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  • 1. SAP Functions in Detail mySAP Product Lifecylce Management QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • 2. © Copyright 2002 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Microsoft®, WINDOWS®, NT®, EXCEL®, Word®, PowerPoint® and SQL Server® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM®, DB2®, DB2 Universal Database, OS/2®, Parallel Sysplex®, MVS/ESA, AIX®, S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, OS/400®, iSeries, pSeries, xSeries, zSeries, z/OS, AFP, Intelligent Miner, WebSphere®, Netfinity®, Tivoli®, Informix and Informix® Dynamic ServerTM are trademarks of IBM Corporation in USA and/or other countries. ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation. UNIX®, X/Open®, OSF/1®, and Motif® are registered trademarks of the Open Group. 2 Citrix®, the Citrix logo, ICA®, Program Neighborhood®, MetaFrame®, WinFrame®, VideoFrame®, MultiWin® and other Citrix product names referenced herein are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. HTML, DHTML, XML, XHTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. JAVA® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. JAVASCRIPT® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. MarketSet and Enterprise Buyer are jointly owned trademarks of SAP AG and Commerce One. SAP, SAP Logo, R/2, R/3, mySAP.com, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies.
  • 3. CONTENTS Dear Reader, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-1 Key Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-2 Modern Quality Management: Internal and External Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Quality Management – A Global Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Internal Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 External Integration: Quality Management and mySAP.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Quality Management with mySAP™ Product Lifecycle Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 The Planning Phase of the Product Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 – Life-Cycle Data Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 – Program and Project Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 – Life-Cycle Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 The Implementation Phase of the Product Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 – Procurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 – Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 – Sales and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 The Usage Phase of the Product Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 – Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 – Inventory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Inspection Planning: Putting Quality Strategies into Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Integrated Inspection Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 – Task List Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Basic Data for Inspection Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 – Inspection Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 – Inspection Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 – Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 – Sampling Procedure and Sampling Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 – Dynamic Modification Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 – Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 – Work Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 – Reference Operation Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Planning Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 – Engineering Workbench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 – Product Structure Browser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 – Where-Used Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 – Mass Data Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 – Engineering Change Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 – Cross-System Transfer of Master Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3
  • 4. Quality Inspections: Achieving Reliable Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Inspection Lot Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 – Inspection Lot Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 – Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 – Inspection Lot Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Inspection Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 – Characteristic Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 – Process-Optimized Results Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 – Results Recording on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 – Mobile Results Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 – mySAP PLM QM Link for External Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 – Defect Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Sample Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 – Processing Physical Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 – Unplanned Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 Quality Certificates: Guaranteed Reliability – Printed or on the Internet . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Certificate Processing in Sales and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 – Flexible Certificate Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 – Certificate Creation – Meeting Your Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Certificate Processing at Goods Receipt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Collaborative Business: Certificate Data for the Whole Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 – Certificate Access on theInternet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 – Quality Data Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Efficient Problem Management with Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Improved Quality Through Targeted Problem Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 – Notifications in the SAP Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 – Optimized Processing Using Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Using Quality Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 – Notification Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Notification Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Quality Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Elements of the Quality Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 – Notification Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 – Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 – Notification Item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 – Tasks and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 4
  • 5. Optimized Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 – Action Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 – Solution Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 – Flexible Work Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 – Workflow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 – System Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 – Document Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Analysis of Items and Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Immediate Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Corrective Task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Follow-Up Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 Support Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 – Storage and Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Sustained Quality Control – Planning, Evaluation, and Direct Intervention . . . . . . . 7-1 Dynamic Modification of the Inspection Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 On the Right Track with Statistical Process Control (SPC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 – Quality Control Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 – Western Electric Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 – Quality Scores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Vendor Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 Evaluations: Keeping you Up-to-Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 – Results History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 – mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) with the SAP ® Business Information Warehouse 7-6 – Quality Management Information System (QMIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 – Report Lists Using ABAP Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 – QM-STI Interface for External Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 Quality Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 – Controlling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 – QM Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 – Appraisal Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 Test Equipment Management: Calibration Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Calibration Inspections and mySAP.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 – Releasing Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 5
  • 6. – Test Equipment Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 – Monitoring Technical Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Master Data in a Calibration Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 – Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 – Maintenance Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 – Maintenance Task List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Planning a Calibration Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Calibration Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 Evaluations for Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 – Results History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 – Trend Analysis Using Run Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 – Usage Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 – Test Equipment History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 6
  • 7. DEAR READER, In today’s economy, an investment in business software is an investment in the future of your company. To succeed, you must ensure that all internal and external business processes are well managed. At SAP, we focus on the active participation of employees, and we recognize that employees are the focal point of your business processes. By providing the mySAP™ Product Lifecycle Management (mySAP™ PLM) solution and the integrated mySAP™ PLM Quality Management (mySAP™ PLM QM), SAP AG has turned this vision into a reality. mySAP PLM QM allows you to control and maintain the quality of your products and assets throughout the entire life cycle. It also helps you to react to unexpected events quickly and effectively. If you are considering implementing or have already implemented mySAP PLM QM in your company, and you want information on current themes and new developments, then this brochure contains all the information you need. • Further chapters describe how standard quality management tasks are supported by mySAP PLM QM: – Chapter 3 describes inspection planning. – Chapter 4 describes quality inspections. – Chapter 5 describes quality certificates. – Chapter 6 describes the processing of unplanned events using notifications. – Chapter 7 describes quality control and different evaluation methods. – Chapter 8 describes test equipment management. For detailed information about mySAP Product Lifecycle Management (mySAP PLM), visit our homepage: http://www.sap.com/plm. We hope this brochure fulfills your requirements. This brochure targets project planners, decision makers, and people interested in implementing mySAP PLM QM. It explains how mySAP PLM QM is integrated in the mySAP.com® e-business platform, an Internet-based business platform. This brochure provides you with insight into the current functional scope of mySAP PLM QM. It also shows how mySAP PLM QM is integrated in mySAP PLM and the business processes of the supply chain. This brochure is organized as follows: • Chapter 1 explains the inclusion of mySAP PLM QM in mySAP PLM. • Chapter 2 describes the influence of mySAP PLM QM throughout the product life cycle and across the supply chain. 0-1
  • 8. KEY EXPRESSIONS mySAP.com® An Internet-based platform that can include all SAP products and those of other manufacturers. mySAP™ ENTERPRISE PORTAL A combination of functions tailored to the specific requirements of the individual user and displayed in a browser. iVIEW An information or service that can be displayed in a Web browser. iViews provide employees with basic information and direct access to their most frequently used functions. COLLABORATIVE BUSINESS Collaboration between companies using a regulated exchange of information and data on the Internet. MOBILE BUSINESS Business processes that involve an exchange of data between mySAP.com and mobile devices. 0-2
  • 9. MODERN QUALITY MANAGEMENT: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL INTEGRATION QUALITY MANAGEMENT – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE INTERNAL INTEGRATION mySAP™ PLM Quality Management (mySAP™ PLM QM) recognizes the importance of e-Business and global communication. Quality management is no longer simply about integrating internal business processes. The focus has shifted to the employees and their dedication and skills, while efficient business relationships remain critical factors for success. The fast, direct exchange of internal process information and a worldwide information flow are key to staying ahead of the competition. In the integrated mySAP.com platform, mySAP PLM functions are incorporated into other solutions, such as mySAP™ Supply Chain Management (mySAP™ SCM) or mySAP™ Customer Relationship Management (mySAP™ CRM). You can therefore access all important processes. mySAP PLM QM provides the following advantages: • One quality management system covers all your company processes. • Employees play a central role. They can access important information and thereby perform a wide variety of tasks quickly and efficiently. • Direct communication and controlled data exchange with employees and business partners is always possible. mySAP PLM QM not only offers all the advantages of integrated software as part of mySAP.com, but it also provides you with access to a global business environment. Your company can use mySAP PLM QM in the mySAP™ Enterprise Portal with intelligent solutions for collaborative business and mobile business allowing you to exchange information with external sources. The exchange of data with other areas prevents information from being duplicated. For example, when a goods receipt is posted, mySAP.com automatically starts a quality inspection and transfers any available information relating to material, vendor, and lot size to the inspection lot data record. mySAP PLM Quality Management is directly linked to various functions, which help you efficiently manage your business processes. Examples of such functions include: • Business Workflow A tool for targeted process control. Using the Business Workflow, you can establish a clearly defined information and processing network to quickly and efficiently process inspection lots and quality notifications. • ArchiveLink A tool for storing documents. ArchiveLink stores documents that are linked to application functions in an optical archive. (Such documents include quality records, certificates, customer complaints, and other original internal or external documents). The openness of mySAP.com and the seamless integration of mySAP PLM QM into a complete business system support you in total quality management and satisfy the criteria for ISO 9000 or the good manufacturing practice (GMP). 1-1
  • 10. ... mySAP ENTERPRISE PORTAL ... ... ... KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Sales & Distribution mySAP SCM Customer Service ... Plant Maintenance ... Production Planning QUALITY PLANNING QUALITY INSPECTIONS mySAP BI DATA WAREHOUSING QUALITY CONTROL Controlling mySAP PLM QM QUALITY CERTIFICATES ... Production Planning/ Process Industries ... Materials Management EXTERNAL URL QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM QUALITY MANAGER BUSINESS WORKFLOW TEST EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT OFFICE ENGINEERING CHANGE MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TEST EQUIPMENT MANAGER ARCHIVE LINK NOTIFICATION PROCESSOR QUALITY PLANNER INSPECTION PLANNER QUALITY INSPECTOR MOBILE COMPUTING: RESULTS RECORDING Fig. 1-1: Internal and External Integration of mySAP PLM QM EXTERNAL INTEGRATION: QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND mySAP.com With mySAP PLM QM, you have a global quality management system that covers all aspects of your company. You can use the mySAP Enterprise Portal as a cockpit for all your business processes in mySAP PLM QM. It is a portal that allows all employees to access business processes on the Internet or intranet at any time and from any location. In addition to mySAP PLM, you can integrate other independent SAP solutions in the mySAP Enterprise Portal, such as mySAP™ Business Intelligence (mySAP™ BI) with the Business Information Warehouse or Knowledge Warehouse. You can also integrate non-SAP products. As a result, you can adapt and enhance your working environment to suit your own requirements. 1-2 Using clearly defined roles, users of the mySAP Enterprise Portal can access their own work areas. A role describes a specific activity profile and groups together the corresponding functions of that profile. Users can then target their involvement in business processes. The flexible mySAP Enterprise Portal allows you to adapt the roles to suit your individual needs. mySAP PLM QM supplies the following roles for the various tasks in quality management: • Quality manager • Notification processor • Quality inspector • Inspection planner Quality planner • • Test equipment manager
  • 11. With the mySAP Enterprise Portal, role users always have immediate access to current information. iViews supply you with the key figures and work lists relevant to your role. If you decide to use the SAP® Knowledge Warehouse as a solution for your company-specific quality manual, the role user can access the most up-to-date version of the manual using the mySAP Enterprise Portal. This means that you can immediately access the procedures and work instructions that are relevant to your business processes. You can use mySAP PLM QM to control which inspections should be performed on a mobile basis. The inspector records the results on location using a mobile recording device. Using the docking station, the inspector starts a synchronization run to transfer the inspection results to mySAP.com or load the work list for additional inspections to the mobile recording device. Mobile results recording is both simple and reliable. The mySAP PLM QM Internet scenarios have opened up a new range of possibilities. You can record results on the Internet during a source inspection at the vendor site, and vendors can supply a quality certificate on the Internet for supplied goods or electronically transfer certificate data to a specified destination. With mySAP.com, you can establish lasting partnerships. Often, inspection results are not directly recorded at the work center. This is the case, for example, for inspections of machines that are not in the vicinity of your work center. In such situations, you can use mobile results recording. Fig. 1-2: Mobile Results Recording with mySAP PLM QM Employees can enter internal requests or problems on the intranet and then forward them for further processing quickly and efficiently. This involves all employees in the continuous improvement of business processes in your company. 1-3
  • 12. 1-4
  • 13. QUALITY MANAGEMENT WITH mySAP™ PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT mySAP PLM Quality Management (mySAP PLM QM) supports you, both internally and externally, throughout the entire life cycle of a product. It provides complete support, from product and process planning in research and development (the planning phase), through procurement, production, and sales and distribution (the implementation phase), to service and usage (the usage phase). DISPOSAL THE PLANNING PHASE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE USAGE PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION MAINTENANCE CONCEPT USAGE SHIPPING STORAGE DESIGN PLANNING TESTING IMPLEMENTATION FINAL INSPECTION PRODUCTION PLANNING PRODUCTION Fig. 2-1: Quality Loop According to ISO 9004 PROCUREMENT mySAP PLM QM supports the process of quality management in the planning phase of the product life cycle. This phase consists of the following: • Life-Cycle Data Management provides an environment where you can manage specifications, bills of material, routing and resource data, project structures, installation structures, and master recipes, along with the corresponding technical documentation during the entire product and installation life cycle. The functions of Life-Cycle Data Management include: – Document management – Product structure management to support product and process development – Links to different computer aided design (CAD), supervisory control and data aquisition (SCADA), and geographical information systems – Engineering change management and configuration management, including the release of technical changes for production purposes 2-1
  • 14. • Program and Project Management supports the planning, MASTER DATA MANAGEMENT administration, and controlling of the entire product development process. It allows project managers to control project structures, schedules, costs, and resources. The functions of Program and Project Management include: – Portfolio management and strategic program management – Product profitability analysis – Investment projects, development projects, customer projects, maintenance projects, and service projects • Life-Cycle Collaboration allows collaboration between business partners, customers, vendors, and virtual development teams by facilitating the transfer of data (project plans, documents, service sheets, information, and product structures) between them. The functions of Life-Cycle Collaboration include: – Collaborative engineering – Cross-company project management – Engineering marketplaces and enterprise portals You make the product-related settings that must be made in mySAP PLM QM during the implementation phase in the material master record in the Quality Management view. Life-Cycle Data Management Life-Cycle Data Management helps you plan product-related master data (such as products, plans, specifications, bills of material, and documents). DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT An important tool in mySAP.com is the document management system. You can use this central document management system to create links between inspection outlines, design drawings, technical delivery terms, specifications, product specifications, inspection methods, and other quality-relevant documentation and the corresponding master data in mySAP PLM QM. You can manage data within this system according to validity, version, and status. 2-2 For the management of quality information related to materials, vendors, and customers, and for the control of vendor and customer-related processes, you can maintain appropriate quality information records (you can, for example, assign quality assurance agreements and perform model processing). In material-related inspection plans, you can define either customer- or vendor-specific inspection specifications. When you are performing an inspection during production, these elements are integrated into the routing or recipes. You can make changes to the master data centrally, and you can transfer the data from one source system to one or more target systems. In addition, there are tools available for research and analysis of master data linked in a hierarchy, such as where-used lists and the product structure browser. ENGINEERING CHANGE MANAGEMENT Central engineering change management coordinates the changes you make to master data. You can run such changes through an approval procedure (for example, according to GMP requirements). You can create different versions and then distribute them using the workflow. It is also possible for you to allocate a revision level with regard to a specific valid-from date when a change is made. CLASSIFICATION Using the integrated classification system, you can specify and assign data that is available in mySAP.com (such as materials, documents, and inspection plans), in order to be able to locate this data later according to specific search criteria (such as batch characteristics).
