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Toefl ibt listening12010

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  • 1. o There are four to six lectures and two to three conversations. oThere will be six questions per lecture and five questions per conversation oTest taker will have a total of 60 to 90 minutes to answer all of the Listening questions
  • 2.  CONVERSATIONS There are two types:  Office hours: interactions that take place in a professor’s office. The topic may be academic or related to course requirements.  Service encounters: interactions that take place on a university campus and have non- academic content, e.g. inquiring about a payment for housing or registering for class
  • 3.  LECTURES o They represent the kind of language used when teachers teach in a classroom. The lecture excerpt may be just a teacher speaking, a student asking the teacher a question, or the teacher asking the students a question. o The content of lectures reflects the content that is presented in introductory-level academic settings. o You will not be expected to have any prior knowledge of the subject matter. o All the information you need to answer the questions will be contained in the listening passage.
  • 4.  They are divided into major categories: - Arts (architecture, literature, music history, etc) - Life Science (viruses, medical techniques, animal communication) - Physical Science (weather and atmosphere, electromagnetic radiation, seismology) - Social Science (education, child development, anthropology of non- industrialized civilizations)
  • 5.  There are some types of questions  Multiple choice questions with more than one answer  Questions that require you to put in order events or steps in a process  Questions that require you to match objects or text to categories in a table Replay questions: you will hear a portion of the lecture and then you will be asked a question.
  • 6. There are nine types of questions, but they are divided into three categories: Basic Comprehension Questions 1. Gist-content 2. Gist-purpose 3. Detail Pragmatic Understanding Questions 4. Understanding the Function of what is said 5. Understanding the Speaker’s attitude Connecting Information Questions 6. Understanding Organization 7. Connecting content 8. Making Inferences
  • 7.  Understanding the gist means understanding the general topic or main idea.  The gist may be expressed explicitly or implicitly.  This type of question may require you to generalize or synthesize information in what you hear.
  • 8. They are typically phrased as follows: - What problem does the man have? - What are the speakers mainly discussing? - What is the main topic of the lecture? - What is the lecture mainly about? - What aspect of X does the professor mainly discuss?
  • 9.  Gist-content questions ask about the overall content of the listening. Eliminate choices that refer to only small portions of the listening passage  Use your notes. Decide what overall theme ties the details in your notes together. Choose the answer that comes closest to describing this overall theme
  • 10. GO TO PAGE 143
  • 11.  Some gist questions focus on the purpose of the conversation rather than on the content.  They will more likely occur with conversations, but they may also occasionally be found with lectures.
  • 12.  Why does the student visit the professor?  Why does the student visit the registrar’s office?  Why did the professor ask to see the student?  Why does the professor explain X?
  • 13.  Listen for the unifying theme of the conversation. For example, during a professor’s office hours, a student asks the professor for help with a paper on glaciers. Their conversation includes facts about glaciers, but the unifying theme of the conversation is that the student needs help writing his paper. In this conversation the speakers are not attempting to convey a main idea about glaciers.  In Service Encounter conversations, the student is often trying to solve a problem. Understanding what the student’s problem is and how it will be solved will help you answer the Gist- Purpose question
  • 14. GO TO PAGE 145
  • 15.  Require you to understand and remember explicit details or facts from a lecture or conversation  Details are typically related, directly or indirectly, to the gist of the text, by providing elaboration, examples or other support.  When there is a long digression, you may be asked about some details of this. DIGRESSION: an act or instance of departing from the central topic or line of argument while speaking or writing, usually temporarily
  • 16. They are phrases as follows: - According to the professor, what is one way that X can affect Y? - What are X? - What resulted from the invention of the X? - According to the professor, what is the main problem with the X theory?
  • 17. Refer to your notes as you answer Remember you will not be asked about minor points. Your notes should contain the major details from the conversation or lecture. Do not choose an answer only because it contains some of the words that were used in the conversation or lecture. Incorrect responses will contain words from the listening If you aren’t sure, decide which one of the choices is most consistent with the main idea of the conversation or lecture
  • 18. GO TO PAGE 146
  • 19.  Test understanding of certain features of spoken English that go beyond basic comprehension.  Test how well you understand the function of an utterance or the stance (attitude of the speaker toward something) that the speaker expresses.  Test parts of the conversation or lecture where a speaker’s purpose or stance is not expressed directly.  What people say is often intended to be understood on a level that lies beyond or beneath the surface expression.
  • 20. It sure is cold in here MEANING: - Literally as the temperature of the room - Suggesting someone to close an open window
  • 21. Directing Recommending Complaining Accepting Agreeing Narrating Questioning
  • 22.  It is critical where the speaker’s stance is involved.  Is a given statement intended to be taken as fact or opinion?  How certain is the speaker of the information she is reporting?  Is the speaker conveying certain feelings or attitudes about some person or thing or event? THESE FEELINGS OR ATTITUDES MAY LIE BENEATH THE SURFACE EXPRESSION. THEY CAN GO UNRECOGNIZED OR BE MISUNDERSTOOD BY NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS
  • 23.  Involve a replay of a small portion of the listening passage in order to focus your attention on the relevant portion TWO TYPES OF QUESTIONS:  Understanding the function of what is said questions  Understanding the Speaker’s attitude questions
  • 24.  Test whether you can understand the FUNCTION of what is said.  Involve replaying a portion of the listening passage.
