BUILDING DIGITAL                     COLLECTIONSE M I LY P F O T E N H A U E RP R O G R A M M A N A G E R , W I S C O N S ...
WHAT DO YOU MEAN, DIGITIZE?• Selecting materials• Reformatting materials  (scanning or  photographing)• Adding metadata  (...
IDENTIFYING GOALS: WHY DIGITIZE?• Go where your  audience is• Reach new audiences• Improve access to  “invisible” material...
DIGITAL PRESERVATION• Definition from the Library of  Congress:  • The active management of digital    content over time t...
DIGITAL PRESERVATION QUICK TIPS• Save more than one  copy of each file• On more than one type  of storage media• In more t...
STORAGE OPTIONS• Cloud storage service    • Google Drive    • Amazon    • DuraCloud• Local server• RAID device• External h...
CONSIDERING COPYRIGHT• Disclaimer: I am not a  lawyer• Owning a physical item does  not necessarily mean you  hold the cop...
DIGITAL IMAGING• Goals of imaging:  • Create a digital    representation that’s    faithful to the original    item  • Cre...
OBJECT PHOTOGRAPHY• Digital camera  • SLR that can shoot RAW    files (can convert to TIFFs)• Tripod• Two adjustable light...
SCANNING PHOTOGRAPHS• Scan all photographs in 24-  bit color, even if image is  black and white• Scanning resolution (ppi)...
NAMING YOUR FILES• Use only lower case letters, numbers, and dashes or  underscores• Don’t use spaces or punctuation• Use ...
METADATA: WHAT IS IT?• Information about stuff• Technical metadata =  information about the  digital file (size, type, etc...
METADATA ELEMENTSField Name         Sample DataTitle              DiVall barber shopCreator            F. C. BartleDate   ...
ASSIGNING SUBJECTS• Consistent use of subject headings  can help link related content in  your collection and across  disp...
Structured, standardized metadata   makes your digital content . . . • Searchable and sortable • Interoperable and shareab...
• Viewshare• Google Fusion tables• Timeline JS
SOFTWARE• When choosing software,  determine your needs  and then pick the best  tool for the job• To share your content i...
RESOURCES• A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital  Collections (IMLS, 2007) http://framework.niso.org/• Digitiz...
THANK YOU!E M I LY P F O T E N H A U E RP R O G R A M M A N A G E R , W I S C O N S I N H E R I TA G E O N L I N EE P F O ...
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Building Digital Collections

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Presented for the Wisconsin Federation of Museums annual meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, November 12, 2012.

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Building Digital Collections

