink, which is accessible in the quality notification, you can archive and manage printed or electronically
transmitted documents. Outgoing documents, printed or
transmitted by fax, are stored in an optical archive. Incoming
documents can be recorded with ArchiveLink and assigned to a
new or an existing quality notification. If processing is to start
immediately, a workflow can be triggered when the incoming
document is recorded. The workflow forwards the tasks to the
partner responsible for processing (work items) using the
Business Workplace function.
PERMISSION TO DEVIATE FROM SPECIFICATION
If a vendor part does not meet your specification, you
document this as a defect in a quality notification. During
notification processing, you can then use the action box to
request permission from an internal or external notification
partner to use the same vendor part in production.
Storage and Documentation
Although mySAP.com supports paper-free processing of
quality notifications, it is sometimes useful to have printed
shop papers to present the information either in the form of
a fax, or to store them in a file. mySAP PLM QM provides the
following shop papers:
• Notification overview
• Notification items
• Complaint report
• Confirmation report
• Interim notice
• Final report
• 8D report
If required, you can also create your own shop papers and
structure them with the help of the SAPscript text-processing
function. You can use the examples delivered with the
standard mySAP.com as copy models for your own design.
ASSIGNMENT OF DOCUMENTS
Using the document management system, you can assign
documents, such as CAD drawings, Word, and HTML to the
notification. These documents are then available to you
during notification processing.
• Rapid processing of unplanned events
• Active participation by employees in the continuous
improvement of processes
• Easy communication and work processing by using the
Internet and intranet – independently of the system
• Time and money savings because of the optimal control of
SUSTAINED QUALITY CONTROL – PLANNING, EVALUATION,
AND DIRECT INTERVENTION
Quality control involves strategic planning, continuous monitoring, and rapid intervention to deal with unexpected events.
SAP offers you a complete set of instruments for this purpose.
The role of quality manager in the mySAP Enterprise Portal
provides the basis for your quality control-related tasks, which
range from strategic planning to monitoring and evaluating
inspections and notifications.
iViews provide an overview of all important key figures and
evaluations in mySAP PLM QM. As a result, you can continuously evaluate your quality strategy and modify it on the
fly if a problem arises.
The easy-to-use data warehouse, which is included in
mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI), brings bits of related
information together to give you the reliable company key
figures you need.
DYNAMIC MODIFICATION OF THE INSPECTION SCOPE
Dynamic modification controls the inspection scope (based
on inspection characteristics and sample sizes) for a series of
inspection lots, to achieve a predetermined quality goal.
General technical rules, such as the sampling systems of
ISO 2859-1 and ISO 3951, follow this principle. mySAP PLM QM
contains a complete set of sampling tables for these standards.
To reach the quality goal, the mySAP.com e-business platform
determines inspection stages for the next inspection lot after
each usage decision. It uses the dynamic modification rule in
the task list to determine inspection stages and then writes
them to a quality-level data record.
mySAP PLM QM takes the quality level into account when
determining the inspection scope and defining the inspection
specifications in the inspection instruction. The inspection lots
are summarized in a quality level according to specific criteria.
For example, inspection lots in production are summarized
according to material, plant, and task list, while inspection lots
for goods receipt inspections are summarized according to
material, vendor, manufacturer, plant, and task list.
Figure 7-1 shows how master data and transaction data interact
during dynamic modification of the inspection scope. The
main features of this interaction are as follows:
• Dynamic modification rules apply uniformly for all inspection characteristics of a task list, or individually for certain inspection characteristics, or generally for the inspection
type that is active for the material.
• Tightening or reducing the inspection scope based on the
results of a previous inspection is controlled either by the
valuation of the inspection lot (dynamic modification by lot)
or by the valuations of the individual inspection characteristics (dynamic modification by characteristic).
When several lots of the same material are to be inspected
simultaneously, there are two times when the system can
dynamically modify the inspection scope. These are:
• The inspection scope is modified in advance by assuming
that all open characteristics will be accepted. If a lot is rejected unexpectedly as a result of an inspection, the inspection scope will be updated again after the usage decision has
• The inspection scope is modified after the usage decision for
the current inspection lot has been made.