  • 25. They are phrased as follows:  What does the professor imply when he says this? (replay)  What can be inferred from the professor’s response to the students?  What is the purpose of the woman’s response?  Why does the student say this:..
  • 26.  The function of what is said may not match what the speaker directly states.
  • 27. GO TO PAGE 148
  • 28.  Test whether you understand a speaker’s attitude or opinion.  You may be asked a question about the speaker’s feelings, likes, dislikes, or reason for anxiety or amusement, speaker’s degree of certainty Is the speaker referencing a source or giving a personal opinion?
  • 29.  What can be inferred about the student?  What is the professor’s attitude toward X?  What is the professor’s opinion of X?  What can be inferred about the student when she says this: (replay)  What does the woman mean when she says this: (replay)
  • 30.  Pay attention to the speaker’s tone of voice (paralinguistic cues) Does the speaker sound apologetic? confused?
  • 31. GO TO PAGE 149
  • 32.  Require you to make connections between or among pieces of information in the text.  Test your ability to:  integrate information from different parts of the listening passage  make inferences  draw conclusions  form generalizations  make predictions HOW TO CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER? Identify and explain relationships among ideas and details in a text. These relationships may be explicit or implicit
  • 33.  Understanding Organization questions  Connecting Content Questions  Making Inferences Questions
  • 34.  You may be asked about the overall organization of the listening passage or the relationship between two portions of the listening passage. Examples: 1. How does the professor organize the information that she presents to the class? In the order in which the events occurred 2. How does the professor clarify the points he makes about Mexico? By comparing Mexico to the neighboring country.
  • 35.  The first question asks about the overall organization of information, testing understanding of connections throughout the whole listening passage.  The second asks about a portion of the passage, testing understanding of the relationship between two different ideas.
  • 36.  These questions may ask you to identify or recognize how one statement functions in respect to surrounding text. FUNCTIONS - Indicating or signaling a topic shift - Connecting a main topic to a subtopic - Providing an introduction or a conclusion - Giving an example - Starting a digression or even making a joke
  • 37. GO TO PAGE 150
  • 38.  They are typically phrased as follows: - How does the professor organize the information about X that he presents to the class? - How is the discussion organized? - Why does the professor discuss X? - Why does the professor mention X?
  • 39.  Questions that ask about the overall organization of the passage are more likely to be found after lectures than after conversations (refer to your notes to answer them) It may not be clear from the start that the professor organized the information chronologically, or from the least to most complex or in some other way.  Pay attention to comparisons
  • 40. GO TO PAGE 152
  • 41.  Measure your understanding of the relationships among ideas in a text. They may be explicitly stated or you may have to infer.  Ask you to organize information in a different way from the way it was presented in the listening passage.  You may be asked to  identify comparisons  cause and effect  contradiction  agreement  classify items in categories  identify a sequence of events or steps in a process  specify relationships among objects along some dimension EXAMPLE – page 152
  • 42.  What is the likely outcome of doing procedure X before procedure Y?  What can be inferred about X?  What does the professor imply about X?
  • 43.  Require you to fill in a chart or table or put events in order - pay attention to the way you format your notes. - identify terms and their definitions as well as the steps in a process
  • 44. GO TO PAGE 154
  • 45.  You have to reach a conclusion based on facts presented in the listening passage.
  • 46.  What does the professor imply about X?  What will the student probably do next?  What can be inferred about X?  What does the professor imply when he says this: (replay)
  • 47.  Add up details from the passage to reach a conclusion  The professor may imply something without directly stating it  The answer you choose will use vocabulary not found in the listening passage
  • 48. GO TO PAGE 155
  • 49.  Take notes while you listen  Pay attention to the new words or concepts introduced by the professor  Pay attention to the way the lecture is structured and the way the ideas in the lecture are connected  You cannot go back to an answer once you mark an answer
  • 50. BASIC COMPREHENSION - Increase your vocabulary knowledge - Focus on the content and flow of material. Don’t be distracted by the speaker’s style and delivery - Anticipate what the speaker is going to say - Stay active by asking yourself questions about the main ideas, detail, etc. - Copy the words main idea, major points, important details on the paper. - Write a brief summary
  • 51. PRAGMATIC UNDERSTANDING - Think about what each speaker hopes to accomplish (purpose of the speech or conversation) Is the speaker apologizing, making suggestions, complaining? - Notice the way the speaker talks (formal, casual, voice: calm, emotional) - Notice the degree of certainty of the speaker - Listen for changes in topic or side comments in which the speaker briefly moves away
  • 52. CONNECT IDEAS - Think about how the lecture is organized - Identify relationships between ideas in the information being discussed (cause-effect, compare and contrast, steps in a process) - Listen for words that show connections and relationships between ideas - Create an outline of the information discussed