  • 15. Program and Project Management Several program and project management tools are available to help you strategically plan and control the product-development process. QM MANUAL The QM manual contains the basic quality policy of a company, and a description of the organizational and process structures within this company. The QM manual also lists responsibilities within the company. AUTHORIZATION MANAGEMENT A central system administration is responsible for data security and protection. You can assign individual system authorizations for the processing of master data and movement data. This enables you, for example, to set up users so that they have to provide a digital signature when performing certain operations. Life-Cycle Collaboration Life-Cycle Collaboration makes it possible for you to transfer product information across the entire supply chain. Partners, manufacturers, vendors, and customers can communicate directly with one another. They can, for example, exchange CAD files, specifications, and inspection results. INTERNET SCENARIO: QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS In the product development stage, if you are cooperating with customers or partners, mySAP PLM QM offers you the opportunity to initiate product ideas or changes to products using quality notifications. Customer complaints that can be entered on the Internet can thereby be used to determine the product quality. Vendors can ask for permission to deviate from specifications if they cannot strictly adhere to customer specifications. INTERNET SCENARIO: CERTIFICATES You can use the business workflow to control certain complex processes and the output associated with these processes. For example, corrective tasks within a problem notification can automatically be transferred to the organizational unit responsible. Working with your customers or vendors, you use certificate profiles to plan exactly which characteristics are to appear on the certificate. This certificate data can be exchanged electronically using Quality Data Interchange (QDI), or it can be stored on the Internet. For example, you can store it as a PDF document. QUALITY COSTS INTERNET SCENARIO: RESULTS RECORDING You can enter, collect, and bill costs related to prevention of defects, inspections, and nonconformity to different account assignment objects using orders in Controlling. You can record inspection results using the Internet or intranet. Results can be recorded by external service providers (for example, commercial analysts) and internal inspectors (for example, in a source inspection) at their respective work centers. BUSINESS WORKFLOW KEY FIGURE ANALYSIS With its quality key figures, mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) offers a wide range of possibilities for monitoring and controlling your quality processes. QUALITY AUDIT Defect catalogs provide you with a basis for failure mode and effect analysis (FEMA) evaluations and quality audits. The analysis of defects helps bring problems within a company to light and improves relationships with vendors. INTERNET SCENARIO: SERVICE REQUESTS Internet service requests are used to enter and process queries and problems. This tool is particularly useful when combined with the solution database and used as an intranet solution. You can use it, for example, to report a printer problem or send improvements to the internal recommendations department. 2-3
  • 16. THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE agent with information about the quality management system used by the vendor and the quality of previously delivered goods. In order to do this, mySAP.com summarizes quality scores from vendor audits, goods receipt inspections, and complaints against the vendor. VENDOR RELEASE USAGE PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION mySAP PLM QM ensures quality across the entire supply chain and beyond company boundaries. It supports your quality management department in the following: • Procurement. mySAP PLM QM manages vendor-related master data, controls the purchasing process according to certain quality criteria, and handles inspection certificates and goods receipt inspections. • Production. mySAP PLM QM integrates inspection specifications in routings and recipes, allows inspections during production and goods receipt inspections for the manufacturing order to take place, monitors the production process using control charts, and confirms quality, quantity, and costs. • Sales and distribution. mySAP PLM QM manages customer-related master data, controls the sales and distribution process according to quality criteria, and handles inspection certificates and inspections at goods issue. In some industry sectors, vendors must have a quality management system in their company. Such a system might, for example, be required to be compliant with the ISO 9000 series of standards. Such vendors must have this system certified by an accredited organization. Your mySAP PLM QM system checks if the quality management system used by the vendor is adequate for certain materials and then either releases or blocks the supply relationship accordingly. You can limit the release of this supply relationship to a specific time frame and a maximum delivery quantity. If the vendor has serious quality problems, you can block requests for quotations, purchase orders, or goods receipts for specific materials supplied by this vendor. mySAP PLM QM also monitors the step-by-step release of a material. Vendor deliveries must sequentially pass through a series of user-defined statuses, such as model, preliminary series, and production series, using appropriately assigned inspection plans. In many industry sectors, suppliers are middlemen (distributors). Therefore, the quality of produced goods is dictated primarily by the manufacturer rather than the vendor. Consequently, you can also apply the following functions to a manufacturer: vendor release, inspection planning, dynamic modification of the inspection scope, and complaints against the vendor. Procurement QUALITY ASSURANCE AGREEMENT, TECHNICAL DELIVERY VENDOR EVALUATION TERMS, CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENT Materials Management provides information for the purchasing agent about vendor delivery reliability, price record, and service record. mySAP PLM QM provides the purchasing When the purchasing agent requests a quotation and issues a purchase order, the vendors that are released automatically receive information about the technical delivery terms and the 2-4
  • 17. current quality assurance agreement. The vendors may also be required to include a quality certificate with the delivery. SOURCE INSPECTION Occasionally, inspections can be performed at the vendor’s premises to replace a goods receipt inspection. If this occurs, the system takes the target delivery deadline into account and creates an inspection lot in time for the source inspection. You can now perform a source inspection at the vendor’s site, because it is possible for you to access mySAP.com using the mySAP Enterprise Portal in an Internet browser. This is possible even if the vendor does not use mySAP.com. DYNAMIC MODIFICATION If the quality of a supply relationship is consistently high, you may want to waive the goods receipt inspection, particularly if the vendor has a certified QM system. For partial lots, you can set the system to inspect a goods receipt only once for each purchase order, goods receipt, or batch. If you do not want to waive the goods receipt inspection completely, you can reduce the scope of the inspection as far as the quality level allows. The reduction of the inspection scope may lead to a skip lot. If you allow a skip lot and an automatic usage decision for a material, the system processes the skipped lots without intervention. It then immediately posts the inspection lot quantity to unrestricted-use stock (ship-to-stock). GOODS RECEIPT CERTIFICATE If you have identified a material as requiring a certificate, the receipt of this certificate must be confirmed. mySAP.com takes appropriate action if the certificate is missing (for example, posting the goods to blocked stock). mySAP.com supports the management of the certificate receipt process and sends reminders if necessary. You can manually create the certificate and store it in the optical archive (ArchiveLink), or you can send it in electronic form. Using the electronic quality data interchange system (QDI), certificate data can be transferred directly to the goods receipt inspection lot. REMINDER GOODS RECEIPT NO INSPECTION LOT: Confirm receipt when or after making the usage decision NO INSPECTION LOT: Post goods to blocked stock CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENT CERTIFICATE INCLUDED ? YES UPDATE CERTIFICATE RECORD RECEIVING INSPECTION If the prerequisites for ship-to-stock are not fulfilled, mySAP.com automatically triggers inspection lot processing upon goods receipt. In addition to the goods receipt document, the system also creates an inspection lot record, selects an appropriate inspection plan, and determines the sample size based on the quality level. PHYSICAL-SAMPLE DRAWING If goods are delivered in containers, you can take samples in accordance with a sample-drawing procedure. The documents you need (such as sample-drawing instructions, sample labels, and inspection instructions) are available for printing immediately. You can then proceed with the inspection. RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS AND DEFECTS You can record the results for the goods receipt inspection in the form of inspection characteristic values and/or defect data records or texts. If serious problems arise at goods receipt inspection, a quality notification can be created automatically. Inspection results can also be recorded automatically using electronic measuring equipment. Fig. 2-2: Certificate Processing at Goods Receipt 2-5
  • 18. APPRAISAL COSTS There are costs associated with every inspection and defect. Appraisal costs are determined using the activity confirmations of the people involved in an inspection. You can allocate the costs that are calculated on the basis of these confirmations for one or more inspection lots in several QM orders, and you can then pass them on to the cost object. Costs associated with defects are settled using quality notifications. mySAP PLM QM can trigger a series of user-defined follow-up actions on the basis of the usage decision. For example, you can print specific inspection reports. INVOICE VERIFICATION If invoices for the delivery of goods are received before the usage decision is made for the goods receipt inspection lot, you can prevent an automatic payment during invoice verification. INSPECTION COMPLETION COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE VENDOR The processing of an inspection lot in mySAP PLM QM ends after the inspection is completed and the usage decision is made. The accepted inspection lot quantity is manually or automatically posted to unrestricted-use stock. Special stock postings are available to you for rejected quantities. This includes posting to blocked stock, transfer posting to a different material, returning to the vendor, or posting to scrap. If the material is handled in batches, the system proposes a batch status that is compatible with the usage decision. Defects in a delivered material that have been caused by the vendor or manufacturer can be documented in a quality notification. You can use the business workflow to pass this notification on to the processor responsible. The processor can then initiate various tasks (such as posting to blocked stock or sending a complaint against the vendor). Complaints can be entered on the Internet on the vendor’s Web site. Production INDUSTRY SECTOR INDEPENDENT PURCHASE ORDER GOODS RECEIPT NO STOCK IN QUALITY INSPECTION QUALITY NOTIFICATION YES UNRESTRICTED-USE STOCK INSPECTION Fig. 2-3: Inspection Lot Processing at Goods Receipt Once the usage decision is made, mySAP.com updates the quality level and the QM information system and makes the inspection lot quality score available for the vendor evaluation. mySAP.com also updates material and vendor information in the quality data record. For example, once the inspection lot has been completed, it updates the status of the supply relationship from model delivery to regular delivery. 2-6 mySAP PLM QM integrates quality inspections into the production process. It thereby supports different types of production, from order-related, lot-based production and the assembly process in mechanical engineering, through repetitive manufacturing in the automotive industry, to batch-based process manufacturing in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and foodstuff industries. MANUFACTURING ORDER INSPECTIONS You can initiate inspections on the basis of different types of goods movements. Inspection lots can therefore be automatically created when a material component is removed or when a product for the production or process order is processed at goods receipt. MATERIALS PLANNING When you are inspecting raw materials or semifinished products, the planned duration of the receiving inspection is taken into account in materials planning.