ON THE RIGHT TRACK WITH STATISTICAL PROCESS
Statistical process control (SPC) allows you to monitor,
regulate, and improve the quality of processes.
Inspection lot creation
Task list selection
INSPECTION LOT PROCESSING
Quality Control Chart
The most important tool for statistical process control is
the quality control chart, a graphic tool for documenting,
analyzing, and controlling processes. You can use this chart in
an inspection during production and during the procurement
or shipping process.
• Sampling plan
SAMPLING PLANS BASED ON LOT SIZE
Fig. 7-1: Dynamic Modification of the Inspection Scope
Fig. 7-2: Illustration of an x-bar-s Control Chart
You choose one or more control variables for the relevant
characteristic, determine their values at regular intervals by
taking samples from the process, and enter them in the chart
in chronological order.
Types of Control Charts
mySAP PLM QM provides the following types of control charts:
• Mean value chart with tolerances (acceptance chart)
• Mean value chart without tolerances (Shewhart chart)
• Standard deviation chart (Shewhart chart)
• Range chart (Shewhart chart)
• Moving average chart
• Exponentially weighted moving average chart
• Individual moving range chart for sample size n=1
• Charts for qualitative characteristics (np-, p-, u- and c-chart)
For quantitative characteristics, normal distribution is used,
and for qualitative characteristics, Poisson distribution is used.
You can show the mean value and standard deviation of a
characteristic on one control chart with two tracks.
In addition to the control variable, each track also contains
control limits. If these limits are exceeded, you have the ability
to intervene in the process. For some control chart types, you
can predefine warning limits or a centerline. The limits are
determined using statistical methods from the current process
data or from the results of an initial run. You can also enter
them manually on the basis of existing data. You can use
various algorithms for the calculation.
Acceptance charts are based on your predefined tolerances.
They determine the share of scrap of the process. The limits of
these charts are extended if a long-term reduction in the
process variance is achieved.
If you are using a Shewhart chart, the limits become tighter as
a result of a long-term reduction in the process variance.
These charts only take internal process parameters into
account, not external tolerance specifications. They use a continuously recurring statistical test to check that the controlled
status of the process has not changed.
As inspection planner, you determine whether a quality
control chart is to be maintained for a given inspection
characteristic. The charts may include several inspection lots
or production orders. mySAP.com creates the quality control
charts when preparing the quality inspection and updates
them when you record results. As quality inspector, you can
display the charts when you are recording results and, if you
have the appropriate authorization, you can use them to
calculate the intervention and warning limits. If necessary, you
can exchange the algorithms.
You can evaluate inspection results using the quality control
chart. mySAP PLM QM contains a valuation rule that rejects a
sample as soon as any action limit is exceeded. When this
occurs, the workflow automatically notifies the department
(as long as the defect class has been set appropriately in the
defect code of the task-list characteristic).
You can view all of the control charts you are responsible for in
a work list. An iView shows you all charts where control limits
have been exceeded if you are working in the quality manager
Western Electric Rules
Apart from showing where control limits were exceeded,
control charts can indicate that a process may be running
out of control on the basis of unusual patterns (for example,
runs or trends). The criteria you use to detect such patterns
are referred to as Western Electric Rules. In the work list for
control charts, you can check the stability of processes
according to the following criteria:
• 1 point outside of control limits
• 2 of 3 consecutive points outside 2/3 of the control limits
• 4 of 5 consecutive points outside 1/3 of the control limits
• 8 consecutive points above or below the center line (run)
• 15 consecutive points within 1/3 of the control limits
• 6 consecutive points in ascending or descending order
On the selection screen, you can decide whether:
• The check according to Western Electric Rules should be
carried out immediately. In this case, all control charts that
correspond to the selection criteria are checked.
• You want to view a list of control charts, from which you
can then choose individual control charts to be checked
Violations of the Western Electric Rules are displayed in a list
along with the chart number, track, and sample number. From
this list, you can branch to the inspection results to display
detailed information on the individual inspections and to view
the control chart.
In the mean-value chart, you can display the process capability
indices cp and cpk in a second window.
If the inspection results are already divided into classes,
mySAP.com uses these classes to display the histogram.
Otherwise, it divides the existing values into appropriate
classes. You can increase or decrease the number of classes
using the zoom function.
