When one looks at a periodic table, there are many letters and numbers that help identify the elements and give way to their characteristics. Understanding these letters and numbers will allow for a better understand of each element.
The periodic table was organized over the years to provide scientists information about the different elements. Both man-made and natural, the elements are placed in order of things such as atomic mass, atomic number, size and other things.
The first periodic table was put together by Mendeleev over 130 years ago. He put the elements in order of relationships of reactivity (how elements react). His table had holes in it that allowed for other elements to be discovered at a later time.
Mendeleev was correct in his holes on his table. Today’s table looks very similar to his table. It lists the elements in order of their atomic number.
The first 92 elements have been found in nature. All other elements have been man-made.
Parts of the Periodic Table Metals - elements possessing similar properties such as metallic luster, reacting well with elements other than metals, and easily conducts electricity. Examples: Copper, Potassium, Sodium Nonmetals – elements possessing the opposite characteristics of metals. They are often found in the gaseous state. Examples: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Metalloids found between metals and nonmetals; often have properties of both. Ex: Silicon, Boron
These have physical properties such as conduction of heat & electricity, malleability, ductility, and a lustrous appearance
They tend to lose electrons to form positive ions.
32 Ge 72.59 50 Sn 118.69 82 Pb 207.19 83 Bi 208.98 13 Al 26.9815 31 Ga 69.72 49 In 114.82 81 Tl 204.37 84 Po (210) 51 Sb 121.75
7 N 14.0067 15 P 30.9738 33 As 74.9216 6 C 12.011 14 Si 28.086 5 B 10.811 Nonmetals 8 O 15.999 16 S 32.064 34 Se 78.96 52 Te 127.6
These are found in the upper right-hand corner of the table.
Lack the physical properties to deem them metals.
They tend to gain electrons in reactions with metals.
48 Cd 112.4 30 Zn 65.38 80 Hg 200.6 TRANSITION METALS Characteristics: They show great similarities within a given period and group The last electrons are added to the d orbital 112 Uub (277) 39 Y 88.91 57 La 138.9 89 Ac (227) 21 Sc 44.96 73 Ta 180.9 105 Db (262) 41 Nb 92.91 23 V 50.94 72 Hf 178.9 104 Rf (261) 40 Zr 91.22 22 Ti 47.88 42 Mo 95.94 74 W 183.9 24 Cr 52.00 106 Sg (263) 47 Ag 107.9 29 Cu 63.55 79 Au 197.0 111 Uuu (272) 46 Pd 106.4 28 Ni 58.69 78 Pt 195.1 110 Uun (269) 45 Rh 102.9 27 Co 58.93 77 Ir 192.2 109 Mt (266) 44 Ru 101.1 26 Fe 55.85 76 Os 190.2 108 Hs (265) 43 Tc (98) 25 Mn 54.94 75 Re 186.2 107 Bh (262)
When studying the periodic table one can tell many things about an element just by its location on the table. These trends help scientists identify new elements and understand why an element has different properties.
A decrease in the attraction of the outer electrons (valence electrons) to the positively-charged nucleus.
Increases as one moves vertically down the periodic table.
It remains constant as you move right across the periodic table because the electrons aren’t being added to a new energy level.
Shielding Effect pattern As you move down the periodic table there are more electrons inside an element. This creates less of an attraction to the valence electrons. (the electrons in the lower energy levels are taking up too much of the nucleus’ attention.)
Common Elements & Their Symbols nails German, zink Zn Zinc Car tires Sanskrit, sulvere S Sulfur Breathing Greek, oxys O Oxygen Advertising signs Green, neos Ne Neon Rockets Greek, hydro H Hydrogen Pools Greek, chloros Cl Chlorine Cement, lime Latin, calx Ca Calcium Poisons Latin, arsenicum As Arsenic Soda cans Latin, alumen Al Aluminum Uses Origin Symbol Element
Common Elements with Unique Symbols salt Latin, natrium Na Sodium Coins Latin, argentum Ag Silber Fertilizers Latin, kalium K Potassium Thermometers Ancient, hydrargyrum Hg Mercury Car batteries Latin, plumbum Pb Lead Steel Latin, ferrum Fe Iron Jewelry Latin, aurum Au Gold Wire Latin, cuprum Cu Copper batteries Latin, stibium Sb Antimony Uses Origin Symbol Element