  • 19. INSPECTION DURING PRODUCTION • Partial lots Inspection lots for an inspection during production can be created in the following ways: • As an inspection lot during production when a production order is released. This is not stock relevant. • As an early inspection lot at goods receipt. This is stock relevant; in other words, the stock in the quality inspection is managed using the usage decision for the inspection lot. • When goods are received from a subcontractor for external processing operations. Production quantities of the same quality can be grouped together. • Batches The inspection results can be used for batch determination at a later stage (for example, they can be applied when choosing products at the delivery stage, or when deciding which subcomponents to use for production). • Serial numbers This applies if the inspection results are to be assigned to a single unit. In this case, the serial numbers can be copied from the production order. PHYSICAL-SAMPLE DRAWING The sample size is calculated, and the shop papers (such as sample drawing, inspection instructions, and sample labels) are printed at previously determined work centers after the valid routing or master recipe has been selected. Defects can be recorded for inspection characteristics, inspection operations, or inspection lots. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) DIGITAL SIGNATURE You can set the system to require a digital signature (electronic signature) from the user who releases the physical-sample drawing or makes the usage decision to ensure that that user has the appropriate authorization. RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS AND DEFECTS Inspection results can be recorded for the following objects: • Inspection characteristics The inspection results can be recorded in summarized form, in classes, or as single values. • Inspection points Several inspections are performed for each inspection characteristic. Inspection points can be user-defined, and they can be planned in advance if necessary. They can be related to production quantities or production times (for example, inspection of a wire basket or silo once during each shift or every two hours). • Physical samples These can be planned in advance using a sample-drawing procedure or they can be unplanned. The inspection results are the basis for statistical process control (SPC) using control charts. A control chart can be valid for several inspection lots and production orders. The warning and action limits of a control chart are calculated using the most recent inspection results or the results of an initial run. If an action limit is exceeded, messages and notifications can be created. INSPECTION LOT 4711 NEIN Z INSPECTION POINT 1 CHARACTERISTIC TARGET ACTUAL LENGTH 50mm 49.8 WIDTH 30mm AUTOMATIC DEFECTS RECORDING 31.2 QUALITY NOTIFICATION TASKS Fig. 2-4: Inspection During Production 2-7
  • 20. APPRAISAL COSTS AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY VARIANT CONFIGURATION IN THE SALES ORDER CONFIRMATIONS At the time of sales order creation, customers can specify quality characteristics for the desired variant. This information then flows into all inspections during production in the form of inspection specifications. When you are recording inspection results, you can also confirm production quantities and costs for the production order. Such confirmations control the subsequent production process (for example, the release of operations and inspection operations or subsequent work that has yet to be performed). ROUTING MATERIAL NO.: BIKE 12 OPERATION 10 OPERATION 20 CH10 TIRE SIZE 58 + 0.5 CH20 TIRE PRESSURE 1-5 BAR SALES ORDER 4713 CUSTOMER SMITH INSPECTION LOT 4718 MATERIAL NO. BIKE 12 FRAME TIRE TYPE OPERATION 10 OPERATION 20 TITANIUM LOW-PROFILE CH10 TIRE SIZE 58 + 0.5 CH20 TIRE PRESSURE 1-5 BAR TIRE PRESSURE: 2-3 BAR PRODUCTION ORDER 4715 BIKE 12 FRAME: TITANIUM TIRE TYPE: LOW-PROFILE TIRE PRESSURE: 2-3 BAR Fig. 2-5: Quantity Confirmation and Inspection Point Valuation Fig. 2-6: Characteristic Specifications from Variant Configuration INSPECTION COMPLETION BATCH DETERMINATION The inspection is completed when the usage decision is made. Users with the appropriate authorizations can post stock quantities, classify charges according to their quality, and perform follow-up actions. mySAP PLM QM provides a digital signature for the usage decision. If you manage the stock of a material in batches, mySAP PLM QM allows you to select suitable batches at delivery using batch characteristics. Sales and Distribution QUALITY ASSURANCE AGREEMENT AND TECHNICAL DELIVERY TERMS You can store customer-related quality documents in the quality information record for Sales and Distribution. In addition, you can use this quality information record to control the time and type of a quality inspection. 2-8 INSPECTION FOR DELIVERY OR FOR GOODS ISSUE Inspection lots can be created at the picking stage or at goods issue. After you have chosen a suitable inspection plan, the sample size is calculated and the shop papers (sample-drawing items, inspection instructions, sample labels) are printed. When the inspection results have been recorded, the inspection is completed with the usage decision.
  • 21. CERTIFICATE AT GOODS ISSUE THE USAGE PHASE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE At goods issue, you can use a quality certificate to document that the inspection results are in accordance with the customer specifications. You can enter inspection characteristics from the inspection plan and characteristics that were defined in the batch determination as inspection specifications on the certificate. The form, content, and means of output are customerspecific. These are derived from the specifications made by the recipient of the certificate at picking or at goods issue. USAGE PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION QUALITY DATA INTERCHANGE Formatted quality data contained in a quality certificate can be sent electronically and then automatically transferred into an inspection lot at the customer site. It is also possible to make this data available on the Internet. PROCESSING COMPLAINTS AND HANDLING RETURNS You can create customer complaints as quality notifications on the Internet. You can document defects and tasks, and you can also perform various follow-up functions using the action box. For example, you might process return or repair orders, enter costs, perform stock postings, or trigger inspections. In the usage phase of the product life cycle, service providers can process inspections (outsourcing) with mySAP PLM QM. Service providers can use mySAP PLM QM to identify serviceable items, plan and confirm services, and create invoices for services rendered. Service VARIANT CONFIGURATION IN THE SALES ORDER Inspection laboratories perform inspections as a service (commercial analysis). When creating the sales order, these laboratories can select the inspections requested by the customer from inspection plans and transfer them into a service order. SERVICE ORDER INSPECTION The inspections can be selected using variant configuration in the sales order or by selecting inspection operations in the service order. Once the inspections have been selected, inspection lots can be created when the service order is released. Then the inspection can begin and inspection instructions and sample-drawing items can be printed. 2-9
  • 22. RESULTS RECORDING – USING A MOBILE DEVICE, BATCH MANAGEMENT THE INTERNET, OR QDI Materials management can manage stocks for materials in batches, and it can recognize the difference between batches in unrestricted-use or blocked stock. You can record inspection results using mobile devices or directly in the customer system using the Internet. If required, it is also possible to transfer inspection results in electronic form using QDI. After the inspection results have been confirmed, you are able to invoice the customer for the inspection costs. You can use mySAP PLM QM to monitor the shelf life of batches and deadlines for recurring inspections. In addition, you can use it to change the batch status and perform stock postings automatically. For example, you can post to blocked stock when the expiry date is exceeded. Inventory Management BATCH TRACKING STOCK CATEGORIES The batch where-used list helps you determine which raw material batches or semifinished products make up the batch of a finished product (top-down analysis) or, conversely, which batches of semifinished or finished products are made up of a particular batch of a raw material (bottom-up analysis). The where-used list also forms the basis for printing inspection results from the previous assembly stages (for example, semifinished products) for an end product on a quality certificate. RESOURCE-RELATED BILLING DOCUMENT Materials management categorizes inventory by the following stock types: unrestricted-use, blocked, and in quality inspection. Usually, the specified quantity of a received material is posted to inspection stock for the duration of the goods receipt inspection. This stock can only undergo a transfer posting during inspection lot processing. For example, when the usage decision is made, it can be posted to unrestricted-use stock. In the inspection lot, you can view all of the posting documents that relate to the lot stock. WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT If you use Warehouse Management, mySAP PLM QM also manages the inspection lot samples and units created due to the usage decision or while locating a storage bin. The inspection lot identifies each unit and transfer requirement. The system performs the following tasks according to the strategy required for placement in storage: it triggers the transport of samples and partial quantities, and it posts the stock. HANDLING UNIT MANAGEMENT (HUM) You can also use handling units as transport units. A handling unit is a physical unit consisting of packaging and the goods stored within or on this packaging. The system allows you to move these handling units, as opposed to just moving the materials. A quality inspection can therefore also be performed with reference to handling units. 2-10
  • 23. INSPECTION PLANNING: PUTTING QUALITY STRATEGIES INTO ACTION As inspection planner, you implement predefined planning strategies in your company. This includes: • Defining the trigger, type, and scope of quality inspections • Creating and managing task lists as the basis for quality inspections • Managing and processing the basic data used in task lists • Determining the procedure for statistical process control Task List Structure A task list consists of the task-list header, operation, characteristic, and production resources and tools. TASK LIST GROUP INSPECTION PLAN 1 INSPECTION PLAN 1 MATERIAL 1 INSPECTION PLAN 2 To complete these tasks, you can use the reusable basic data as building blocks and a flexible planning tool. MATERIAL 2 TASK LIST HEADER OPERATION 1 INTEGRATED INSPECTION PLANNING With integrated inspection planning, you can create and process different task-list types to adapt quality inspections to suit the respective business processes: • Inspection plan for inspections during goods movements • Routing for inspections during production in discrete manufacturing • Rate routing for inspections during production (repetitive manufacturing) • Master recipe for inspections in the process industry • Material specification for simplified inspection planning Task lists that differ only slightly in terms of content can be grouped together in task-list groups. The information that can differ within a task-list group may consist of the task-list usage, vendor assignment, or the validity of certain lot size intervals. VENDOR 2 INSPECTION PLAN 3 INSPECTION PLAN 4 OPERATION 2 OPERATION 3 CUSTOMER 1 VENDOR 1 CUSTOMER 2 PRT 1 INSPECTION PLAN 5 CHARACTERISTIC 1 INSPECTION PLAN 6 CHARACTERISTIC 2 METHOD 1 INSPECTION PLAN 7 OPERATION 4 Fig. 3-1: Task List Structure TASK-LIST HEADER You define the following information in the task-list header: • Material task-list assignments Assignment of a task list to materials. For example, you can assign several materials to a task list and there can be several task lists for one material. You can also assign inspection plans to a vendor or customer, in addition to the material. • Administrative data This type of data can include the validity date, change status, responsible planner group, task-list usage, and processing status • Control data This type of data can include the dynamic modification rule for adapting the inspection scope 3-1
  • 24. OPERATION BASIC DATA FOR INSPECTION PLANNING You can store the following information for each inspection operation: • A description of the operation and control parameters for the operation • Reference to a work center • Specifications for scheduling and calculating the appraisal costs Basic data consists of reusable building blocks for inspection planning. To simplify your work as an inspection planner, you should plan and include this data in your task lists. INSPECTION CHARACTERISTIC In the inspection characteristic, you can: • Specify the characteristic description and define the control parameters for results recording • Reference an inspection method, sampling procedure, or a dynamic modification rule • Define qualitative or quantitative specifications for the inspection and results recording, depending on the characteristic type • Define individual specifications for every task-list assignment to a material, vendor, or customer. This means you do not have to create redundant inspection plans to modify customer- or material-dependent target values and tolerances. TEST EQUIPMENT Test equipment is listed for each operation. For each inspection characteristic, you can specify with which equipment the characteristic values must be measured. 3-2 TASK LIST HEADER • • Dynamic modification rule Sample-drawing procedure • • • • • • • • • • • Reference operation set Work center MATERIAL INSPECTION OPERATION TEST EQUIPMENT INSPECTION CHARACTERISTIC Material Equipment Other production resources/tools Document Master inspection characteristic Inspection method Sampling procedure Dynamic modification rule Catalog Fig. 3-2: Inspection Plan Structure and the Use of Master Data in Inspection Plans Inspection Characteristic An inspection characteristic describes what should be inspected. You can create an inspection characteristic directly in a task list or predefine it as an inspection characteristic master record (master inspection characteristic). Master inspection characteristics can be: • Referenced in several task lists or material specifications • Linked to characteristics in the classification system, for example, to transfer inspection results for a batch to the batch classification
  • 25. Inspection Method An inspection method describes how a characteristic is to be inspected. You can also assign documents that are stored in the document management system (such as drawings and descriptions) to an inspection method. Inspection methods are assigned to master inspection characteristics or inspection characteristics in task lists. You can assign several inspection methods to a master inspection characteristic. Catalog A catalog is a summary of codes for content-related terms. Catalogs make it easier to uniformly describe qualitative data (for example, attributes for qualitative characteristics, defect types, or usage decisions). For each catalog, you can: • Define code groups with codes and enter explanatory texts in different languages. • Select codes from one or more code groups and combine them in a selected set. This allows you to create a value list that applies to a specific application. Sampling Procedure and Sampling Scheme The sampling procedure specifies how the sample size is calculated and how the inspection characteristic is valuated (attributive, variable, or manual). You assign sampling procedures in the material master or in the task list at characteristic level. mySAP PLM QM supports all common sampling types (for example, 100% inspection, sample based on percentage, fixed sample, and sample in accordance with a sampling scheme). If the sampling types and valuation rules provided with the standard system are not sufficient, you can supplement them with your own self-defined function modules. You can also plan independent and dependent multiple samples and record the inspection results from several samples for an inspection characteristic. Each of these samples may contain several values and each is valuated individually. On the basis of the individual sample results, mySAP.com automatically determines the characteristic result (for example, based on the worst-case principle). Ready-to-use sampling schemes are contained in the delivery system in accordance with ISO 2859-1 for qualitative inspections and ISO 3951 for quantitative inspections. You can also create your own acceptable quality level (AQL) sampling schemes and define rules for automatic stage changes up to an inspection skip. You can also implement industry-specific procedures. Dynamic Modification Rule In a dynamic modification rule, you define the number of inspections and skip stages and the rules that control such stage changes, either in accordance with appropriate standards such as ISO 2859-3 or to suit your own requirements. The sample size may vary between a 100% inspection and a skip. When you use a sampling scheme, the system switches between a normal, reduced, and tightened inspection, depending on the quality level. The inspection stage is then changed depending on the inspection results for inspection lots or characteristics. You can control the dynamic modification of the inspection stages either by accepting or rejecting the inspection lot or inspection characteristics. You can also assign a dynamic modification rule to the inspection type in the material master (inspection type level) or at the header or characteristic level in the task list. 3-3