Fig. 7-3: Process Capability Index cpk
You can use a histogram evaluation to display the frequency
distribution of measured values in a bar chart. This allows you
to recognize typical and extreme values of a sample, as well as
to judge the location, dispersion, and form of the distribution.
You can blend the histogram out and replace it with a normal
distribution if required.
The histogram contains the following data:
• All valid results for the sample
• Upper and lower specification limits
• Target value
• Distribution function and statistical values
Fig. 7-4: Depiction of a Histogram
Quality scores for inspection lots are a proven tool for quality
control. mySAP PLM QM provides you with several ways of
determining the quality score. It uses information from the
• Usage decision
• Estimated fraction of nonconforming units in the lot
• Estimated fraction of nonconforming units for characteristics
– Maximum share of defects
– Weighted average share of defects
• Quality score of the characteristic defect classes
– Minimum (worst) quality score
– Weighted average quality score
• QM system audit – Either the average quality score of all
When procuring materials, you can use the vendor evaluation
function to select a suitable vendor. This function provides you
(as the purchaser) with a summarized score that has been
calculated for the vendor according to main and subcriteria.
system audits executed during a specified time period or the
quality score of the most recent system audit.
You define the criteria and their relative weighting according
to your company requirements.
EVALUATIONS: KEEPING YOU UP-TO-DATE
A1 Price level
A2 Price behavior
A1 GR inspection
The following evaluation tools are available in Quality
• Results history of mean and single values with integrated
analysis of trends
• mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) with integrated
• QM Information System (QMIS)
• Report lists programmed using ABAP
– Predefined SAP Reports
– Logical databases as the basis for customer-specific reports
Fig. 7-5: Vendor Evaluation
The subcriteria for the main criterion quality come from the
• Goods receipt inspection – The average of the quality scores
of all goods receipt lots from the vendor for a specific time
• Complaints – The number of accepted complaints in
relation to the turnover
These tools complement each other. Report lists primarily
evaluate operative data. mySAP BI and QMIS, however, analyze
summarized data that can be stored for a long period of time.
With the help of the results history, you can analyze single
values that were recorded for a characteristic in the results
recording function and when you made the usage decision.
You define the period of time to be analyzed. You can prepare
the data in list form and graphically represent the progression
of values over a period of time using a run chart. With the help
of a trend analysis, you can represent the predicted course of
the values. Exporting the data, for example, to a Microsoft
EXCEL file provides additional options for processing the information.
Inspection lots can be transferred to mySAP BI once the usage
decision has been made. You can obtain information on the
frequency of individual usage decisions, the number of inspected and skipped lots, the actual inspected quantity, the
fraction of nonconforming units, or the quality score in
graphic or tabular form. For example, you can compress the
information and sort it according to vendor or
Fig. 7-6: Evaluations and Representations Using the Results History
mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) with the
Business Information Warehouse
mySAP BI offers modern data warehousing, which fits effortlessly into the IT landscape of mySAP.com and other software
systems. It contains pre-configured business content for you
in your role of quality manager or quality planner. Business
content includes data extraction, metadata and information
models, and ready-made templates for tables and graphs in
Microsoft EXCEL or HTML.
Quality notifications reflect unplanned events that
occur during the quality process. For every notification, a selection of attributes and key figures is
transferred to mySAP BI. In this way, you receive summarized
or detailed information regarding the notification process, with
an emphasis on reference objects such as customer, vendor,
material, or assembly. On the organizational side, the emphasis
is placed on purchasing and sales divisions, material groups, or
the country of origin of your customers.
Among the key figures, you can obtain the number of notifications, cumulative or average processing time, defective and
returned quantities, and proportion of notifications completed
on time. In addition, you can obtain information on new,
outstanding, and successfully completed tasks.
DEFECTS, DEFECT LOCATION, CAUSE, ACTIVITIES, TASKS
The specifications and results of your quality inspections can
be evaluated down to the sample level of an individual characteristic. The spectrum of key figures ranges from the number
of inspected or rejected samples to indicators for process capability, such as cp and cpk. You can interactively analyze quality,
using criteria such as material, vendor, or work center.
In mySAP PLM QM, you document defects in the inspection
lot or as notification items. mySAP BI shows you which defect
types occurred, where they occurred, and what caused them.
