Gender In The Academic Library[1]
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Gender in the Academic Library

Gender in the Academic Library

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    Gender In The Academic Library[1] Gender In The Academic Library[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Gender in the Academic Library By Wilma L. Jones May 2004
    • Research Question: In what ways has gender played a role in the evolution of the profession of librarians in American Higher Education?
    • History of Academic Libraries
      • First Colonial academic libraries
        • Harvard (1638)
        • William and Mary (1693)
        • Yale (1701)
        • College of New Jersey (1746, now Princeton)
        • U. of Pennsylvania (1749)
        • King’s College (1754, now Columbia University)
        • College of Rhode Island (1764, now Brown University)
        • Dartmouth (1769)
      • Collections mostly on Theology
      • Gifts and bequests from influential scholars and Alumni
        • John Harvard in 1638
      • Purchases made by professors on tour in Europe
        • Pres. Harper, U. of Chicago
    • First Librarians . . . Men
      • Librarians during Colonial times were often, experts in the field:
        • Faculty members
        • Tutors
        • Presidents
      • Solomon Stoddard, former tutor, first appointed librarian of the Harvard Library in 1667
    • Impact of Morrill Act of 1862
      • Use of public lands to support higher education in practical areas such as agriculture and engineering – break away from “classical colleges”
      • State Higher Education Institutions mushroomed
      • Library collections expanded to support diversified curriculum
      • School of Library Economy established at Columbia in 1887 to train librarians
    • The field of Librarianship
      • Visible signs of changes in the profession
        • Establishment of the American Library Assn (1876)
        • Standardization of library practices (1886)
          • to facilitate use of the materials in the collection, starting with the Dewey Decimal Classification System
        • Opening of School of Library Economy (1887)
          • To train male and female librarians
        • Establishment of the Association of Research Libraries (1932)
    • Census figures of U.S Librarians 1870 - 1990
    • Characteristics of Male Librarians, 1890 – 1920
      • Well educated men (72.6% with bachelor’s degree)
      • Sons of clergy, physicians, as well as farmers & machinists
      • Had worked in a library (23.5%)
      • Veterans with disability
      • Retired clergy or teacher
      • One disillusioned with/failed in other line of work
    • Reason for men choosing the field
      • Encouraged by library professors to enter academic library or Library of Congress, not public or school libraries
      • Assured fast move up to high-level position
      • 2-yr library program expedited entrance into workforce for males; 1-year secured a lucrative position
    • Feminization of Professions
      • Rapid change from male- to female-intensive fields between 1870 and 1920, influenced by the industrial revolution:
        • Teaching – 68% women in 1880 to 84% in 1920
        • Clerical – 95.6% male in 1880 to 54.3% in 1920
        • Library -- 80% male in 1870 to 80% women in 1900
        • (Passet, 1993)
    • Feminization of the Library field
      • By 1910, more women entering librarianship than men
      • Of 22 land-grant institutions west of the Mississippi, 15 had at least one woman responsible for the library prior to 1930
    • Reason for men exiting the field
      • Perceived low status as more women entered the field; some for pay, others as volunteers
      • Inadequate salaries paid to both men and women, minimal remuneration
      • Often got stuck in an assistant position for years; desired upward mobility
      • Low status of library work; aspired to be in leadership positions
    • First Women in the field
      • Grace Raymond Hebard, librarian at the University of Wyoming, 1894 – 1919 (Ph.D in Political Science, no formal training in librarianship)
      • Julia Pearce, first librarian to have no teaching responsibilities, Kansas State Agricultural College, 1863 – 1894.
      • Dorothy Porter Wesley, first African American curator & scholar of the Moorland-Springarn Research Center, Howard U. in 1930-1973
    • Others as Volunteers
      • Club women participation in public sphere
        • TX Federation of Club Women led the founding of community libraries (1898)
        • By 1904 Women’s Club in 34 states ran 4600 traveling libraries and established 500 public libraries
        • Approached Carnegie for funding of public libraries
        • Volunteered time to prepare materials
    • Evolving field of librarianship
      • Once the keeper of books …
      • now recognized for ability to provide access to local and global resources in libraries with and without walls.
    • Librarians in Academia since 1971
      • Masters degree from an ALA accredited program required for employment;
      • 2 nd grad degree for tenure track
      • Faculty positions gave women better salaries, but lower than teaching faculty
      • Unionized institutions gave women higher salaries; equal to males
    • Librarians in Academia …
      • Requirement to publish in institutions with faculty status for librarians
      • Faculty status gained librarian more respect than non- faculty status
      • Improved work environment re: faculty benefits available to librarians (sabbaticals, research funds, tenure, etc.