  • 26. Test Equipment Test equipment consists of fittings, objects, documents, or materials that are needed for a quality inspection. Test equipment can be fixed parts of a work center or consist of moveable equipment. In the inspection plan, you can represent test equipment using various master records, such as production resource/tools (PRT), material, equipment, or document. The PRT master record contains administrative data and information relating to status, location, and a possible PRT group assignment. If you use the classification system, you can define additional properties. In addition, you can reference document master records from the PRT master record or use document master records as test equipment in task lists. Using the document management interfaces to CAD systems or to ArchiveLink, you can access drawings and other documents. Work Center The work center specifies where an operation is to be performed and who should process it. The available personnel and machine capacities are also managed by the work center. You provide the basis for capacity planning and scheduling of operations when you specify the work centers in which the operations are to be performed in the task lists. Each work center is assigned to a cost center. The activities in a work center are valuated using rates that are determined by cost centers and activity types (for example, working time or quantity). In a single step, you can record both inspection results and the activities performed. You can also generate work lists for specific work centers when you record results or make the usage decision. 3-4 Reference Operation Set In a reference operation set, you define frequently required inspection operations and corresponding inspection characteristics. A reference operation set can be used as a part of inspection plans or routings, or as a template. PLANNING TOOLS The following sections discuss various planning tools provided with mySAP PLM QM. Such tools include the engineering workbench, product structure browser, where-used lists, and more. Engineering Workbench The engineering workbench is an efficient tool that you can use to process several task lists simultaneously (routings, reference operation sets, and inspection plans). The data you require can be read from different task lists and restructured. You can perform a variety of tasks using the engineering workbench, including the following: • Generate work lists for processing data within task lists (for example, by selecting task lists that use a certain dynamic modification rule or sampling procedure) • Process individual operations from different task lists in one work step • Simultaneously process complex task lists by selectively blocking objects (at task list header or operation level) • Create where-used lists (for example, for production resources/tools, dynamic modification rules, sampling procedures, sample-drawing procedures, and selected sets) • Display documents defined in the document management system in your own screen area (for example, technical drawings)
  • 27. Mass Data Changes With the function mass data change, you can adapt objects from the where-used list (master inspection characteristics, inspection methods, or sampling procedures) to suit new conditions. You can also use this function to create and change inspection setup data in the material master. Engineering Change Management mySAP PLM QM maintains separate engineering change statuses for each structural element in a task list. When you make a change using a change number, you can determine what was contained in a plan at a specific date and the date on which a change is to become effective. Fig. 3-3: Inspection Planning with the Engineering Workbench Product Structure Browser Using the product structure browser, you can hierarchically display related objects in a product structure. During inspection planning, for example, you can determine whether or not task lists or material specifications exist for a certain material. If you expand the product structure further, additional detailed information can be displayed (such as inspection characteristics and documents). Where-Used Lists A where-used list shows you the task lists in which master inspection characteristics, inspection methods, and sampling procedures are used. Cross-System Transfer of Master Data Using SAP Application Link Enabling (ALE), you can transfer specific basic data (for example, inspection setups, inspection methods, inspection characteristics, and catalog or code groups) from a source system to one or more target systems. This means that it is quick and easy to transfer basic data used in one plant to another plant. Benefits: • Integrated inspection planning • Lighter workload as a result of modular, re-usable basic data • Efficient management of inspection data using mass processing tools • Parallel task list processing using the Engineering Workbench • Time and money savings by using our cross-system data transfer by means of ALE 3-5
  • 28. 3-6
  • 29. QUALITY INSPECTIONS: ACHIEVING RELIABLE RESULTS As quality inspector, you are responsible for proving that a material meets predefined quality requirements. With mySAP PLM QM, you can show that these requirements have been met. Inspections can be triggered for inspection points during production, physical samples in the process industry, or automatically for goods movements. CREATE INSPECTION LOT INSPECTION LOT CREATION SELECT INSPECTION SPECIFICATIONS DETERMINE SAMPLES PRINT SHOP PAPERS CONFIRM ACTIVITIES Planned inspections in mySAP PLM QM can be used to document quality using quantitative and qualitative inspection results. In addition, you can also create a record of unplanned events in the form of defect data or quality notifications. For all quality inspection tasks, the mySAP Enterprise Portal provides you with the tools you require for the role of quality inspector, as well as the opportunity to customize the settings. • With collaborative business, it is possible for your internal and external business partners to record inspection results on the intranet or Internet. • Using mobile computing, you can record inspection results on-site and later transfer the data to your mySAP PLM QM system. INSPECTION LOT PROCESSING Supported by quality-planning specifications, inspections supply important data for quality control purposes. The inspection lot is the central element for the quality inspection in mySAP PLM QM. It contains all information related to the quality inspection, such as inspection specifications, inspection results, and usage decisions. COMPLETE INSPECTION INSPECTION RECORD DEFECT DATA REQUEST CHARAC. INSP. RESULTS PERFORM FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS UPDATE QM INFORMATION SYSTEM INSPECTION LOT COMPLETION UPDATE QUALITY LEVEL DETERMINE QUALITY SCORE MAKE USAGE DECISION Fig. 4-1: Stages in Inspection Lot Processing There are different variants for inspection lot processing. In mySAP PLM QM, these are defined as inspection types (for example, goods receipt inspection and inspection during production). The variants include: • Inspection with or without a task list or material specification • Recording of inspection characteristic results and defect data • Manual or automatic specification assignment, sample determination, and usage decisions • Control of inspection stock posting 4-1
  • 30. Inspection Lot Creation mySAP PLM QM generally creates inspection lots automatically, but you can also create these lots manually. Inspection lots may be created as a result of the following: • Goods movements (for example, goods receipt, goods issue, stock transfer, and return delivery from a customer) • Deadline monitoring for batches (recurring inspection) • Release of production orders, process orders, maintenance orders, service orders, and production versions • Delivery creation in shipping Inspection lot creation Determining the inspection specifications Sample determination Printing the shop papers Fig. 4-2: Inspection Lot Creation For inspections with an inspection plan, mySAP.com selects the corresponding inspection specifications (for example, the inspection plan or material specification). If a customer has specific product requirements, these can be copied from variant configuration or batch determination to the inspection. Shop papers are printed and inspection results are recorded on the basis of the inspection specifications. Some examples of shop papers include: • Sample-drawing instructions Contain the information required for the physical-sample drawing and for distributing samples to work centers or laboratories. • Physical-sample labels Are used to label samples. • Inspection instructions Lists information about the test equipment and inspection characteristics for each inspection operation and specifies the inspection methods, specifications, and sample size for each inspection characteristic. Quality inspectors can record inspection results on the inspection instructions, if the layout is suitable. Inspection During an inspection, you can: • Record, valuate, and close inspection results for characteristics • Record defect data and quality notifications. • Confirm activities Direct transfer of inspection results is possible if you link electronic test equipment to mySAP PLM QM. You can also record inspection results for serial numbers and batches, and you can transfer the inspection results recorded in mySAP PLM QM to batch classification. Inspection Lot Completion After results recording is completed or the inspection is cancelled, you make the usage decision for the inspection lot. An automatic usage decision can be made if no inspection characteristics have been rejected and no defects are recorded. If a material requires documentation, you must enter a comment for the usage decision if the inspection is cancelled or the usage decision differs from the valuation for the inspection results. Making the usage decision Determining the quality score Fig. 4-3: Inspection Lot Completion 4-2 Updating the quality level Follow-up actions
  • 31. STOCK POSTING INSPECTION RESULTS If materials are posted to inspection stock using an inspection lot, they can only be posted from this stock using the usage decision (for example, posting to unrestricted-use stock or return to vendor). There are two types of inspection results in mySAP PLM QM. These are: • Results for the planned inspection of inspection characteristics (characteristic inspection results) • Unplanned defects defined during the inspection (defect data) Characteristic inspection results are generally recorded for each operation. For this, inspection specifications must be assigned to the inspection lot and sample calculation must be completed. You can record both characteristic inspection results and defect data for an inspection lot with a task list. If characteristics are rejected, defect data records can be created automatically. Also, you can record defects in an inspection without inspection specifications. QUALITY SCORE If the usage decision has been made, mySAP.com determines the quality score for the inspection lot using a procedure defined in the inspection setup for the material master record. It then updates the vendor evaluation. QUALITY LEVEL The quality level is also updated. Consequently, the inspection stages for the next inspection are determined. FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS The usage decision can also trigger a chain of automatic follow-up actions, such as sending a message to purchasing if an inspection lot is rejected. In addition, the statistical data for the inspection lot is updated in the information system. mySAP PLM QM logs all user actions using the name, date, and time. This means that you have the ability to track all actions. You can also create an electronic batch record for materials that are managed in batches. AUTHORIZATION FOR THE USAGE DECISION The usage decision has significant consequences. Using material-specific authorizations and digital signatures, you can ensure that only authorized users can make the usage decision. RECORDING INSPECTION RESULTS UNPLANNED DEFECT DATA PLANNED CHARACTERISTIC RESULTS DEFECT DATA • DEFECT TYPE • DEFECT LOCATION • CAUSE ACTIVATE QUALITY NOTIFICATION QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY CONTROL Fig. 4-4: Types of Inspection Results 4-3
  • 32. Characteristic Results You record and valuate characteristic results according to inspection specifications. • Calculate results using calculated characteristics. For calcu- CHARACTERISTIC TYPES SAMPLES You can record inspection results for the following types of characteristics: • Qualitative characteristics Nonnumerical characteristic values or variables stemming from these values (for example, the number of defects) are entered as results. • Quantitative characteristics Measured values or variables stemming from these values (for example, the mean value) are entered as results. If the sampling procedure specifies independent multiple samples, you can record results for more than one sample for each inspection characteristic. The number of samples may then be greater than the number specified in the sampling procedure. RECORDING FORMS Depending on the detail you require, you can choose from the following recording forms for a characteristic: • Summarized values For example, the mean value and standard deviation of several measured values or an individual measured value • Classed values Number of results within value classes • Single values For example, several measured values. In addition to single values, you can note the serial numbers of the items to be inspected ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS Within results recording, you can also: • Define unplanned characteristics. • Process conditional characteristics. This deals with planned characteristics that must be inspected only if a corresponding controlling characteristic has either been accepted or rejected. • Record inspection results for characteristics that are in a skip stage. 4-4 lated characteristics, you calculate results using the results for other characteristics. In an attributive inspection, you can also plan dependent double and multiple samples. If the result for the current sample lies between the acceptance and rejection numbers, the sample size is increased according to the sampling scheme. Once you have recorded the results for this new sample, the sample is valuated again using the updated valuation parameters. VALUATION You can confirm the characteristic inspection results recorded in different inspection operations. During results recording, an inspection characteristic undergoes a series of status changes. The authorization management function controls who has the authorization to record, valuate, or close results. To fulfill special security requirements for example, good manufacturing practices, (GMP), a digital signature may be required. You can use the following valuation modes to accept or reject an inspection result: • Manual valuation • Attributive inspection based on the number of nonconforming units or defects • Decision based on the attribute codes of qualitative characteristics • Decision based on the tolerance range of quantitative characteristics • Variable inspection with single-sided or double-sided tolerance limits • Valuation based on the action limits of a control chart