Activities and tasks associated with the notification are also
extracted. The same reference objects as in quality notifications
are available to you in the form of navigational attributes. All
coding is also available. For example, you can determine which
defects occur regularly in a specific location.
Many key figures used by the quality manager are based on
information obtained from external systems. Examples of this
information include the vendor evaluation in purchasing,
returned quantities in stock management, scrap and rework
quantities in production, or returns in sales. This information
is integrated in the business content and can be linked with key
figures from mySAP PLM QM, thereby providing you with a
complete picture of the quality in your company.
Quality Management Information System (QMIS)
Inspection results and quality notifications are summarized on
the basis of time, plant, or work center and updated in the
Quality Management Information System (QMIS). You can
decide whether you want the update to be performed on the
basis of material, material and vendor, or material and
Since the QM Information System is part of the Logistics
Information System, you can combine evaluations with information from other areas of logistics, such as production or
purchasing. Output data is displayed in list form or as a graphic
and can be sent as an e-mail. Other features are ABC or portfolio analyses. Using the standard query tools, you can freely
define your own evaluations and reports.
The QM Information System (QMIS) contains a selection of
standard evaluations for your materials, vendors, and
customers including key figures such as process capability
indices, defects frequencies, or skip quotas. You can tailor both
the presentation and content of the QMIS to suit your needs.
You can configure your own reports on the basis of standard
information structures or self-defined structures. You can also
link your key figures to company key figures using formulas.
Even if you have no programming experience, you can quickly
and easily create reports using flexible analysis.
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
The Early Warning System helps you identify problems at an
early stage by warning you if an exception situation occurs.
You can define the exception situations. If an exception situation arises, the system will immediately inform you through email or workflow. An exception situation can, for example,
occur if the quality score of a vendor falls below 90 points.
You define exception analyses using standard information
structures, or using your self-defined structures. You can also
use mathematical algorithms or set the system to recognize
threshold values or upcoming trends.
Report Lists Using ABAP Query
You can create evaluations that are not available as standard
with a simple mouse click using the ABAP Query tool or predefined logical databases. The link to printing and presentation
functions automatically occurs.
QM-STI Interface for External Evaluations
QM-STI (Statistical Data Interface) is an open interface used
for evaluating inspection results in external systems. You
configure it in Customizing and trigger the external application by simply pushing a button in one of the following
mySAP PLM QM functions:
• Results recording
• Usage decision
• Control chart
• Results history
Within mySAP.com, the Controlling component plans,
collects, and evaluates all costs incurred by a company.
These costs include quality-related costs (quality costs). In
mySAP PLM QM, you record appraisal costs originating from
quality inspections or nonconformity costs originating from
quality notifications. Quality costs from other applications
(for example, human resource management) can also be
included in the cost calculation.
The controlling component uses QM orders to manage quality
costs. The following types of QM orders are provided in
• Appraisal costs order
– For individual settlement
– For collective settlement
• Nonconformity costs order
You can also define your own specific order types. When
creating an inspection lot or a quality notification, you can
create or assign a corresponding QM order.
Appraisal cost orders are stored in the material master and
assigned by mySAP.com as cost collectors to individual inspection lots. If, however, a special settlement is required for
an inspection, that settlement takes precedence. This is the
case, for example, when the lot belongs to a production order
or when it comes from a goods receipt for a purchase order
that is assigned to a cost center account.
mySAP.com calculates appraisal costs using the activities that
you, as the inspector, confirm. You can confirm activities, for
example, on the basis of the hours worked. Accounting fixes
the types of activities, such as setup or inspection time, and the
valid charges for the cost center that performs the activity. The
activities performed for inspection lots are logged during
results recording or when the usage decision is made. Activities
performed for inspections during production are confirmed
when confirmations for production orders are made.
Other inspection costs, such as material usage, are settled to
the order in which you confirm the inspection activity.
To settle nonconformity costs for a quality notification, you
create a QM order when processing a notification. You assign
the order to the notification header and use it as a cost collector for costs such as those relating to a warranty, to scrapping,
or to the settlement of activities performed. You can also
assign rework orders to this cost collector account. This
allows you to debit all costs for a quality notification to the
appropriate personnel and analyze the costs.
