Language Curriculum Characteristics


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A presentation by professor Álvaro Muñoz. Manizales, Colombia.

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Language Curriculum Characteristics

  1. 1. Curiculum Models Throughout History
  2. 2. <ul><li>. According to David Nunan(1988), systematic attempt to specify and study planned intervention into the educational enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>all the curriculum models are systematic and carefully and scientifically planned beforehand by following the same procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>what makes them different from each other is their rationale and criteria that are adopted while planning of it </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>So we can say that curriculum is the product of this systematic attempt which will lead us into making our course design. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Traditional curriculum models : the linguistic elements ignoring the communicative needs; </li></ul><ul><li>selecting and sequencing of the language items are made on linguistic grounds ignoring the content, meaning and the learners’needs and interests and they are imposed upon the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>b ookish language .And while the learners are trying to express themselves with difficulty, correct forms are required; errors and mistakes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cheryl L. Champeau De Lopez(1989) <ul><li>1.Emphasis on the individual learner:the focus has shifted from the teacher to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Eclecticism:Selecting materials and techniques from various sources since one teaching methodology will not be the most appropriate for all students. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Communication in a social context: Function of the language is important; while we are speaking we act certain functions in a society. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Learners have started to take part in the process </li></ul><ul><li>although the steps are the same in planning the curriculum design its way of doing this varies in a great sense. All the curriculum models have planning, implementation and evaluation stage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>learner-centered : gather the first data before Ss come to the class and during the course teachers begin to evaluate the learners' needs and design and if necessary immediately shift his syllabus in the needs’ of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>traditional curriculum models : evaluation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Donna Brandes and Paul Ginnis(1986:3) <ul><li>‘ We believe that every human being has the right to achieve his or her full potential-100% ,and that a student –centred approach to learning helps to make this possible. Students are encouraged to participate fully in , and take responsibility for, their own learning; each individual is valued and trusted … </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nunan(1988) <ul><li>teacher is responsible for giving this notion to his students and accordingly he counts the aims of teachers as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>  *to provide learners with efficient learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>*to assist learners identify their own preferred ways of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>*to develop skills needed to negotiate the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>*to encourage learners to set their own objectives </li></ul><ul><li>*to encourage learners to adop t their realistic goals and free times. </li></ul><ul><li>*to develop learners’skills in self-evaluation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. David Nunan(1988 ) <ul><li>Pre-course planning procedure(Needs analysis ,grouping learners ) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning content(setting objectives and planning and grading the content) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology(Selection of the method) </li></ul><ul><li>Material design </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pre-course Planning Procedure:
  13. 13. David Nunan(1988) <ul><li>‘ The starting point : the collection of various types of biographical data.... </li></ul><ul><li>how will these information be collected, when, by whom, through what means and for what purposes?...’ </li></ul>
  14. 14. DATA : WHEN COLLECTED?  BY WHOM?  HOW? FOR WHAT PURPOSE? <ul><li>  Proficiency level </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul><ul><li>Previous courses </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Status </li></ul><ul><li>Trime in country </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>First language </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred course length </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Language goals </li></ul><ul><li>Life goals </li></ul><ul><li>         And he adds that these information can be seen in two different categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Essential biographical information </li></ul><ul><li>2.More personal , relating to the learners’preferences and perception of need. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The first data as all of us know can be collected before the course begins by the programme administrators to group the learners while the second more personal knowledge will be collected by the teacher during the first weeks of the course which will help teacher to specify his content. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A.For what communicative questions and tasks do you wish to learn English? </li></ul><ul><li>  1.Talking in formal situations(e.g. to the doctor) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Understanding the radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>3.Filling in forms </li></ul><ul><li>4.Understanding native speakers </li></ul><ul><li>5.Reading newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>6.Understanding the Australian way of life </li></ul><ul><li>7.Writing letters </li></ul><ul><li>8.Talking to friends and neighbours </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>B.What learning activities do you prefer? </li></ul><ul><li>  1.Learning grammar rules </li></ul><ul><li>2.Pronounciation </li></ul><ul><li>3.Learning ne w words </li></ul><ul><li>4.Studying a textbook or coursebook </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>C.Which skiils are most important for you? </li></ul><ul><li>  1.Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>2.Listening </li></ul><ul><li>3.Writing </li></ul><ul><li>4.Reading </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>  D.What sort of groupings do you prefer? </li></ul><ul><li>  1.Practi c ing with the whole class </li></ul><ul><li>2.Practi c ing in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>3.Practi c ing in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>4.Studying alone </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>  1.Here at this stage we will begin to examine the learner data and extract information in order to find out the purposes of learners in attending to the course and try to find out communicative goals </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. To achieve the above goals . </li></ul><ul><li>communicative tasks should be specified and the skills have to be defined ( newspaper ) </li></ul><ul><li>linguistic skill : to comprehend what is read . </li></ul><ul><li>All the goals should be communicative in order to catch the meaning </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3.The next step is to provide contextualization for these tasks by deciding on what is the topic, setting, participant, time ; in other words describing the ‘situation’ of the task. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>4. linguistic element </li></ul><ul><li>pr actice the language meaningfully, </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>5. specific objectives, which also helps learners to judge the learning process, related to learners goals. </li></ul><ul><li>In Nunan ’s (1988), ‘specific objectives contain three elements: tasks, conditions, standards . The.’ </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Task: Each student draws his family tree and changes it with his fellow and asks questions about the names that they see on the family tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Condition: Pair work, in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: Utterances should sound natural and be comprehensible firstly to understand themselves but later aimed to undestand a native speaker. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sheila Estaire and Javier Zanon(1994) <ul><li>selecting the theme while planning the content </li></ul>
  27. 27. Methodology: don’t choose the ‘TEACHING’ method but how the ‘LEARNING’process will be.
  28. 28. <ul><li>All aspects of the curriculum process , including methodology, must be informed by data about and from learner’ </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Rank Ordering of te a ching activities according to the perceived usefulness(Eltis and Low 1985) : </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITY % </li></ul><ul><li>Students working in pairs/ small groups      80 </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Language games 51 </li></ul><ul><li>Reading topical articles 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Students making oral presentations 46 </li></ul><ul><li>Cloze(gap filling exercises 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Using video materials 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Student repeating teacher cue(drill)  34 </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise in free writing  27 </li></ul><ul><li>Setting and correction of homework  25 </li></ul><ul><li>Listening and note taking 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating and learning dialogues 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Students reading aloud in the class 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises in onference writing 18 </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Most useful parts of lesson according to students(Alcorso and Kalantzis1985): </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITY % </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar exercises 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Structured class discussion/conversation 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Copying written material , memorising, drill and repetition   25 </li></ul><ul><li>Listening activities using casettes 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Reading books and newspapers 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Writing stories,poems,descritions 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Drama role-play, songs, languge games 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Using audio-visuals, tv. ,video 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Communication tasks, problem solving  10 </li></ul><ul><li>Excursions with the class 7 </li></ul><ul><li>  (David Nunan :1988i) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Material Design: is the most exciting, exhilarating but the most difficult part of the curriculum plan
  32. 32. Nunan <ul><li>‘ they should reflect the outside world’ It means the materials which are planned to be used should be: </li></ul><ul><li>the reflection of the real life , </li></ul><ul><li>encourage learners to learn, </li></ul><ul><li>should have an aim to be done otherwise it wouldn’t be logical to do any task on the subject. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>they must engage the interests of the learner by relating to his interests , background knowledge and experience, and ,through these, stimulate genuine communication.’ </li></ul>
  34. 34. Evaluation: Evaluation is not only made by the teacher at the last stage of the teaching-learning process but also at each stage of the learner-centered curriculum and by the learners who are to be included in the process of evaluation.
  35. 35. <ul><li>the data resulting from evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>. If certain learners are not achieving the goals and objectives set for a course, it is necessary to determine why this is so…what measures might be taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is not only a process of obtaining information, it is also a decision –making process.’ </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>According to Nunan (1988), ‘any element in the curriculum process may be evaluated… </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluator needs to consider which elements in the curriculum should be evaluated , who should conduct the evaluation, when the evaluation should take place, and by what means.’ </li></ul>
  37. 37. Instruments <ul><li>questionnaires, observation schedules of classroom interaction, learners diaries and so on.’. This makes the learners to assess themselves, teacher and the process and according to these data teacher proposes solutions or goes on his way if it is working. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Self- assessment of proficiency <ul><li>1.I can ask for factual information </li></ul><ul><li>YES  NO </li></ul><ul><li>2.I can provide personal details </li></ul><ul><li>YES  NO </li></ul><ul><li>3. I can understand weather forecasts on the radio </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul><ul><li>4. I can read public notices. </li></ul><ul><li>YES NO </li></ul>
  39. 39. And learners can keep diaries for themselves helping them to see what they are doing. Here are the sample from Nunan(1988) <ul><li>Learner diary </li></ul><ul><li>Directions: Complete one diary sheet each week </li></ul><ul><li>This week I studied </li></ul><ul><li>This week I learned </li></ul><ul><li>This week I used my English in these places </li></ul><ul><li>This week I spoke with this people </li></ul><ul><li>This week I made these mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>My difficulties are </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to know </li></ul><ul><li>My learning and practicing plans for next week are </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>‘ Techniques and procedures for self development include team teaching , recording (audio or video) and analyzing segments of classroom interaction, analysis of classes by outside observers and action research’ </li></ul>