  • 33. Characteristics with independent, multiple samples are valuated at sample level. For example, you might valuate such samples based on the worst-case principle, last-case principle, or best-case principle. You must also valuate inspection points. INSPECTION POINTS You can use inspection points to perform several inspections on one characteristic. You can define various inspection points in the system, including: • Time-dependent (for example, one inspection every hour) • Quantity-related (for example, an inspection after 100 units have been produced) • Freely-defined (for example, one inspection per shift) DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS After results recording, the system determines the fraction of nonconforming units for all inspection characteristics and uses this information to estimate the fraction of nonconforming units in the inspection lot. The most common mathematical distribution methods are supplied (normal, binomial, and Poisson distribution). STATISTICS You can display the following graphics in results recording: • Histogram A histogram illustrates the frequency distribution of the sample results in the form of a bar chart. In this chart, you can identify typical and extreme values for a sample, as well as the location, dispersion range, and form of the distribution. • Run chart This displays the run of measured values for a characteristic over a period of time as a line chart. You can identify the dispersion and systematic location changes. You can also display trends. • Control chart The control chart shows the time-run of characteristic values in the production process with warning and action limits. Process-Optimized Results Recording WORK LISTS Personalized work lists provide you with a flexible selection of inspection lots. Examples of work lists include the following: • Results recording for samples during laboratory inspections • Results recording for equipment or functional locations during calibration inspections TABULAR RESULTS RECORDING You can also record inspection results in tabular form as follows: • Processing characteristics for several inspection lots In this view, you can record results for the inspection characteristics that occur in several inspection lots. In the recording table, the inspection lots selected in the work list are displayed in columns; the characteristics are displayed in rows. • Processing several inspection points in an operation In this view, you can record results for several inspection points in an operation. In the recording table, the inspection characteristics are displayed in columns; the corresponding inspection points are displayed in rows. • Processing master inspection characteristics for all inspection lots . In this view, you can record the results for a specific master inspection characteristic for all inspection lots. In the recording table, the inspection lots are displayed in rows for the master inspection characteristic that has been selected. 4-5
  • 34. Results Recording on the Web The Internet provides you with new possibilities for results recording. An example of this is recording results for source inspections. INSPECTION DATA INTERFACE (QM-IDI) You provide your vendor with access to a specific Internet or intranet page. This requires special authorizations. The vendor records inspection results directly on the Web and saves the data. As a result, the quality management data can be further processed in your mySAP PLM QM system. During inspection planning, you decide in which system an inspection operation should be processed. The inspection specifications are transferred to the external system during inspection lot creation in mySAP PLM QM. After results are recorded in a subsystem, the inspection results or usage decisions are confirmed in mySAP PLM QM. Your capital is protected using a certification for subsystem providers. Mobile Results Recording The mobile results recording function in mySAP PLM QM supports you when performing quality inspections in inaccessible locations, when there is no PC available. You plan when mobile results recording should be used for inspections and transfer the inspection specifications to the mobile recording device using a docking station. As a result, the inspector can record measured values, codes, nonconforming units, and the number of defects. When these inspections are completed, the data is transferred to mySAP PLM QM using a docking station. mySAP PLM QM Link for External Inspections mySAP PLM QM offers interfaces to connect to external systems for special tasks within quality inspection. These are discussed in the following sections: The QM Inspection Data Interface (QM-IDI) supports data exchange with external quality systems, such as CAQ/LIMS. You use these interfaces to process inspections in a subsystem. Defect Data Defects recording provides information to control quality and optimize processes. It enables Pareto analyses of defect types and causes, according to their weighting or how frequently they occur. It also provides empirical values for risk indicators in failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). You record defects with reference to an inspection lot, inspection operation, or inspection characteristic. To record defects, you do not need inspection specifications. If an inspection plan is available, the defect data records can be assigned to an inspection characteristic contained in the plan. mySAP PLM QM then suggests the type of defects recording that is suitable for the material, work center, or user. KEYBOARD INTERFACE You can link test equipment, such as electronic caliper gauges, barcode readers, or laboratory balances, using a keyboard wedge. Various interface boxes are available on the market. These differ in the number and type of test equipment that can be connected. Keyboard interfaces convert the measured values that have been entered into keyboard entries. PC INTERFACE You can transfer inspection results from a measuring device to QM using a file transfer. You can trigger the results transfer from both external systems and mySAP PLM QM using driver programs. SAP provides examples for the driver programs. 4-6 You can describe qualitative defect data with the help of cataloged terminology (for example, defect type, defect location, or defect cause) and additional text. A defect data record can be converted into a quality notification. As a result, the whole range of functions in notifications can be used (for example, the link to workflow).
  • 35. SAMPLE MANAGEMENT PHYSICAL-SAMPLE DRAWING When sample management is active in mySAP PLM QM, you can use the system to manage samples. To allow you to manage samples effectively, a unique physical-sample record is created in the system for each physical sample. The physical-sample record contains the following information for the sample: • Physical-sample number • Physical-sample type, such as sample from goods receipt, production, or customer complaint • Physical-sample category, such as primary sample, pooled sample, or reserve sample • Information for the physical-sample drawing with data on the sample origin, such as material, batch, material document, and order • Detailed information about the physical sample, such as the inspection lot or storage information • Processing status of the physical sample When the system creates the physical-sample records for the inspection lot, it assigns a unique physical-sample drawing number. This number helps you identify the physical samples that were drawn from the lot. You can also identify how many pooled and reserve samples were formed. When the inspection planner defines a sample-drawing procedure and assigns it to the inspection plan, routing, or master recipe, physical-sample records are automatically created for the inspection lot. You define the following information in the sample-drawing procedure: • Type and number of samples – Primary samples (one-stage physical-sample drawing) – Primary and pooled samples (two-stage physical-sample drawing) – Reserve samples (to be stored for subsequent inspections). • Whether the system should calculate the physical samples on the basis of the lot container type or the lot quantity • Whether the drawing of the physical samples needs to be separately confirmed The following functions are available for the physical-sample drawing: • Confirmation of the physical-sample drawing and release of the samples You can control whether or not the physical-sample drawing must be confirmed. A confirmation would result in the release of all samples associated with the relevant physicalsample drawing. A digital signature may be required to make the confirmation. This digital signature ensures that only people with the relevant authorization can confirm a physical-sample drawing. • Label printing You can trigger label printing for physical samples using the physical-sample drawing. The labels can be printed with bar codes. SAMPLE CHECK The physical samples are displayed automatically in a work list for results recording. You can process these samples immediately, provided that they have the appropriate status. Processing Physical Samples SAMPLE-DRAWING INSTRUCTION For a planned physical-sample drawing, the system can print a sample-drawing instruction at inspection lot creation. This instruction contains information from the inspection plan and physical-sample drawing procedure about drawing, processing, and distributing samples at work centers or laboratories. 4-7
  • 36. VALUATION Once you have performed all inspection operations and have recorded the inspection results, the physical samples must be valuated on the basis of the operations (that is, accepted or rejected). When all physical samples in the inspection lot are valuated, you make the usage decision for the lot. CREATION PLANNED PHYSICAL SAMPLES Automatic creation of physical samples at inspection lot creation UNPLANNED PHYSICAL SAMPLES Manual creation of physical samples Manual creation of physical-sample drawing with reference to an inspection lot MANUAL INSPECTION LOTS Manual creation of inspection lots for existing physical samples Fig. 4-5: Types of Planning and Processing for Physical Samples 4-8 Unplanned Samples It is also possible for you to manage unplanned samples using mySAP PLM QM. You can perform the following tasks: • Create the physical samples manually without reference to an existing physical-sample drawing or inspection lot • Supplement an existing physical-sample drawing by creating additional physical samples • Create a new physical-sample drawing manually, with reference to an existing inspection lot, production order, process order, or production version You must create inspection lots manually to be able to record inspection results for unplanned physical samples. You can use this function to perform the following tasks: • Check the stability of reserve samples • Inspect samples from competitors • Inspect samples from a customer complaint Benefits: • Integrated in the processes of the product life cycle and the supply chain • Allows you to work independently of the system with mobile results recording or by recording results on the Web
  • 37. QUALITY CERTIFICATES: GUARANTEED RELIABILITY – PRINTED OR ON THE INTERNET CERTIFICATE PROCESSING IN SALES AND DISTRIBUTION Your company produces high-quality products. As quality manager, it is your responsibility to provide evidence of the quality of your goods for your customers. Whether you require certificates of analysis for the chemical or pharmaceutical industry, or certificates of conformity, test certificates, works test certificates, or inspection certificates for material inspection laboratories in the steel industry – the quality certificate will fulfill all of your requirements. In addition to the usual output forms for certificates (printer or fax), you can make certificates available to your customers on the Internet or transfer certificate data electronically for further processing. Flexible Certificate Planning You define the layout and content of a certificate in certificate planning. The form determines the layout of the document – that is, the appearance and logo. You define required content in the copy model. Due to the flexible interaction of the certificate profile and form, you can meet multiple requirements using few forms. You specify the data origin for each characteristic in the certificate profile. For each characteristic, you can include texts (such as inspection methods) and values (specification values and inspection results) in the certificate. mySAP.com selects data from inspection lots, batch specifications, or characteristic master records. Texts for characteristics can also be obtained directly from the certificate profile. Only those inspection lots that meet specific selection criteria that have been defined in the certificate profile are considered for data formatting. Consequently, inspection lots that have, for example, reached a predefined quality score can be selected. If there is no inspection result for a characteristic due to a skip, mySAP.com searches for other data sources using predefined strategies. The data procurement functions and replacement strategies available in mySAP.com can be enhanced using function modules programmed by the user. The form master record allows you to tailor your certificates to your company's needs. mySAP.com contains an example of a form to simplify this process. In addition to printing characteristics that are directly linked to the product requiring the certificate, you can also define which characteristic data (from raw materials and semifinished products used when creating the finished product) are printed on the certificate. 5-1
  • 38. At this point, you can refer to inspections or batch classifications. mySAP.com selects batches for data formatting that are linked to one another by production orders, process orders, or production versions. The characteristic values for these materials in the production chain can also be taken from other plants. completed or goods are issued. If you want to make certificates available to customers before goods delivery, you can make them accessible on the Internet or send them electronically. The mySAP.com e-business platform finds the correct certificate profile, recipient, and shipping terms with the help of the flexible condition technique. The system can search for the Apart from the characteristic data defined in the certificate address of the certificate recipient by using, for example, the profile, you can structure the certificate to contain all other sold-to party, the ship-to party, delivery type, or shipping information that is available at certificate creation. Such inforpoint. The system then decides whether the certificate is to be mation might, for example, include data from the sales order. issued in printed form, by fax, or electronically. Next, the system searches for the corresponding profile for PRODUCT RAW03 BATCH R3-1 the material group, mateCH R30 rial, customer, or a comPRODUCT RAW01 PRODUCT SEMI01 bination thereof. All the BATCH R1-1 BATCH S1-1 CH R10 information required for CH R11 these searches is conPRODUCT FIN01 PRODUCT SEMI3-1 PRODUCT SEMI04 BATCH F1-1 BATCH S3-1 BATCH S4-1 tained in data for the CH F10 CH S31 CH S41 delivery. CH F11 CH S32 CH S42 PRODUCT BATCH CH CH RAW02 R2-2 R10 R11 PRODUCT SEMI02 BATCH S2-1 CH S20 Fig. 5-1: Example of a Quality Certificate for a Finished Product with Characteristic Values from Raw Materials and Semifinished Products Certificate Creation – Meeting Your Requirements For single delivery items, certificates are issued automatically when goods are shipped, together with delivery notes. These certificates are then included with goods deliveries. You can create certificates at any stage of the shipment process, as long as the data required is accessible; for example, when picking is 5-2 As a last step, mySAP.com determines the contents of the certificate based on CERTIFICATE the requirements in the CH R10 CH S20 certificate profile, such as CH S41 characteristic values in CH F10 picking batches. It structures the information according to the specified form and it transfers the resulting certificate to the output medium, and, if required, the optical archive. You can also manually trigger the creation of certificates for deliveries, inspection lots, or batches, and control their output. You can create a print preview to check the contents of the certificate, before it is finally issued.
