Change is an ongoing, almost unconscious process that involves reworking familiar elements into new relationship; innovation , is a willed intervention, which results in the development of ideas, practices, or beliefs that are fundamentally new (miles 1964; A. Nicholls 1983).
Propose solutions to a perceived problem are all part of the same social system.
Internal change agents and promotes ownership .Induced immanent change occurs when outsiders identify problems but insiders develop the solutions to these problems
Selective contact change
Occurs when insiders select an innovation that comes from outside their social system.
Directed contact change
Occurs when outside change agents introduce new ideas or practices into a social system in order to fulfill goals that they (rather than the intended users) have determined are important
“ The planning of work, organizing the distribution of activities and tasks to other people, direction of subordinate staff and controlling the performance of other peoples’ work”
(Mullins 1985 : 123, cited by white et al. 1991:24).
“ Who” The social roles played by different participants
Teachers are key players in all language teaching innovations
Ministry of educations officials, various personnel working for donor agencies, school superintendents, principals, deans, heads of department
All participants assume social roles that define their relationship with other stakeholders.
Lambright and Flynn (1980) suggest that stakeholders relate to each other as adopters (or resisters), implementers, clients, suppliers.
In new materials…
“ Adopts”: the decision-making processes of potential adopters
Adoption is an extended evaluative process, phases according to Rogers 1983; Rogers and shoe-maker 1971:(1)Gaining knowledge about an innovation, (2) being persuaded of its value, (3) making a preliminary decision whether to adopt or reject the innovation and implementing this decision, and (4) confirming or disconfirming their previous decisions.
Where an innovation is implemented is a sociocultural, not a geographical, issue.
The hierarchy of subsystems in which innovations have to operate
“ When”: A quantitative definition of diffusion
More specifically, we can quantify diffusion as the percentage of adopters in a social system who adopt an innovation over a given period of time
“ Why” do the adoption behaviors of individuals vary?
The different psychological profiles of adopters effect implementation (Rogers 1983)
Different types of adopters also have different levels of social status and influence within their peer reference groups.
Innovations themselves possess attributes that either promote or inhibit their adoption.
The relative advantages of adopting an innovation, (2) its compatibility with previous practice, (3) its complexity, (4) its trialability, and (5) its observability.
Is there any relation between fear and innovation?
When is innovation harmful?
“ How”: Five different approaches to effecting change
The social interaction model
Center periphery model
Research, development, and diffusion model the RD&D
Problem solving model
The Linkage Model
Innovation is a time bound phenomenon, and change is always constrained by sociocultural factors, individuals’ psychological profiles, and the attributes that potential adopters perceive a given innovation to posses.
Curricular innovation is a managed process of development whose principal products are teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values that are perceived as new by potential adopters
Changes in teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values constitute the core dimensions of teaching and learning