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Periodic table

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  • 1. Gathering Information from the Periodic Table
    • When one looks at a periodic table, there are many letters and numbers that help identify the elements and give way to their characteristics. Understanding these letters and numbers will allow for a better understand of each element.
  • 2. The Periodic Table
    • The periodic table was organized over the years to provide scientists information about the different elements. Both man-made and natural, the elements are placed in order of things such as atomic mass, atomic number, size and other things.
  • 3. Dmitrii Mendeleev
    • The first periodic table was put together by Mendeleev over 130 years ago. He put the elements in order of relationships of reactivity (how elements react). His table had holes in it that allowed for other elements to be discovered at a later time.
  • 4. Today’s Periodic Table
    • Mendeleev was correct in his holes on his table. Today’s table looks very similar to his table. It lists the elements in order of their atomic number.
    • The first 92 elements have been found in nature. All other elements have been man-made.
  • 5. Parts of the Periodic Table Metals - elements possessing similar properties such as metallic luster, reacting well with elements other than metals, and easily conducts electricity. Examples: Copper, Potassium, Sodium Nonmetals – elements possessing the opposite characteristics of metals. They are often found in the gaseous state. Examples: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Metalloids found between metals and nonmetals; often have properties of both. Ex: Silicon, Boron
  • 6.  
  • 7. 1 H 1.008 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.99 19 K 39.10 37 Rb 85.47 55 Cs 132.9 87 Fr (223) ALKALI METALS
    • Group IA Characteristics:
    • The most chemically reactive metals, with the exception of Hydrogen, losing their one valence electron to non-metals
    • Going down the group, the atomic radius and density of the elements increase
  • 8. 4 Be 9.012 12 Mg 24.31 20 Ca 40.08 38 Sr 87.62 56 Ba 137.3 88 Ra 226 Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Group IIA Characteristics:
    • These elements are also very reactive, losing their two valence electrons to non-metals
  • 9. 9 F 18.9984 17 Cl 35.453 35 Br 79.909 53 I 126.904 85 At (210) Halogens
    • Group 7A Characteristics:
    • These elements all form diatomic molecules.
    • With the exception of At, they all react with metals to form salts containing ions with a 1- charge.
  • 10. 2 He 4.0026 10 Ne 20.179 18 Ar 39.498 36 Kr 83.80 54 Xe 131.30 86 Rn (222) Noble Gases
    • Group 8A Characteristics:
    • These elements exist under normal conditions as single-atom gases
    • Have little chemical reactivity
  • 11. Metals
    • Characteristics:
    • These have physical properties such as conduction of heat & electricity, malleability, ductility, and a lustrous appearance
    • They tend to lose electrons to form positive ions.
    32 Ge 72.59 50 Sn 118.69 82 Pb 207.19 83 Bi 208.98 13 Al 26.9815 31 Ga 69.72 49 In 114.82 81 Tl 204.37 84 Po (210) 51 Sb 121.75
  • 12. 7 N 14.0067 15 P 30.9738 33 As 74.9216 6 C 12.011 14 Si 28.086 5 B 10.811 Nonmetals 8 O 15.999 16 S 32.064 34 Se 78.96 52 Te 127.6
    • Characteristics:
    • These are found in the upper right-hand corner of the table.
    • Lack the physical properties to deem them metals.
    • They tend to gain electrons in reactions with metals.
  • 13. 48 Cd 112.4 30 Zn 65.38 80 Hg 200.6 TRANSITION METALS Characteristics: They show great similarities within a given period and group The last electrons are added to the d orbital 112 Uub (277) 39 Y 88.91 57 La 138.9 89 Ac (227) 21 Sc 44.96 73 Ta 180.9 105 Db (262) 41 Nb 92.91 23 V 50.94 72 Hf 178.9 104 Rf (261) 40 Zr 91.22 22 Ti 47.88 42 Mo 95.94 74 W 183.9 24 Cr 52.00 106 Sg (263) 47 Ag 107.9 29 Cu 63.55 79 Au 197.0 111 Uuu (272) 46 Pd 106.4 28 Ni 58.69 78 Pt 195.1 110 Uun (269) 45 Rh 102.9 27 Co 58.93 77 Ir 192.2 109 Mt (266) 44 Ru 101.1 26 Fe 55.85 76 Os 190.2 108 Hs (265) 43 Tc (98) 25 Mn 54.94 75 Re 186.2 107 Bh (262)
  • 14. Lanthanide Series
    • Characteristics:
    • Electrons fill the 4 f orbital
    • These elements decrease in size, going from left to right
    64 Gd 157.25 65 Tb 158.92 66 Dy 162.5 67 Ho 164.93 68 Er 167.26 69 Tm 168.93 58 Ce 140.12 59 Pr 140.9 60 Nd 144.2 61 Pm (147) 62 Sm 150.35 63 Eu 151.96 70 Yb 173.04 71 Lu 174.97
  • 15. Actinide Series
    • Characteristics:
    • Members of the transitions metals
    • Electrons fill the 5 f orbital
    96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (252) 99 Es (254) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (257) 90 Th 232.03 91 Pa (231) 92 U 238.0 93 Np (237) 94 Pu (234) 95 Am (243) 102 No (255) 103 Lr (256)
  • 16. The Periodic Table Return to Home Page Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Metals Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases Actinide Series Lanthanide Series
  • 17. Trends in the Periodic Table
    • When studying the periodic table one can tell many things about an element just by its location on the table. These trends help scientists identify new elements and understand why an element has different properties.
  • 18. Atomic Radius
    • Atomic radius within a group increases as one moves vertically down the periodic table.