  • 39. The processing status of delivery item data is consistently maintained so that you can always tell if a certificate was created properly. CERTIFICATE PROCESSING AT GOODS RECEIPT As quality inspector, you are responsible for monitoring the receipt of certificates during the procurement process. If you have marked a material as requiring a certificate, you must confirm that a quality certificate has been received for purchase orders or goods receipts. COLLABORATIVE BUSINESS: CERTIFICATE DATA FOR THE WHOLE COMPANY Certificate Access on the Internet As the vendor, you can allow your customers to access mySAP.com over the Internet and call up a quality certificate for their purchased goods. Depending on their needs, it is possible for customers to call up a certificate that is created when called or one that was created for a delivery item and is already stored using ArchiveLink. You generally confirm this information at goods receipt. However, you can wait to confirm that a certificate has been received until the usage decision is made for the incoming inspection lot. If a certificate has not been received, mySAP.com may post the stock to restricted-use stock. You can store certificates that have been received using ArchiveLink. You can also send reminders for missing certificates and monitor reminder statuses. In addition, you have the ability to process the receipt of certificates before the goods have actually been received. This is often the case with certificates that are sent electronically. If you receive an electronic certificate with reference to a delivery, you can copy the quality data from the certificate for further processing. Fig. 5-2: Quality Certificate 5-3
  • 40. Quality Data Exchange If you want to enable a recipient to use the quality data displayed on your certificate, you must send the certificate electronically (using EDI) to the target system. If the quality certificate refers to a delivery to a customer, you can automatically transfer the inspection results printed on the certificate to a goods receipt inspection lot. You can also manually copy the results to another inspection lot, for example, a source inspection lot. The certificate data can also be transferred to a recipient system without a link to a specific delivery and be processed further there. In such cases, the certificate data refers to the inspection lot or batch. Benefits: • Easy creation of certificates, and warnings are sent automatically if a certificate is missing at goods receipt • Fewer errors by using electronic data transfer at goods receipt • Time and money savings through using individualized and fully automatic certificate creation for deliveries • System-independent accessing of certificates on the Internet or intranet. • Multiple output formats: XML, PDF, fax, or print • Electronic transfer of quality data to your customers It is also possible to transfer data to your business partners that do not use SAP software. VENDOR mySAP.com CERTIFICATE CREATION CUSTOMER IDOC IDOC EDI REFERENCE DATA QUALITY DATA REFERENCE DATA CERTIFICATE (PDF) QUALITY DATA CERTIFICATE RECORD CERTIFICATE XML mySAP.com INSPECTION LOT OTHER OPTICAL ARCHIVE Fig. 5-3: Quality Data Exchange 5-4
  • 41. EFFICIENT PROBLEM MANAGEMENT WITH NOTIFICATIONS IMPROVED QUALITY THROUGH TARGETED PROBLEM • Feedback notification HANDLING For requests or problems related to mySAP.com • Claim For documenting deviations from a project plan (for example, schedule deviation or cost variance) To optimize business processes in a company, you must respond to requests and problems quickly and efficiently. As notification processor, you coordinate the processing of incoming requests or problem notifications and propose suitable tasks. You can therefore ensure that all problems are correctly assigned and solved. You are involved in the analysis, cause determination, and handling of problems. You are also responsible for checking the implemented tasks for their effectiveness. Optimized Processing Using Notifications Notifications are an efficient tool for processing exception situations. Using quality notifications, you can deal with both simple problems and problems related to complete processes in the logistics supply chain (for example, complaints processing for deliveries or processing of returns). Notifications in the SAP Environment The integrated notification system supports you when you create and process various subjects and problems. As a special feature of mySAP PLM QM, you can record quality problems, document defects and causes, and implement corrective tasks for quality improvement using the quality notification. The following notifications are available to you in addition to the quality notification: • General notification For general requests or subjects (without a business assignment) • Maintenance notification For recording and processing problem notifications for technical objects • Service notification For processing service activities NOTIFICATION PROCESSING Unplanned event Description/ assignment Internet/ intranet Analysis Tasks/ activities Solution database Action box Workflow Entering costs Solution Status management Evaluations Fig. 6-1: Notification System for Continuous Process Improvement in a Company 6-1
  • 42. USING QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS NOTIFICATION PROCESSING Notification Types The subjects defined in quality notifications generally refer to exceptions in everyday business processes. If you create a notification, you use the notification type to define the subject from a business viewpoint. This then determines the remainder of the process flow. mySAP.com contains the following quality notification types: • Customer complaint • Complaint against the vendor • Internal problem notification If you manually enter and process general notifications, you can use simplified or enhanced processing views. The simplified view is meant for occasional users who do not require the whole range of notification functions. This view is used to quickly record problems. All notification functions are available in the enhanced view. This view is particularly useful if the user’s responsibility extends beyond the creation of the notification. CUSTOMERS VENDORS CUSTOMER COMPLAINT COMPANY COMPLAINT AGAINST THE VENDOR INTERNAL PROBLEMS Q Fig. 6-2: Quality Notification Types Requests or problems that cannot, at first, be assigned at a business level are entered using the general notification. As the responsible notification processor, you assign a suitable notification type to a general notification, depending on the subject of the notification. This controls all further processing. Quality notifications can be recorded manually or automatically: • You can create a notification manually on the Internet, intranet, or directly in mySAP.com. • For defects recording during inspection processing, a quality notification can be created automatically. 6-2 If you are responsible for creating the notification, you must first describe the subject in text form, then name a reference object, if possible (for example, a sales order or delivery), and finally, assign an appropriate priority to the problem. mySAP PLM QM copies the linked information to the notification. When you enter the notification, you can immediately see if, for example, notifications already exist for the same material or customer. You can immediately switch to one of these notifications and call up information about how to solve the problem. As the responsible notification processor, you are informed about notifications using work lists or the workflow. You can implement tasks and record costs. You can also perform defects analysis for the individual problems. You define the necessary corrective tasks and assign them to the appropriate employees. You complete the problem notification after all tasks have been successfully completed and their costs have been calculated. The steps you perform mirror the status of the individual tasks and the complete quality notification. You can display the most significant processing steps of a notification in the action log.
  • 43. QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS You can adapt the structure and information in a quality notification to meet your requirements. In addition to the notification types supplied by SAP, you can define your own notification types. For each notification type, you can: • Select a simple or enhanced processing view • Determine screen areas and their content • Structure notification data using tab pages • Include your own functions in an action box • Configure shop papers for printing ELEMENTS OF THE QUALITY NOTIFICATION Notification Header Figure 6-3 shows the layout of data in a quality notification. The header data record contains a description of the subject matter and depending on the notification type, assigns objects affected by the notification (for example, purchase order, material, vendor, and inspection lot, or sales order, material, and customer). The priority and processing status are documented in the notification header. You can also call up other objects linked to the notification in the notification header, such as documents or QM orders used for recording costs. Partners The partners involved in the creation or processing of a notification (for example, vendors or customers) are listed in the notification. You can also include departments and people within your company who are involved in notification processing as partners. Notification Item Individual problems or errors that have occurred are documented as notification items. They contain information relating to defects analysis, such as the defect type and location. You can assign various causes to a notification item. You can access user-defined catalogs to describe the defect type, location, and cause. Tasks and Activities The tasks and activities used to correct the defects are subordinate to the notification item. Tasks and activities can also be assigned to the notification header, so that you can take the first steps to resolve a problem even before the analysis is available. OPTIMIZED USAGE QUALITY NOTIFICATION PARTNER DEFECT ITEM ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TASKS CAUSES Fig. 6-3: Structure of a Quality Notification TASKS Action Box You can use the action box to flexibly enhance the functions in the notification to suit your needs. You can simplify usage and control problem processing with regard to procedures. The action box includes typical tasks and activities for processing notifications. These tasks or activities are known as follow-up functions and can be executed with a mouse click. These follow-up functions are available: • Creating letters of complaint or 8D reports for complaints against the vendor • Sending request for permission to deviate from specifications • Creating a new quality notification from an existing notification 6-3
  • 44. • Sending decisions by e-mail, fax, or print preview (for example, confirmation of receipt, interim notice, or final notice) • Calling up the solution database • Documenting calls related to the notification Workflow If you use the business workflow, all parties involved in notification processing are informed about their tasks. Depending on the status of notifications or tasks, work items are entered in the mailbox of the responsible parties. The follow-up process is simplified through the use of colors to mark the processing statuses of follow-up functions and dependent follow-up functions. In this way, you can immediately recognize those follow-up functions that have already been processed and those that are outstanding. You can call up the necessary processing functions directly from a work item. If the processor responsible is unable to complete the task within the deadline, the workflow forwards the operation to a department responsible for urgent outstanding tasks. This is also referred to as escalation. Solution Database Complaints must be processed quickly and efficiently. With the integrated solution database, you can quickly find solutions when processing notifications. You call up the solution database from the action box and start a free-text search in the database using the entered problem description. You can therefore quickly determine whether similar problems have occurred in the past and which tasks were used to successfully solve them. System Response Depending on the priority of the notification, you can define a sequence of standard tasks using a response profile. These tasks can then be proposed on request in the notification; they must be completed within a specified period of time. Flexible Work Lists Work lists are available to you for processing quality notifications, defect items, tasks, and activities. In particular, for notifications or tasks, you can select and process objects that you: • Created • Processed last • Are responsible for processing or which are within your area of responsibility • Are responsible for processing within a specific partner function ANALYSIS OF ITEMS AND DEFECTS 6-4 Document Flow You can display all documents that are linked to the notification in a list or as a graphic. Quality notifications are designed to analyze defects. There is one notification item (defect data record) for each defect that has been recorded. In this record, you can describe the defect type and location, and you can document the problem using company-specific codes. These codes can later be evaluated. Additional input fields are available for each notification item, including fields for defective quantities and a field for a quantitative defect valuation. Using the classification system, you can classify defects, define additional defect characteristics, specify value ranges for these characteristics, and record characteristic values. In addition, you can enhance defect analysis by documenting the causes of the defects and by defining corrective tasks.
