Systematic and ongoing process of gathering information about students needs and preferences , interpreting the information and then, making course decisions based on the interpretation in order to meet the needs.
Today, it’s nice to think people learn languages to deal with life – What they think are their needs.
This is what you could call FELT needs.
Have a look at this:
GOAL OF LANGUAGE USE SOURCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL CONTENT Language ‘ Life ’ Didactic (education) Teaching/practicing language Teaching practicing content Social Talking/writing (re: language-as-content) Talking/writing re: non-language content
Can we get some ideas about what to teach from knowing about the students themselves? For instance do we teach children and adults the same thing? CHILDREN ADULTS Intellectual development Focus: here and now, concrete Can handle abstractions Attention span Short in classroom settings Relatively long Sensory input Much variety required Some variety required Affective factors Fragile in presence of peers Bring global self-esteem to classroom Authentic, meaningful language Language use for immediate rewards Tolerate less contextualiza-tion
Is there really anything to second language learning beyond language ?
Short answer: Yes!
Long answer: Yes, but (language is a part of culture—so, how can you get cultured?)
I’m talking about the ways you ‘get’ culture. How about this list:
through social interaction (negotiated talk)
through ritual (rote participation)
through observation (passive participation)
through microchip brain implants – well, maybe not for a few years –
Rank Ordering of te a ching activities according to the perceived usefulness(Eltis and Low 1985) :
Students working in pairs/ small
Language games 51
Reading topical articles 48
Students making oral presentations 46
Cloze(gap filling exercises 45
Using video materials 40
Student repeating teacher cue(drill) 34
Exercise in free writing 27
Setting and correction of homework 25
Listening and note taking 25
Repeating and learning dialogues 20
Students reading aloud in the class 21
Exercises in onference writing 18
Most useful parts of lesson according to students(Alcorso and Kalantzis1985): ACTIVITY % Grammar exercises 40 Structured class discussion/conversation 35 Copying written material , memorising, drill and repetition 25 Listening activities using casettes 20 Reading books and newspapers 15 Writing stories,poems,descritions 12 Drama role-play, songs, languge games 12 Using audio-visuals, tv. ,video 11 Communication tasks, problem solving 10 Excursions with the class 7 (David Nunan :1988i)
1.Practi c ing with the whole class 2.Practi c ing in small groups 3.Practi c ing in pairs 4.Studying alone
Learning Strategies (examples) Memory “ I use new English words in a sentence, so I can remember them.” Cognitive “ I try not to translate word for word.” Compensa-tion “ To understand unfamiliar English words, I make guesses.” Meta-cognitive “ I think about my progress in learning English.” Affective “ I give myself a reward or treat when I do well in English.” Social “ I practice English with other students.”
SA A U D SD 1. When the teacher tells me the instructions, I understand better. 2. I prefer to learn by doing something in class. 3. I get more work done when I work with others. 4. I learn more when I study with a group 5. I class, I learn best when I work with others. 6. I learn better by reading than by listening to someone.