      • Increased participation in college governance
    • Impact of Internet technology, 1995 -
      • “ net technology” yielding new roles
        • Systems librarian
        • Web librarian
        • Digital librarian
        • Virtual reference librarian
      • Increase in males entering the field
      • Library programs emphasizing technology
      • Library schools discussing omission of the “l” word
      • Library instruction expanding—teaching scholars to evaluate, retrieve, & use materials ethically
    • Anomolies persist
      • In a female-intensive field, 90 respondents surveyed identified themselves as directors, of which 34 were women (Jenkins, 1994).
      • 2002 survey showed men had higher salaries in school, academic, and special libraries by 7.9% (Terrell, 2002)
      • High-tech positions filled by more men; however, women in these positions had showed increase of 6.8% in 2001 (Lynch & Smith, 2001).
    • References
      • American Library Association. (2002). ALA presidents, treasurers, secretaries, and executive directors. Handbook of organization . Chicago: American Library Association
      • American Library Association. (1999). Office for research and statistics . Chicago: American Library Association.
      • Association of College and Research Libraries. (2001). Guidelines for academic status of college and university libraries. College and Research Libraries News , 62, 920 – 921.
      • Bargellini, M.L. & Bordoni, L. (2001). The role of the library in a new learning scenario. The Electronic Library . 19, 153-157.
      • Carmichael, J. (1992). The male librarian and the feminine image: a survey of stereotypes, status, and gender perceptions. Library & Information Science Research , 14, 411-446.
      • Carpenter. (1994). Harvard University libraries. In Encyclopedia of library history. Edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , (pp. 255-257).
      • Committee on Academic Status of the Association of College and Research Libraries. (1975). Faculty status for academic librarians: a history and policy statements . Chicago: American Library Association.
      • Conaway, C. (2002). Virtual university. Regional Review , 12, 6-13.
      • Cramer, E. & Boyd, J. (1995). The tenure-track and parent track: a road guide. Wilson Library Bulletin , 69 41-42.
    • References, continued.
      • Daniel, J.S. (1999). Mega-universities and knowledge media: Technology strategies for higher education . London: Kogan Page Limited.
      • Digest of education statistics . (2003). National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement: U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C.
      • ----- . (2002). National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement: U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C.
      • Dowell, D.R. (1998). Leadership: In the eye of the beholder? In Leadership and Academic Librarians . Edited by T. F. Mech & G.B. Mcabe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 159-170.
      • Flagg, G. (2001). Educators consider their future at ALISE Conference. American Libraries, 32, 26-7.
      • Galloway, D. (1979). Status or stasis: Academic librarians 10 years later. American Libraries , 79, 349-352.
      • Guri-Rosenbilt, S. (2001). Virtual universities: Current models and future trends. Higher Education in Europe , 26, 487-499.
      • Harris, R.M. (1999). Gender and technology relations in librarianship. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science , 40, 232-246.
    • References, continued.
      • Higley, G. (1996). College, Community and librarianship: Women librarians at the Western land grant colleges. In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in. Edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 53-98.
      • Hildenbrand, S. (1999). The Information Age vs. gender equity. Library Journal. 124, 44-47.
      • Jenkins, C. (1996). “Since so many of today’s librarians are women. . .;” Women and Intellectual Freedom in U.S. librarianship . In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in. Edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 221-250.
      • Kirkland, J.J. (1997). The missing women in library directors: Deprivation versus mentoring. College and Research Libraries , 58, 376-384
      • Lynch, B. (1998). The development of the academic library in American higher education and the role of the academic librarian. In Leadership and Academic Librarians , edited by T.F. Mech and G.B. McCabe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp.1-21
      • Lynch, B. P., & Smith, K. R. (2001). The changing nature of work in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 62, 407-419
    • References, continued.
      • Passet, J.E. (1996). You don’t have to pay librarians. In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in, edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 207-220.
      • -----. (1994). United States of America. In Encyclopedia of library history, edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , pp. 644-650.
      • -----. (1993). Men in a feminized profession: the male librarian, 1887-1921. Libraries & Culture , 28, 385-402.
      • Radford, N. (1984). The Carnegie Corporation and the development of American college libraries, 1928 – 1941 . Chicago: American Library Association.
      • Schuyler, M. (1999). The view from the top left corner . Computers in libraries. v19, Retrieved March 13, 2004, from the Library Literature WilsonWeb database.
      • Shiflett, O. L. (1994). Academic libraries. In Encyclopedia of library history. Edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , pp. 5-14.
      • St. Lifer, E., & Oder, N. (1996). Net work: New roles, same mission. Library Journal , 121, 26-30.
      • Terrell, T. (2002). Salaries rebound, women break out. Library Journal , 30-36.
      • Statistical Abstracts of the United States (2003) . Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.