  • 45. TASKS A task is a processing step that is performed during notification processing. With a user-defined status sequence, you can track the processing status of the task. You can define the completion deadline and the person responsible for each task. mySAP.com manages the status of each task and only allows you to complete a quality notification once all the tasks have been processed. The structure of the quality notification differentiates between immediate and corrective tasks. Immediate Task The purpose of an immediate task is to provide an immediate response to the problem that produced the quality notification, and to prevent any further damage from occurring. These types of tasks are assigned to the quality notification header and can be implemented without specifying a defect or defect cause. Examples of immediate tasks include the following: • Blocking the warehouse stock • Triggering an additional inspection • Sending a confirmation letter Corrective Task The purpose of a corrective task is to eliminate the defect and its cause, and to prevent it from recurring. You assign corrective tasks to an individual notification item (defect). Examples of corrective tasks include the following: • Changing a work instruction • Implementing training • Modifying a routing Follow-Up Actions You can link tasks with automatic follow-up actions. As a result, you can, for example, initiate inspections, block supply relationships, or create a purchase order for a return delivery. Activities You can also define activities. An activity merely documents that a specific action has been implemented. SUPPORT FUNCTIONS Communication NOTIFICATIONS ON THE INTERNET AND INTRANET Using the Internet connection for quality notifications, you can reduce the resources and time needed for recording a complaint, thereby improving notification processing. The customer records the problem on the Internet. mySAP PLM QM then triggers internal operations using the workflow. The customer can display the processing status of the notification at any time on the Internet. If notifications are created for general requests or problems from the user's working environment, the Internet service request is the Internet and intranet medium for finding answers and solutions quickly. The Internet service request is the medium through which the following are performed: • Recording of different subjects • Searching for solutions using the integrated solution database • Triggering of multiple internal service processes • Forwarding of the notification to the person responsible for processing using the business workflow SAPPHONE SAPphone enables you to integrate computer and telephone services. Quality notifications support incoming and outgoing calls as follows: • If a customer calls to complain, the customer data is copied directly to the customer complaint. • If you process a quality notification, you can initiate a telephone call to the customer, vendor, or another partner directly from the notification. 6-5
  • 46. SENDING E-MAILS STORAGE WITH ARCHIVELINK When processing a notification, you can send information to an internal or external address as a fax or by e-mail. Using ArchiveLink, which is accessible in the quality notification, you can archive and manage printed or electronically transmitted documents. Outgoing documents, printed or transmitted by fax, are stored in an optical archive. Incoming documents can be recorded with ArchiveLink and assigned to a new or an existing quality notification. If processing is to start immediately, a workflow can be triggered when the incoming document is recorded. The workflow forwards the tasks to the partner responsible for processing (work items) using the Business Workplace function. PERMISSION TO DEVIATE FROM SPECIFICATION If a vendor part does not meet your specification, you document this as a defect in a quality notification. During notification processing, you can then use the action box to request permission from an internal or external notification partner to use the same vendor part in production. Storage and Documentation SHOP PAPERS Although mySAP.com supports paper-free processing of quality notifications, it is sometimes useful to have printed shop papers to present the information either in the form of a fax, or to store them in a file. mySAP PLM QM provides the following shop papers: • Notification overview • Notification items • Complaint report • Confirmation report • Interim notice • Final report • 8D report If required, you can also create your own shop papers and structure them with the help of the SAPscript text-processing function. You can use the examples delivered with the standard mySAP.com as copy models for your own design. ASSIGNMENT OF DOCUMENTS Using the document management system, you can assign documents, such as CAD drawings, Word, and HTML to the notification. These documents are then available to you during notification processing. 6-6 Benefits: • Rapid processing of unplanned events • Active participation by employees in the continuous improvement of processes • Easy communication and work processing by using the Internet and intranet – independently of the system • Time and money savings because of the optimal control of subsequent processes
  • 47. SUSTAINED QUALITY CONTROL – PLANNING, EVALUATION, AND DIRECT INTERVENTION Quality control involves strategic planning, continuous monitoring, and rapid intervention to deal with unexpected events. SAP offers you a complete set of instruments for this purpose. The role of quality manager in the mySAP Enterprise Portal provides the basis for your quality control-related tasks, which range from strategic planning to monitoring and evaluating inspections and notifications. iViews provide an overview of all important key figures and evaluations in mySAP PLM QM. As a result, you can continuously evaluate your quality strategy and modify it on the fly if a problem arises. The easy-to-use data warehouse, which is included in mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI), brings bits of related information together to give you the reliable company key figures you need. DYNAMIC MODIFICATION OF THE INSPECTION SCOPE Dynamic modification controls the inspection scope (based on inspection characteristics and sample sizes) for a series of inspection lots, to achieve a predetermined quality goal. General technical rules, such as the sampling systems of ISO 2859-1 and ISO 3951, follow this principle. mySAP PLM QM contains a complete set of sampling tables for these standards. To reach the quality goal, the mySAP.com e-business platform determines inspection stages for the next inspection lot after each usage decision. It uses the dynamic modification rule in the task list to determine inspection stages and then writes them to a quality-level data record. mySAP PLM QM takes the quality level into account when determining the inspection scope and defining the inspection specifications in the inspection instruction. The inspection lots are summarized in a quality level according to specific criteria. For example, inspection lots in production are summarized according to material, plant, and task list, while inspection lots for goods receipt inspections are summarized according to material, vendor, manufacturer, plant, and task list. Figure 7-1 shows how master data and transaction data interact during dynamic modification of the inspection scope. The main features of this interaction are as follows: • Dynamic modification rules apply uniformly for all inspection characteristics of a task list, or individually for certain inspection characteristics, or generally for the inspection type that is active for the material. • Tightening or reducing the inspection scope based on the results of a previous inspection is controlled either by the valuation of the inspection lot (dynamic modification by lot) or by the valuations of the individual inspection characteristics (dynamic modification by characteristic). 7-1
  • 48. When several lots of the same material are to be inspected simultaneously, there are two times when the system can dynamically modify the inspection scope. These are: • The inspection scope is modified in advance by assuming that all open characteristics will be accepted. If a lot is rejected unexpectedly as a result of an inspection, the inspection scope will be updated again after the usage decision has been made. • The inspection scope is modified after the usage decision for the current inspection lot has been made. ON THE RIGHT TRACK WITH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) Statistical process control (SPC) allows you to monitor, regulate, and improve the quality of processes. MOVEMENT DATA Lot level Quality level Characteristic level Inspection lot creation Task list selection Inspection scope Sampling Characteristic inspection results Inspection instruction Quality inspection Usage decision INSPECTION LOT PROCESSING Quality Control Chart The most important tool for statistical process control is the quality control chart, a graphic tool for documenting, analyzing, and controlling processes. You can use this chart in an inspection during production and during the procurement or shipping process. MASTER DATA INSPECTION PLAN • Header • Characteristic SAMPLING PROCEDURE • Sampling plan AQL ASSIGNMENT • DYNAMIC MODIFICATION RULE Stage change SAMPLING SCHEME SAMPLING PLANS BASED ON LOT SIZE Fig. 7-1: Dynamic Modification of the Inspection Scope 7-2 Fig. 7-2: Illustration of an x-bar-s Control Chart You choose one or more control variables for the relevant characteristic, determine their values at regular intervals by taking samples from the process, and enter them in the chart in chronological order. INSPECTION STAGES Types of Control Charts mySAP PLM QM provides the following types of control charts: • Mean value chart with tolerances (acceptance chart) • Mean value chart without tolerances (Shewhart chart) • Standard deviation chart (Shewhart chart) • Range chart (Shewhart chart) • Moving average chart
  • 49. • Exponentially weighted moving average chart • Individual moving range chart for sample size n=1 • Charts for qualitative characteristics (np-, p-, u- and c-chart) For quantitative characteristics, normal distribution is used, and for qualitative characteristics, Poisson distribution is used. You can show the mean value and standard deviation of a characteristic on one control chart with two tracks. In addition to the control variable, each track also contains control limits. If these limits are exceeded, you have the ability to intervene in the process. For some control chart types, you can predefine warning limits or a centerline. The limits are determined using statistical methods from the current process data or from the results of an initial run. You can also enter them manually on the basis of existing data. You can use various algorithms for the calculation. Acceptance charts are based on your predefined tolerances. They determine the share of scrap of the process. The limits of these charts are extended if a long-term reduction in the process variance is achieved. If you are using a Shewhart chart, the limits become tighter as a result of a long-term reduction in the process variance. These charts only take internal process parameters into account, not external tolerance specifications. They use a continuously recurring statistical test to check that the controlled status of the process has not changed. As inspection planner, you determine whether a quality control chart is to be maintained for a given inspection characteristic. The charts may include several inspection lots or production orders. mySAP.com creates the quality control charts when preparing the quality inspection and updates them when you record results. As quality inspector, you can display the charts when you are recording results and, if you have the appropriate authorization, you can use them to calculate the intervention and warning limits. If necessary, you can exchange the algorithms. You can evaluate inspection results using the quality control chart. mySAP PLM QM contains a valuation rule that rejects a sample as soon as any action limit is exceeded. When this occurs, the workflow automatically notifies the department (as long as the defect class has been set appropriately in the defect code of the task-list characteristic). You can view all of the control charts you are responsible for in a work list. An iView shows you all charts where control limits have been exceeded if you are working in the quality manager role. Western Electric Rules Apart from showing where control limits were exceeded, control charts can indicate that a process may be running out of control on the basis of unusual patterns (for example, runs or trends). The criteria you use to detect such patterns are referred to as Western Electric Rules. In the work list for control charts, you can check the stability of processes according to the following criteria: • 1 point outside of control limits • 2 of 3 consecutive points outside 2/3 of the control limits • 4 of 5 consecutive points outside 1/3 of the control limits • 8 consecutive points above or below the center line (run) • 15 consecutive points within 1/3 of the control limits • 6 consecutive points in ascending or descending order (trend) On the selection screen, you can decide whether: • The check according to Western Electric Rules should be carried out immediately. In this case, all control charts that correspond to the selection criteria are checked. • You want to view a list of control charts, from which you can then choose individual control charts to be checked Violations of the Western Electric Rules are displayed in a list along with the chart number, track, and sample number. From this list, you can branch to the inspection results to display detailed information on the individual inspections and to view the control chart. 7-3
  • 50. In the mean-value chart, you can display the process capability indices cp and cpk in a second window. If the inspection results are already divided into classes, mySAP.com uses these classes to display the histogram. Otherwise, it divides the existing values into appropriate classes. You can increase or decrease the number of classes using the zoom function. Fig. 7-3: Process Capability Index cpk You can use a histogram evaluation to display the frequency distribution of measured values in a bar chart. This allows you to recognize typical and extreme values of a sample, as well as to judge the location, dispersion, and form of the distribution. You can blend the histogram out and replace it with a normal distribution if required. The histogram contains the following data: • All valid results for the sample • Upper and lower specification limits • Target value • Distribution function and statistical values 7-4 Fig. 7-4: Depiction of a Histogram Quality Scores Quality scores for inspection lots are a proven tool for quality control. mySAP PLM QM provides you with several ways of determining the quality score. It uses information from the following sources: • Usage decision • Estimated fraction of nonconforming units in the lot • Estimated fraction of nonconforming units for characteristics – Maximum share of defects – Weighted average share of defects • Quality score of the characteristic defect classes – Minimum (worst) quality score – Weighted average quality score
  • 51. VENDOR EVALUATION • QM system audit – Either the average quality score of all When procuring materials, you can use the vendor evaluation function to select a suitable vendor. This function provides you (as the purchaser) with a summarized score that has been calculated for the vendor according to main and subcriteria. system audits executed during a specified time period or the quality score of the most recent system audit. You define the criteria and their relative weighting according to your company requirements. EVALUATIONS: KEEPING YOU UP-TO-DATE PROCUREMENT MAIN CRITERIA WEIGHTING SUBCRITERIA WEIGHTING A1 Price level PRICE 30% % A2 Price behavior % Other % A1 GR inspection % % Other % % A2 On-time delivery performance Quantity reliability A3 Uniform shipping instructions % Other VENDOR EVALUATION A2 Complaint A3 Audit QUALITY 40% % % A1 Technology Other % A1 DELIVERY 20% SERVICE 10% The following evaluation tools are available in Quality Management: • Results history of mean and single values with integrated analysis of trends • mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) with integrated Business Content • QM Information System (QMIS) • Report lists programmed using ABAP – Predefined SAP Reports – Logical databases as the basis for customer-specific reports A % % Determined automatically Fig. 7-5: Vendor Evaluation The subcriteria for the main criterion quality come from the following sources: • Goods receipt inspection – The average of the quality scores of all goods receipt lots from the vendor for a specific time period • Complaints – The number of accepted complaints in relation to the turnover These tools complement each other. Report lists primarily evaluate operative data. mySAP BI and QMIS, however, analyze summarized data that can be stored for a long period of time. Results History With the help of the results history, you can analyze single values that were recorded for a characteristic in the results recording function and when you made the usage decision. You define the period of time to be analyzed. You can prepare the data in list form and graphically represent the progression of values over a period of time using a run chart. With the help of a trend analysis, you can represent the predicted course of the values. Exporting the data, for example, to a Microsoft EXCEL file provides additional options for processing the information. 7-5
  • 52. INSPECTION LOTS Inspection lots can be transferred to mySAP BI once the usage decision has been made. You can obtain information on the frequency of individual usage decisions, the number of inspected and skipped lots, the actual inspected quantity, the fraction of nonconforming units, or the quality score in graphic or tabular form. For example, you can compress the information and sort it according to vendor or purchasing organization. QUALITY NOTIFICATIONS Fig. 7-6: Evaluations and Representations Using the Results History mySAP Business Intelligence (mySAP BI) with the Business Information Warehouse mySAP BI offers modern data warehousing, which fits effortlessly into the IT landscape of mySAP.com and other software systems. It contains pre-configured business content for you in your role of quality manager or quality planner. Business content includes data extraction, metadata and information models, and ready-made templates for tables and graphs in Microsoft EXCEL or HTML. Quality notifications reflect unplanned events that occur during the quality process. For every notification, a selection of attributes and key figures is transferred to mySAP BI. In this way, you receive summarized or detailed information regarding the notification process, with an emphasis on reference objects such as customer, vendor, material, or assembly. On the organizational side, the emphasis is placed on purchasing and sales divisions, material groups, or the country of origin of your customers. Among the key figures, you can obtain the number of notifications, cumulative or average processing time, defective and returned quantities, and proportion of notifications completed on time. In addition, you can obtain information on new, outstanding, and successfully completed tasks. DEFECTS, DEFECT LOCATION, CAUSE, ACTIVITIES, TASKS INSPECTION RESULTS The specifications and results of your quality inspections can be evaluated down to the sample level of an individual characteristic. The spectrum of key figures ranges from the number of inspected or rejected samples to indicators for process capability, such as cp and cpk. You can interactively analyze quality, using criteria such as material, vendor, or work center. 7-6 In mySAP PLM QM, you document defects in the inspection lot or as notification items. mySAP BI shows you which defect types occurred, where they occurred, and what caused them. Activities and tasks associated with the notification are also extracted. The same reference objects as in quality notifications are available to you in the form of navigational attributes. All coding is also available. For example, you can determine which defects occur regularly in a specific location.