• Use dynamic modification to reduce your appraisal costs
• Monitor processes continously using quality control charts
• Access important company key figures and evaluations
TEST EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT: CALIBRATION INSPECTIONS
As test equipment manager, you are responsible for managing,
monitoring, calibrating, and maintaining test equipment. Test
equipment management involves the following activities:
• Planning and performing calibration inspections
• Releasing or blocking test equipment
• Documenting the calibration history
• Creating trend analyses
• Determining calibration costs
• Tracking test equipment with usage lists
Monitoring Technical Installations
In addition to calibration inspections, you can use inspection
lots created for maintenance orders for the extended recording
of measured values in plant maintenance (for example, to
monitor technical installations, where critical values have to
be recorded on a regular basis). Consequently, you can record
inspection results for functional locations as well as for test
CALIBRATION INSPECTIONS AND mySAP.com
Test equipment management in mySAP.com combines important planning and processing functions from mySAP™ PLM
Asset Life-Cycle Management (mySAP™ PLM ALM) and
mySAP PLM Quality Management (SAP PLM QM) that are
needed for master-data management and for planning and
performing calibration inspections.
Releasing Test Equipment
You can use the inspection results to decide whether a piece of
test equipment can be released for further use. Using the
results history, you can verify the suitability of each piece of
equipment and the accuracy of the inspections performed
using this equipment.
Fig. 8-1: Functions of Test Equipment Management
Test Equipment Tracking
The mySAP.com e-business platform provides you with test
equipment tracking functions. During a calibration inspection,
you might notice that a piece of test equipment is no longer fit
for use. In this case, you can check to see which inspection lots
and characteristics were inspected using this piece of equipment in the test equipment history. You are then able to initiate the appropriate actions.
MASTER DATA IN A CALIBRATION INSPECTION
PLANNING A CALIBRATION INSPECTION
In mySAP.com, your company’s test equipment data is stored
in an equipment master record. This master record contains
all of the data relevant to test equipment (such as acquisition
value and date, manufacturer, work center, cost center, and
The automatic or manual scheduling of a maintenance plan
triggers calibration inspections that are to be performed at
regular intervals. When a maintenance plan is scheduled,
mySAP.com creates a maintenance order and when this
maintenance order is released, an inspection lot is created.
The inspection lot contains all data required for the calibration
inspection, such as a list of equipment to be inspected and the
To organize your test equipment and make it easier to locate,
• Combine similar test equipment into groups
• Use the classification system to categorize test equipment
according to technical features
• Assign the test equipment to a construction type (material)
The maintenance plan is the central planning object in
which you assign the list of equipment to be inspected, the
maintenance task list, and the calibration schedule.
The maintenance plan specifies which types of activities must
be performed periodically and how often they are to be performed. In the maintenance plan, you can enter time-based or
performance-based intervals for performing these activities.
When maintenance deadlines are automatically called,
mySAP.com creates maintenance orders.
Maintenance Task List
In the task list, you plan the recurring work processes in a
standardized form. To perform a calibration inspection, you
can include inspection characteristics in the maintenance
In turn, you can include a maintenance task list in a maintenance plan. The task list specifies the activities to be performed
for individual maintenance deadlines.
MAINTENANCE TASK LIST
Fig. 8-2: Objects in a Calibration Inspection
To plan a calibration inspection, you must:
• Create master data
For example, equipment master records, maintenance plan,
master inspection characteristics, and the maintenance task
list. You define operations and the characteristics associated
with these operations in the maintenance task list.
• Define inspection specifications
Quantitative and qualitative inspection characteristics contain the inspection specifications (such as target values, tolerances, and codes for attributive valuations), and they determine how results are to be recorded.
• Define inspection intervals
You can define inspection intervals using a central maintenance strategy that can apply to several maintenance plans.
You can use maintenance strategies, for example, to define
different intervals for each operation within a maintenance
task list. You also have the option of defining a maintenance
cycle (single-cycle plan) at the maintenance plan level,
which is valid for all operations of the maintenance task list.
You define inspection intervals either based on time or performance. A time-based inspection interval might, for example, consist of an annual calibration on a key date. A performance-based inspection interval may involve a calibration
after 1000 uses of a piece of equipment. You can also combine
time- and performance-based calibrations in a multiple
counter plan (for example, inspect after 6 months, or, at the
latest, after 1000 uses of the equipment).
