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Curriculum Innovation



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  • 1. Curriculum Innovation Eylin Carolina Diaz
  • 2.
    • Change, is the same as innovation?
  • 3. Innovation and change as different processes
    • Change is an ongoing, almost unconscious process that involves reworking familiar elements into new relationship; innovation , is a willed intervention, which results in the development of ideas, practices, or beliefs that are fundamentally new (miles 1964; A. Nicholls 1983).
  • 4. Changes
      • Immanent change
    • Propose solutions to a perceived problem are all part of the same social system.
    • Internal change agents and promotes ownership .Induced immanent change occurs when outsiders identify problems but insiders develop the solutions to these problems
      • Selective contact change
    • Occurs when insiders select an innovation that comes from outside their social system.
      • Directed contact change
    • Occurs when outside change agents introduce new ideas or practices into a social system in order to fulfill goals that they (rather than the intended users) have determined are important
      • Management theory
    • “ The planning of work, organizing the distribution of activities and tasks to other people, direction of subordinate staff and controlling the performance of other peoples’ work”
    • (Mullins 1985 : 123, cited by white et al. 1991:24).
  • 5. “ Who” The social roles played by different participants
    • Teachers are key players in all language teaching innovations
    • Ministry of educations officials, various personnel working for donor agencies, school superintendents, principals, deans, heads of department
    • All participants assume social roles that define their relationship with other stakeholders.
    • Lambright and Flynn (1980) suggest that stakeholders relate to each other as adopters (or resisters), implementers, clients, suppliers.
    • In new materials…
  • 6. “ Adopts”: the decision-making processes of potential adopters
    • Adoption is an extended evaluative process, phases according to Rogers 1983; Rogers and shoe-maker 1971:(1)Gaining knowledge about an innovation, (2) being persuaded of its value, (3) making a preliminary decision whether to adopt or reject the innovation and implementing this decision, and (4) confirming or disconfirming their previous decisions.
  • 7.
    • Where an innovation is implemented is a sociocultural, not a geographical, issue.
    • The hierarchy of subsystems in which innovations have to operate
  • 8.
    • “ When”: A quantitative definition of diffusion
    • More specifically, we can quantify diffusion as the percentage of adopters in a social system who adopt an innovation over a given period of time
  • 9. “ Why” do the adoption behaviors of individuals vary?
    • The different psychological profiles of adopters effect implementation (Rogers 1983)
    • Different types of adopters also have different levels of social status and influence within their peer reference groups.
    • Innovations themselves possess attributes that either promote or inhibit their adoption.
    • The relative advantages of adopting an innovation, (2) its compatibility with previous practice, (3) its complexity, (4) its trialability, and (5) its observability.
  • 10. To reflect…
    • Is there any relation between fear and innovation?
    • When is innovation harmful?
  • 11. “ How”: Five different approaches to effecting change
    • The social interaction model
    • Center periphery model
    • Research, development, and diffusion model the RD&D
    • Problem solving model
    • The Linkage Model
  • 12. Conclusions
    • Innovation is a time bound phenomenon, and change is always constrained by sociocultural factors, individuals’ psychological profiles, and the attributes that potential adopters perceive a given innovation to posses.
    • Curricular innovation is a managed process of development whose principal products are teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values that are perceived as new by potential adopters
    • Changes in teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values constitute the core dimensions of teaching and learning