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Cultural Syllabus

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  • 1. THE CULTURAL SYLLABUS
    By John Ariza
  • 2. OVERVIEW
    1. Concept of Culture
    2. Brooks ´Concept
    3. Chastain´s List
    4. Nostrand´s Emergent Model
    5. Hammerly´s Classification
    6. Language and Culture/Society
    7. Cultural Goals
    8. Content of Culture Teaching
    9. Techniques of Culture teaching
    10. Cultural Syllabus Design
    11. Summary
  • 3. CONCEPT OF CULTURE
    Historically
    Prior to World War I/Inter War Years)
    Systematic understanding of the country and people
    Useful background and complement (language and literature)
    History, geography, institutions.
    Accomplishments in arts, music, drama, scientific discovery, sports, other. (National Heritage)
    After World War II
    Anthropological studies of tribal cultures/applied to West
    ¨Way of life/Life Style¨ of a community
    Typical daily behavior /shared social fabric
  • 4. CONCEPT OF CULTURE
    1950s Component of Language teaching
    Knowledge of a country
    Emphasize way of life culture
    1960s Theorists recognize both concepts as legitimate
    Traditional Concept (Cultural achievements, artistic pursuits)
    Brooks terms ¨formal culture¨
    ¨Culture with a capital C¨
    Way of life culture (Behavior in daily situations)
    Brooks terms ¨deep culture¨
    ¨Culture with a ¨small c¨
  • 5. CONCEPT OF CULTURE
    Approaches
    Writers abandoned defining culture
    ¨a broad concept which embraces all aspects of the life of man¨(Seelye 1984)
  • 6. BROOKS´ CONCEPT
    • Culture imparted as a consequence or indispensable to the business of language learning (1964)
    • 7. Sixty topics and questions (informal)
    • 8. Childhood Literature
    • 9. Discipline
    • 10. Pets
    • 11. Yards, Lawns and sidewalks
    • 12. Everyday culture of young American based on:
    • 13. Culture and values
    SOURCE OF INFORMATION? Teacher supplies data?
  • 14. CHASTAIN´S LIST
    • Forty-four topics (1976)
    • 15. Student activities and education
    • 16. Social and economic systems
    • 17. The press
    • 18. Good manners
    • 19. Women´s liberation
    • 20. Other general topics
    • 21. Lists are not exhaustive
    • 22. Language learners at secondary school or undergraduate courses
    Information on topics/Teachers supply data
  • 23. NOSTRAND´S EMERGENT MODEL
    • Classifies observations under a few broad headings (1978)
    • 24. Culture
    • 25. Society
    • 26. Conflicts
    • 27. Ecology and technology
    • 28. Individual
    • 29. Cross-cultural environment
    • 30. Comprehensive and scholarly approach
    • 31. Headings place observation in context
    • 32. Derive basic themes/characterize a society and give it unity (leads to understanding a culture)
  • HAMMERLY´S CLASSIFICATION
    • Three fold classification (1982)
    • 33. Information (or factual) culture
    • 34. Information/Facts
    • 35. Society, geography and history, heroes and villains etc
    • 36. Behavioral culture (most)
    • 37. Interpretation of way of life culture
    • 38. Typical/actual behavior (way of life) N
    • 39. Physical and Psychological needs (S)
    • 40. Achievement or accomplishment culture
    • 41. Traditional (artistic & literary)
    Combines (T) and (A) geared to learning SL
  • 42. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE/SOCIETY
    • Studied sociolinguistically
    • 43. Specific contribution of cultural syllabus
    • 44. Reality of people and places
    • 45. People who use the language
    • 46. The way they live
    • 47. What they do, think and dream
    • 48. Culture teaching (Cultural Syllabus)
    • 49. Focus is people, places and actions
    • 50. Linguistic phenomena is peripheral
    • 51. Language Syllabus
    • 52. Focus is on Linguistic phenomena
    • 53. People, places and actions are peripheral
  • CULTURAL GOALS
    • Seelye´s 7 Culture Teaching (Skills) 1984
    • 54. The sense, or functionality, of culturally conditioned behavior
    • 55. Options society allows to satisfy physical and psychological needs
    • 56. Interaction of language and social variables
    • 57. Age, sex, social class, place of residence
    • 58. Conventional behavior in common situations (B)
    • 59. The role conventions plays in how people act in mundane and crisis situations
    • 60. Cultural connotations of words and phrases
    • 61. Culturally conditioned images associated with even the most common target words and phrases
  • CULTURAL GOALS
    • Evaluating statements about a culture
    • 62. Make, evaluate and refine generalities
    • 63. Researching another culture
    • 64. Locate and organize (Library, mass media, people and personal observation)
    • 65. Attitudes toward other societies (A)
    • 66. Intellectual curiosity about empathy towards its people
    COGNITIVE GOALS OF CULTURE LEARNING
  • 67. CONTENT OF CULTURE TEACHING
    • Six Aspects of culture teaching
    • 68. Places (country, region etc) as perceived by Native speakers
    • 69. Individual persons and way of life (personal contact with a Native speaker)
    • 70. People and society in general (view themselves, class, religion, social, racial or regional prejudices)
    • 71. History (significant historical developments, events, personalities, critical issues)
    • 72. Institutions (government, social welfare, military and police, religion, political parties, media)
    • 73. Art, Music, Literature and other major achievements (artists, musicians and writers and their works, figures)
  • TECHNIQUES OF CULTURE TEACHING
    • Creating an Authentic Classroom environment
    • 74. Providing Cultural information
    • 75. Cultural context ( a song, news, culture capsule)
    • 76. The Concept of culture clusters
    • 77. Related cultural capsules (then role play)
    • 78. Cultural Problem Solving
    • 79. Situations (Manners, customs)
    • 80. Self Instructional program (Fielder, Mitchell and Triandis (1971)
    • 81. Feedback explains right and wrong in context
    • 82. Behavioral and affective aspects
    • 83. Audio-motor unit (TPR)/Role play/Mini drama
  • CULTURAL SYLLABUS DESIGN
    • Challenges of syllabus design
    • 84. Culture taught as incidental not concerned with coherence/sequence in language program
    • 85. Relationship between cultural syllabus within SL program and other curriculum areas may overlap
    • 86. Importance to culture versus language
    • 87. Culture embedded in Language
    • 88. Place for six topics (Content of Culture Teaching)
    • 89. No universal answer (emphasize or minimize)
  • SUMMARY
    1. Concept of Culture (Traditional and Anthropological)
    2. Brooks ´Concept (Culture imparted as consequence)
    3. Chastain´s List (Similar list of topics)
    4. Nostrand´s Emergent Model (Overcome fragments)
    5. Hammerly´s Classification (Combines Concepts/L2)
    6. Language and Culture/Society (Reality, People, Places)
    7. Cultural Goals (Seelye´s 7 skills develop in learners)
    8. Content of Culture Teaching (6 Aspects)
    9. Techniques of Culture teaching (class, info, role play, mini drama)
    10. Cultural Syllabus Design (Challenges, role)