    • Atomic radius within a period decreases as one moves horizontally right across the periodic table.
  • 19. Atomic Radius pattern Where would you find the element with the a) largest radius b) smallest radius? a) Bottom, left-hand side b) Top, right-hand side
  • 20. Ionization Energy (the energy required to remove an electron from an element)
    • The energy required for elements within a group decreases as one moves vertically down the periodic table.
    • The energy required for elements within a period increases as one moves horizontally right across the periodic table.
  • 21. Ionization Energy pattern Where would you find the element with the a) largest ionization energy b) smallest ionization energy? a), Top, right-hand side b) bottom left-hand side
  • 22. Shielding Effect
    • A decrease in the attraction of the outer electrons (valence electrons) to the positively-charged nucleus.
    • Increases as one moves vertically down the periodic table.
    • It remains constant as you move right across the periodic table because the electrons aren’t being added to a new energy level.
  • 23. Shielding Effect pattern As you move down the periodic table there are more electrons inside an element. This creates less of an attraction to the valence electrons. (the electrons in the lower energy levels are taking up too much of the nucleus’ attention.)
  • 24. Electronegativity (EN)
    • How strong the bonds are within the compound.
    • Decreases as you move down the periodic table because the energy levels are growing.
    • Increases as you move right across the periodic table because more p+ are added to the nucleus allowing for more electrons.
  • 25. Electronegativity pattern F is the most electronegative element at 4.0 and Francium is the least at 0.7.
  • 26. Electron affinity
    • A measure of the energy change that occurs as an electron is added to an atom
    • Has the same trends as electronegativity for the same reasons (what you wrote on the previous slide).
  • 27. Electron Affinity pattern
  • 28. Common Elements & Their Symbols nails German, zink Zn Zinc Car tires Sanskrit, sulvere S Sulfur Breathing Greek, oxys O Oxygen Advertising signs Green, neos Ne Neon Rockets Greek, hydro H Hydrogen Pools Greek, chloros Cl Chlorine Cement, lime Latin, calx Ca Calcium Poisons Latin, arsenicum As Arsenic Soda cans Latin, alumen Al Aluminum Uses Origin Symbol Element
  • 29. Common Elements with Unique Symbols salt Latin, natrium Na Sodium Coins Latin, argentum Ag Silber Fertilizers Latin, kalium K Potassium Thermometers Ancient, hydrargyrum Hg Mercury Car batteries Latin, plumbum Pb Lead Steel Latin, ferrum Fe Iron Jewelry Latin, aurum Au Gold Wire Latin, cuprum Cu Copper batteries Latin, stibium Sb Antimony Uses Origin Symbol Element
  • 30. Can atoms be counted or measured?
  • 31. Types of Measurements
    • Mole - base comparison of all types of elements
    • Amu - measurement of one element/atom
    • Grams - measurement of a mole of atoms
  • 32. Avogadro’s Number
    • The number of particles in 1 mole (mol) of a pure substance.
    • 6.022 x 10 23
    • Used to calculate the number of atoms(molecules) in a mole or the number of moles created by the atoms.
  • 33. Atomic Mass (Mass Number)
    • The average of all of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
    • The mass number is the rounded atomic mass. It is the number of protons and neutrons found in an atom.
    1 H 1.01
  • 34. Atomic mass is expressed in Atomic Mass Units (amu)
    • The mass number is the mass of both the protons and neutrons, not the total mass.
    • Scientists developed a unit to compare all atoms.
    • 1 amu = 1.66 x 10 -24 g (1/12th the mass of Carbon-12)
  • 35. Average Atomic Mass on the PT
    • When you read the mass on the PT, the units are amu
    • Cu = 63.55 amu
    • These average atomic masses are the average of the atomic masses of the isotopes occurring in nature.
    • Amu when single atom; grams when larger amounts of materials
  • 36. How to calculate the amu
    • Scientists use the % of existence of isotopes multiplied by the mass all totaled to get the mass.
    • Ex: Cu-63 exists 69.17% of the time yielding a mass of 62.94 amu and Cu-65 exists the other 30.83% of the time with a mass of 64.93 amu. Together they create the amu of Cu.
    • = (0.6917 x 62.94 amu) + (0.3083 x 64.93 amu) = 63.55 amu
  • 37. Practice
    • Si exists 92.21% of the time giving a mass of 27.98 amu, 4.70% of the time giving a mass of 28.98 amu and 3.09% of the time with a mass of 29.97. What is the amu?
    =(0.9221 x 27.98 amu) + (0.0470 x 28.98 amu) + (0.0309 x 29.97 amu) = =25.80 amu + 1.36 amu + 0.9261 amu = 28.09 amu (REMEMBER SIG FIGS!!!!!)
  • 38. Calculations using Factor Labeling
    • If we have 5 mol of O, then we have ___ atoms of O.
  • 39. Practice
    • How many atoms are in 3.20 mol of Cl?
  • 40. Another try
    • If you have 1.23 x 10 25 atoms of Br, how many moles do you have?
  • 41. Relating moles to molar mass (g)
    • Molar mass is the amu’s written as grams.
    • Ex: Cu has an atomic mass of 63.55 amu and a molar mass of 63.55 g.
    • 1 mol = molar mass
    • 1 mol = 63.55 g (for Cu)
  • 42. Sample Problem
    • Determine the mass in grams of 3.50 moles of Cu.
  • 43. Practice
    • Find the mass in grams of 7.55 mol of Si.
  • 44. Another Try
    • If you have 35.4 g of MgCl 2 , how many moles do you have? (MgCl 2 =1 Mg & 2 Cl)