  1. 1. BUILDING DIGITAL COLLECTIONSE M I LY P F O T E N H A U E RP R O G R A M M A N A G E R , W I S C O N S I N H E R I TA G E O N L I N EE P F O T E N H A U E R @ W I L S .W I S C . E D UH T T P : / / W I S C O N S I N H E R I TA G E . O R G
  2. 2. WHAT DO YOU MEAN, DIGITIZE?• Selecting materials• Reformatting materials (scanning or photographing)• Adding metadata (descriptive information)• Making available online• Storing and maintaining digital files and data (digital preservation) Wisconsin Historical Society
  3. 3. IDENTIFYING GOALS: WHY DIGITIZE?• Go where your audience is• Reach new audiences• Improve access to “invisible” materials• Protect fragile or heavily used materials• Learn more about your collections• Contribute to our collective knowledge South Wood County Historical Museum
  4. 4. DIGITAL PRESERVATION• Definition from the Library of Congress: • The active management of digital content over time to ensure ongoing access.• Two threats to digital content: • Obsolescence • Physical damage• Digital preservation is not simply file storage/backups.• Good practices now (preservation file formats, consistent file naming, thorough metadata) help ensure future access. Rock County Historical Society
  5. 5. DIGITAL PRESERVATION QUICK TIPS• Save more than one copy of each file• On more than one type of storage media• In more than one location• Document what, where, when• Spot-check annually• Migrate as necessary Logan Museum of Anthropology
  6. 6. STORAGE OPTIONS• Cloud storage service • Google Drive • Amazon • DuraCloud• Local server• RAID device• External hard drive• Archival quality (gold) CDs or DVDsTake into account potentialfuture storage needs. Villa Terrace Decorative Arts Museum
  7. 7. CONSIDERING COPYRIGHT• Disclaimer: I am not a lawyer• Owning a physical item does not necessarily mean you hold the copyright to that item• Public domain = no longer under copyright. In the US in 2012 that means the item was: • published before 1923 –OR– • Unpublished; creator died before 1942 –OR– • Unpublished; unknown creator; made before 1892 UW-Milwaukee Libraries
  8. 8. DIGITAL IMAGING• Goals of imaging: • Create a digital representation that’s faithful to the original item • Create the highest quality image file you can achieve with available resources • Image once—don’t expect to return to re- digitize UW-Madison Archives
  9. 9. OBJECT PHOTOGRAPHY• Digital camera • SLR that can shoot RAW files (can convert to TIFFs)• Tripod• Two adjustable lights (500 watts)• Reflective umbrellas (or sheets)• Paper or cloth backdrop• Color calibration chart Photo setup at Pabst Mansion
  10. 10. SCANNING PHOTOGRAPHS• Scan all photographs in 24- bit color, even if image is black and white• Scanning resolution (ppi) depends on size of original item • Longest side of item longer than 7” = 300ppi • Shorter than 7” = 600ppi• Save two copies of each scan: • High resolution TIFF (20- 40MB) for archiving and printing • Lower resolution JPEG (1-5MB) UW-La Crosse for online collection, email, easy access
  11. 11. NAMING YOUR FILES• Use only lower case letters, numbers, and dashes or underscores• Don’t use spaces or punctuation• Use leading zeroes for consecutive numbering. For example, a multi-page letter could have file names mac001.tif, mac002.tif, mac003.tif, etc.• Tie your file names to existing catalog numbers if possible• Document any file naming conventions you develop• Examples: • Photograph with accession # 2011.32.1 = 201132001.tif –OR– 2011_32_001.tif • Series of images by photographer John Smith = smith001.tif, smith002.tif, smith003.tif • Not so good: Glassplate16039 Auto repair in basement 025.tif
  12. 12. METADATA: WHAT IS IT?• Information about stuff• Technical metadata = information about the digital file (size, type, etc.)• Descriptive metadata = information about the content of the item (what are we looking at?)• Lets users find what they’re looking for• Organized, standardized, consistent, searchable Grant County Historical Society
  13. 13. METADATA ELEMENTSField Name Sample DataTitle DiVall barber shopCreator F. C. BartleDate 09/12/1925 OR 1920-1930Materials PhotographsSubjects Barbers; BarbershopsDescription Ralph DiVall (left) and Edwin T. Baltes (right) shave two men seated in barber chairs. According to a family history on file at the Society, DiVall operated this barber shop from the 1920s until his retirement on July 1, 1966.Location Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin Middleton Area Historical SocietyCollection DiVall FamilyRights statement This material may be protected by copyright law. The user is responsible for all issues of copyright.Identifier 2006.01.12File name 2006_01_12.jpg
  14. 14. ASSIGNING SUBJECTS• Consistent use of subject headings can help link related content in your collection and across disparate collections.• A controlled vocabulary is a standardized, pre-determined list of subject headings.• Some examples of controlled vocabularies: • Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus • Nomenclature 3.0 • Thesaurus for Graphic Materials • Library of Congress Subject Headings Milwaukee Public Museum
  15. 15. Structured, standardized metadata makes your digital content . . . • Searchable and sortable • Interoperable and shareable – Wisconsin Heritage Online portal http://wisconsinheritage.org – Digital Public Library of America http://dp.la • Understandable in new ways – Maps, charts, timelines
  16. 16. • Viewshare• Google Fusion tables• Timeline JS
  17. 17. SOFTWARE• When choosing software, determine your needs and then pick the best tool for the job• To share your content in the statewide Wisconsin Heritage Online portal, your software must be OAI-PMH compliant (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Wisconsin Folksong Collection, UW-Madison Harvesting)
  18. 18. RESOURCES• A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections (IMLS, 2007) http://framework.niso.org/• Digitization Activities: Project and Management Outline (Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative, 2009) http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/• Wisconsin Heritage Online digital imaging and metadata guidelines http://wisheritage.pbworks.com• Museums and the Web conference proceedings http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/
  19. 19. THANK YOU!E M I LY P F O T E N H A U E RP R O G R A M M A N A G E R , W I S C O N S I N H E R I TA G E O N L I N EE P F O T E N H A U E R @ W I L S .W I S C . E D UH T T P : / / W I S C O N S I N H E R I TA G E . O R G
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