  • 53. Many key figures used by the quality manager are based on information obtained from external systems. Examples of this information include the vendor evaluation in purchasing, returned quantities in stock management, scrap and rework quantities in production, or returns in sales. This information is integrated in the business content and can be linked with key figures from mySAP PLM QM, thereby providing you with a complete picture of the quality in your company. Quality Management Information System (QMIS) Inspection results and quality notifications are summarized on the basis of time, plant, or work center and updated in the Quality Management Information System (QMIS). You can decide whether you want the update to be performed on the basis of material, material and vendor, or material and customer. Since the QM Information System is part of the Logistics Information System, you can combine evaluations with information from other areas of logistics, such as production or purchasing. Output data is displayed in list form or as a graphic and can be sent as an e-mail. Other features are ABC or portfolio analyses. Using the standard query tools, you can freely define your own evaluations and reports. STANDARD ANALYSIS The QM Information System (QMIS) contains a selection of standard evaluations for your materials, vendors, and customers including key figures such as process capability indices, defects frequencies, or skip quotas. You can tailor both the presentation and content of the QMIS to suit your needs. FLEXIBLE ANALYSES You can configure your own reports on the basis of standard information structures or self-defined structures. You can also link your key figures to company key figures using formulas. Even if you have no programming experience, you can quickly and easily create reports using flexible analysis. EARLY WARNING SYSTEM The Early Warning System helps you identify problems at an early stage by warning you if an exception situation occurs. You can define the exception situations. If an exception situation arises, the system will immediately inform you through email or workflow. An exception situation can, for example, occur if the quality score of a vendor falls below 90 points. You define exception analyses using standard information structures, or using your self-defined structures. You can also use mathematical algorithms or set the system to recognize threshold values or upcoming trends. Report Lists Using ABAP Query You can create evaluations that are not available as standard with a simple mouse click using the ABAP Query tool or predefined logical databases. The link to printing and presentation functions automatically occurs. QM-STI Interface for External Evaluations QM-STI (Statistical Data Interface) is an open interface used for evaluating inspection results in external systems. You configure it in Customizing and trigger the external application by simply pushing a button in one of the following mySAP PLM QM functions: • Results recording • Usage decision • Control chart • Results history 7-7
  • 54. QUALITY COSTS Controlling Within mySAP.com, the Controlling component plans, collects, and evaluates all costs incurred by a company. These costs include quality-related costs (quality costs). In mySAP PLM QM, you record appraisal costs originating from quality inspections or nonconformity costs originating from quality notifications. Quality costs from other applications (for example, human resource management) can also be included in the cost calculation. QM Order The controlling component uses QM orders to manage quality costs. The following types of QM orders are provided in mySAP.com: • Appraisal costs order – For individual settlement – For collective settlement • Nonconformity costs order You can also define your own specific order types. When creating an inspection lot or a quality notification, you can create or assign a corresponding QM order. Appraisal Costs Appraisal cost orders are stored in the material master and assigned by mySAP.com as cost collectors to individual inspection lots. If, however, a special settlement is required for an inspection, that settlement takes precedence. This is the case, for example, when the lot belongs to a production order or when it comes from a goods receipt for a purchase order that is assigned to a cost center account. 7-8 mySAP.com calculates appraisal costs using the activities that you, as the inspector, confirm. You can confirm activities, for example, on the basis of the hours worked. Accounting fixes the types of activities, such as setup or inspection time, and the valid charges for the cost center that performs the activity. The activities performed for inspection lots are logged during results recording or when the usage decision is made. Activities performed for inspections during production are confirmed when confirmations for production orders are made. Other inspection costs, such as material usage, are settled to the order in which you confirm the inspection activity. To settle nonconformity costs for a quality notification, you create a QM order when processing a notification. You assign the order to the notification header and use it as a cost collector for costs such as those relating to a warranty, to scrapping, or to the settlement of activities performed. You can also assign rework orders to this cost collector account. This allows you to debit all costs for a quality notification to the appropriate personnel and analyze the costs. Benefits: • Use dynamic modification to reduce your appraisal costs • Monitor processes continously using quality control charts • Access important company key figures and evaluations immediately
  • 55. TEST EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT: CALIBRATION INSPECTIONS As test equipment manager, you are responsible for managing, monitoring, calibrating, and maintaining test equipment. Test equipment management involves the following activities: • Planning and performing calibration inspections • Releasing or blocking test equipment • Documenting the calibration history • Creating trend analyses • Determining calibration costs • Tracking test equipment with usage lists Monitoring Technical Installations In addition to calibration inspections, you can use inspection lots created for maintenance orders for the extended recording of measured values in plant maintenance (for example, to monitor technical installations, where critical values have to be recorded on a regular basis). Consequently, you can record inspection results for functional locations as well as for test equipment. ORDER PROCESSING CALIBRATION INSPECTIONS AND mySAP.com Test equipment management in mySAP.com combines important planning and processing functions from mySAP™ PLM Asset Life-Cycle Management (mySAP™ PLM ALM) and mySAP PLM Quality Management (SAP PLM QM) that are needed for master-data management and for planning and performing calibration inspections. Releasing Test Equipment You can use the inspection results to decide whether a piece of test equipment can be released for further use. Using the results history, you can verify the suitability of each piece of equipment and the accuracy of the inspections performed using this equipment. INSPECTION DECISIONS USAGE LIST RESULTS HISTORY MASTER DATA WORK LISTS CALIBRATION PLANNING CALIBRATION ORDERS CALIBRATON INSPECTION NOTIFICATIONS CALIBRATION INTERVALS TREND ANALYSIS LINK BETWEEN INSP. CHARACS/ MEAS. POINTS Fig. 8-1: Functions of Test Equipment Management Test Equipment Tracking The mySAP.com e-business platform provides you with test equipment tracking functions. During a calibration inspection, you might notice that a piece of test equipment is no longer fit for use. In this case, you can check to see which inspection lots and characteristics were inspected using this piece of equipment in the test equipment history. You are then able to initiate the appropriate actions. 8-1
  • 56. MASTER DATA IN A CALIBRATION INSPECTION PLANNING A CALIBRATION INSPECTION Equipment In mySAP.com, your company’s test equipment data is stored in an equipment master record. This master record contains all of the data relevant to test equipment (such as acquisition value and date, manufacturer, work center, cost center, and location). The automatic or manual scheduling of a maintenance plan triggers calibration inspections that are to be performed at regular intervals. When a maintenance plan is scheduled, mySAP.com creates a maintenance order and when this maintenance order is released, an inspection lot is created. The inspection lot contains all data required for the calibration inspection, such as a list of equipment to be inspected and the inspection specifications. To organize your test equipment and make it easier to locate, you can: • Combine similar test equipment into groups • Use the classification system to categorize test equipment according to technical features • Assign the test equipment to a construction type (material) Maintenance Plan The maintenance plan is the central planning object in which you assign the list of equipment to be inspected, the maintenance task list, and the calibration schedule. The maintenance plan specifies which types of activities must be performed periodically and how often they are to be performed. In the maintenance plan, you can enter time-based or performance-based intervals for performing these activities. When maintenance deadlines are automatically called, mySAP.com creates maintenance orders. Maintenance Task List In the task list, you plan the recurring work processes in a standardized form. To perform a calibration inspection, you can include inspection characteristics in the maintenance task list. In turn, you can include a maintenance task list in a maintenance plan. The task list specifies the activities to be performed for individual maintenance deadlines. 8-2 MAINTENANCE TASK LIST MAINTENANCE STRATEGY/CYCLE TEST EQUIPMENT (EQUIPMENT MASTER RECORDS) MAINTENANCE ITEM MAINTENANCE ORDER MAINTENANCE PLAN INSPECTION CHARACTERISTICS . . . Fig. 8-2: Objects in a Calibration Inspection To plan a calibration inspection, you must: • Create master data For example, equipment master records, maintenance plan, master inspection characteristics, and the maintenance task list. You define operations and the characteristics associated with these operations in the maintenance task list.
  • 57. • Define inspection specifications Quantitative and qualitative inspection characteristics contain the inspection specifications (such as target values, tolerances, and codes for attributive valuations), and they determine how results are to be recorded. • Define inspection intervals You can define inspection intervals using a central maintenance strategy that can apply to several maintenance plans. You can use maintenance strategies, for example, to define different intervals for each operation within a maintenance task list. You also have the option of defining a maintenance cycle (single-cycle plan) at the maintenance plan level, which is valid for all operations of the maintenance task list. You define inspection intervals either based on time or performance. A time-based inspection interval might, for example, consist of an annual calibration on a key date. A performance-based inspection interval may involve a calibration after 1000 uses of a piece of equipment. You can also combine time- and performance-based calibrations in a multiple counter plan (for example, inspect after 6 months, or, at the latest, after 1000 uses of the equipment). CALIBRATION INSPECTION The calibration inspection covers the following activities: • Scheduling the maintenance plan and creating the maintenance order and inspection lot The maintenance plan is usually scheduled automatically using a periodically run program. When this program is run, mySAP.com creates calls and converts these calls into orders when they become due. You can make a setting that releases the orders directly, causing the inspection lots to be created. • Inspecting and calibrating test equipment You can create a work list of the calibration inspections that are planned for a specific period, according to various criteria. Such criteria might include, for example, all test equipment to be calibrated in the next week or test equip- ment sorted by cost center or work center. You can use this information to identify and prepare the test equipment for inspection. When a maintenance order is released, mySAP.com automatically creates an inspection lot. All orders that have been released and all inspection lots that are to be processed appear in a work list for results recording and can be processed in any sequence. If test equipment unexpectedly fails during use, you can create a maintenance notification (malfunction report). Within this maintenance notification, you can manually create a maintenance order to schedule a calibration inspection. • Recording results You can record results in the work list for the equipment and use the characteristic types and recording functions of mySAP PLM QM. During a calibration inspection, you are able to make confirmations for the maintenance order (for example, to record costs for activities performed or for materials that were required for the calibration inspection). In addition, there are other order processing functions available, such as capacity planning or external assignment. If characteristics are rejected, you can create maintenance notifications, start corrective tasks, and document the success of these corrective tasks. USAGE DECISION INSPECTION LOT EQUIPMENT NO. 12345 Update equipment status Adjust cycle modification factor Update measurement documents RELEASE OR BLOCK EQUIPMENT REDUCE/INCREASE INSPECTION INTERVAL DOCUMENT INSPECTION RESULTS Fig. 8-3: Follow-Up Actions When Making the Usage Decision 8-3
  • 58. • Equipment valuation and follow-up actions Once you have recorded all the results for the equipment in each operation, you make an equipment valuation for the test equipment (accept or reject). When all the test equipment for an inspection lot has been valuated, you make the usage decision for the inspection lot. As a result of the usage decision, mySAP.com can perform certain follow-up actions: – Update equipment status mySAP.com manages a status for each item of test equipment in the equipment master record. This status determines whether a piece of test equipment is released for use or blocked. On the basis of the equipment valuation, mySAP.com proposes the future status. This status can be updated in the equipment master record. If a piece of test equipment is blocked, the system will alert you to this fact when the next order is released. – Change inspection interval If an inspection shows that a test equipment item is still fit for use, but maintenance will be due before the next inspection date, you can change the cycle modification factor when you make the usage decision. You can thereby reduce the length of the next inspection interval. – Create measurement documents If you have defined measuring points for your test equipment, mySAP.com can create measurement documents automatically for each measuring point. When this follow-up action is executed, the results of the calibration inspection are automatically entered in new measurement documents. You can call up these documents in the equipment history. – Complete maintenance order You can set the system to automatically complete the calibration order when the calibration inspection has been completed. In addition to the follow-up actions described above, you can also define your own follow-up actions, such as printing selfadhesive calibration labels specifying the date of the next calibration inspection. EVALUATIONS FOR TEST EQUIPMENT Results History You use the results history to display the results of previous inspections for specific characteristics of a piece of test equipment. Fig. 8-4: Results History with Trend Line 8-4
  • 59. Trend Analysis Using Run Chart If you display inspection results for an inspection characteristic as a run chart using the time axis in the results history, mySAP.com can indicate a trend (regression line) for the run of values. This provides you with an indication of when a tolerance limit will be exceeded. Usage Lists The usage list for test equipment allows you to determine the cost center of the test equipment, its current or previous location, or the work center in which it was used. Test Equipment History Using the test equipment history, you can determine which inspection lots and characteristics were inspected with a specific piece of test equipment. This is important when, for example, during a calibration inspection, you determine that a piece of test equipment should no longer be in use (test equipment tracking). Benefits: • Guaranteed quality and reliability of your test equipment • Safe production process because of early forecasting of possible weak points in technical installations • Ability to track to track your test equipment 8-5
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