The calibration inspection covers the following activities:
• Scheduling the maintenance plan and creating the maintenance order and inspection lot
The maintenance plan is usually scheduled automatically
using a periodically run program. When this program is run,
mySAP.com creates calls and converts these calls into orders
when they become due. You can make a setting that releases
the orders directly, causing the inspection lots to be created.
• Inspecting and calibrating test equipment
You can create a work list of the calibration inspections that
are planned for a specific period, according to various
criteria. Such criteria might include, for example, all test
equipment to be calibrated in the next week or test equip-
ment sorted by cost center or work center. You can use this
information to identify and prepare the test equipment for
inspection. When a maintenance order is released,
mySAP.com automatically creates an inspection lot. All
orders that have been released and all inspection lots that
are to be processed appear in a work list for results recording
and can be processed in any sequence. If test equipment
unexpectedly fails during use, you can create a maintenance
notification (malfunction report). Within this maintenance
notification, you can manually create a maintenance order
to schedule a calibration inspection.
• Recording results
You can record results in the work list for the equipment
and use the characteristic types and recording functions of
mySAP PLM QM.
During a calibration inspection, you are able to make confirmations for the maintenance order (for example, to record
costs for activities performed or for materials that were
required for the calibration inspection). In addition, there are
other order processing functions available, such as capacity
planning or external assignment. If characteristics are rejected, you can create maintenance notifications, start corrective
tasks, and document the success of these corrective tasks.
EQUIPMENT NO. 12345
RELEASE OR BLOCK
Fig. 8-3: Follow-Up Actions When Making the Usage Decision
• Equipment valuation and follow-up actions
Once you have recorded all the results for the equipment in
each operation, you make an equipment valuation for the
test equipment (accept or reject). When all the test equipment for an inspection lot has been valuated, you make the
usage decision for the inspection lot. As a result of the usage
decision, mySAP.com can perform certain follow-up actions:
– Update equipment status
mySAP.com manages a status for each item of test equipment in the equipment master record. This status determines whether a piece of test equipment is released for use
or blocked. On the basis of the equipment valuation,
mySAP.com proposes the future status. This status can be
updated in the equipment master record. If a piece of test
equipment is blocked, the system will alert you to this fact
when the next order is released.
– Change inspection interval
If an inspection shows that a test equipment item is still fit
for use, but maintenance will be due before the next
inspection date, you can change the cycle modification
factor when you make the usage decision. You can thereby
reduce the length of the next inspection interval.
– Create measurement documents
If you have defined measuring points for your test
equipment, mySAP.com can create measurement documents automatically for each measuring point. When this
follow-up action is executed, the results of the calibration
inspection are automatically entered in new measurement
documents. You can call up these documents in the
– Complete maintenance order
You can set the system to automatically complete the
calibration order when the calibration inspection has been
In addition to the follow-up actions described above, you can
also define your own follow-up actions, such as printing selfadhesive calibration labels specifying the date of the next calibration inspection.
EVALUATIONS FOR TEST EQUIPMENT
You use the results history to display the results of previous
inspections for specific characteristics of a piece of test equipment.
Fig. 8-4: Results History with Trend Line
Trend Analysis Using Run Chart
If you display inspection results for an inspection
characteristic as a run chart using the time axis in the
results history, mySAP.com can indicate a trend (regression line) for the run of values. This provides you with an
indication of when a tolerance limit will be exceeded.
The usage list for test equipment allows you to determine
the cost center of the test equipment, its current or
previous location, or the work center in which it was
Test Equipment History
Using the test equipment history, you can determine which
inspection lots and characteristics were inspected with a
specific piece of test equipment. This is important when, for
example, during a calibration inspection, you determine
that a piece of test equipment should no longer be in use
(test equipment tracking).
• Guaranteed quality and reliability of your test equipment
• Safe production process because of early forecasting of
possible weak points in technical installations
• Ability to track to track your test equipment
T +49/18 05/34 34 24*
F +49/18 05/34 34 20*
*Subject to charge
50 058 498 (02/08/01) Printed on environmentally friendly paper.