American LiteratureAmerican Literature
First chatFirst chat
Christopher ColombusChristopher Colombus
Christopher Columbus is the author of severalChristopher Columbus is the author o...
Letter to Luis de SantangelLetter to Luis de Santangel
Regarding the First VoyageRegarding the First Voyage
In this letter...
Espanola is a marvelEspanola is a marvel
He is in awe andHe is in awe and
describes what he hasdescribes what he has
found...
Letter to Ferdinand and IsabelLetter to Ferdinand and Isabel
Regarding the Fourth VoyageRegarding the Fourth Voyage
In thi...
Columbus’ woesColumbus’ woes
The people Columbus left behind exploitThe people Columbus left behind exploit
and mistreat t...
Columbus’ woesColumbus’ woes
Columbus is arrested and dies in disgraceColumbus is arrested and dies in disgrace
and povert...
Question for discussionQuestion for discussion
Have these readings changed yourHave these readings changed your
perception...
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de VacaAlvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de VacaAlvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
The biographical information on Cabeza deThe biographical information...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
The selection in our tex...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
The explorer describes t...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
When speaking of hunger,...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
Cabeza de Vaca describes...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
Cabeza de Vaca and his m...
From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar
Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”
At the end, though, Alca...
Anne BradstreetAnne Bradstreet
““To My Dear and LovingTo My Dear and Loving
Husband”Husband”
Bradstreet’s tribute to her husband is aBradstreet’s tribute...
ProloguePrologue
In the prologue to her book of poetry,In the prologue to her book of poetry,
Bradstreet humbly asks that ...
The tenth museThe tenth muse
The nine muses were the nine goddesses ofThe nine muses were the nine goddesses of
the arts a...
The attitude towards womenThe attitude towards women
Bradstreet notes that though the muses wereBradstreet notes that thou...
““In Memory of My DearIn Memory of My Dear
Grandchild”Grandchild”
Elizabeth Bradstreet was one and a half yearsElizabeth B...
Mary RowlandsonMary Rowlandson
Mary Rowlandson writes of her captivityMary Rowlandson writes of her captivity
among the Wa...
The narrativeThe narrative
Rowlandson did not take up arms against theRowlandson did not take up arms against the
Natives,...
Mary RowlandsonMary Rowlandson
Rowlandson feels that the death of her babyRowlandson feels that the death of her baby
girl...
Red JacketRed Jacket
This orator’s name comes from the red jacketThis orator’s name comes from the red jacket
he was award...
The address to CramThe address to Cram
Our assigned reading is his address to theOur assigned reading is his address to th...
The address to CramThe address to Cram
Red Jacket acknowledges the differencesRed Jacket acknowledges the differences
betw...
Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin
Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin
demonstrates the 18demonstrates the 18thth
Century f...
Who are the savages, really?Who are the savages, really?
When we read of the civilized ways of theWhen we read of the civi...
Common senseCommon sense
Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to convinceThomas Paine wrote Common Sense to convince
the Coloni...
Phyllis WheatleyPhyllis Wheatley
Phyllis Wheatley was both a child prodigy andPhyllis Wheatley was both a child prodigy an...
Phyllis WheatleyPhyllis Wheatley
Wheatley was freed from slavery in the fall ofWheatley was freed from slavery in the fall...
““On Being Brought from Africa toOn Being Brought from Africa to
America”America”
This poem expresses both her gratitude f...
““To the University of Cambridge,To the University of Cambridge,
in New England”in New England”
Here, Wheatley reminds the...
““To His Excellency GeneralTo His Excellency General
Washington”Washington”
Full of references to poetry, muses and theFul...
Thanks for sharing!Thanks for sharing!
Any questions or comments now that youAny questions or comments now that you
have s...
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American literature first chat for eighth edition

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American literature first chat for eighth edition

  1. 1. American LiteratureAmerican Literature First chatFirst chat
  2. 2. Christopher ColombusChristopher Colombus Christopher Columbus is the author of severalChristopher Columbus is the author of several letters detailing his voyages and adventures. Weletters detailing his voyages and adventures. We are studying two of them, and they are veryare studying two of them, and they are very different.different.
  3. 3. Letter to Luis de SantangelLetter to Luis de Santangel Regarding the First VoyageRegarding the First Voyage In this letter, ColumbusIn this letter, Columbus describes the beautifuldescribes the beautiful scenery and fabulousscenery and fabulous vegetation hevegetation he encounters on his veryencounters on his very first trip to “The Newfirst trip to “The New World.”World.”
  4. 4. Espanola is a marvelEspanola is a marvel He is in awe andHe is in awe and describes what he hasdescribes what he has found as best he can,found as best he can, sometimes usingsometimes using European referencesEuropean references like honey bees andlike honey bees and nightingales, calling itnightingales, calling it the most beautiful landthe most beautiful land man has ever seen.man has ever seen.
  5. 5. Letter to Ferdinand and IsabelLetter to Ferdinand and Isabel Regarding the Fourth VoyageRegarding the Fourth Voyage In this letter,In this letter, Columbus, imprisonedColumbus, imprisoned and impoverished,and impoverished, begs the Catholicbegs the Catholic Monarchs to spare hisMonarchs to spare his life. Things have gonelife. Things have gone terribly wrong in theterribly wrong in the lands he discovered.lands he discovered.
  6. 6. Columbus’ woesColumbus’ woes The people Columbus left behind exploitThe people Columbus left behind exploit and mistreat the natives and it appears thatand mistreat the natives and it appears that Columbus enslaved the natives when heColumbus enslaved the natives when he came back to find the settlement burned.came back to find the settlement burned.
  7. 7. Columbus’ woesColumbus’ woes Columbus is arrested and dies in disgraceColumbus is arrested and dies in disgrace and poverty.and poverty.
  8. 8. Question for discussionQuestion for discussion Have these readings changed yourHave these readings changed your perception of Columbus?perception of Columbus? Do you view him as a hero or a villain?Do you view him as a hero or a villain?
  9. 9. Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de VacaAlvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
  10. 10. Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de VacaAlvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca The biographical information on Cabeza deThe biographical information on Cabeza de Vaca is very interesting. Note that he mayVaca is very interesting. Note that he may have witnessed Columbus being led throughhave witnessed Columbus being led through Cadiz in disgrace and he was given the nameCadiz in disgrace and he was given the name Cabeza de Vaca (cow’s head) when he usedCabeza de Vaca (cow’s head) when he used a cow’s skull to mark a route through aa cow’s skull to mark a route through a mountain pass.mountain pass.
  11. 11. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” The selection in our text is fromThe selection in our text is from Adventures inAdventures in the Unknown Interior of Americathe Unknown Interior of America andand describes the explorer’s adventures anddescribes the explorer’s adventures and sufferings among the “Indians” of America,sufferings among the “Indians” of America, the Avavares and the Arbadaos.the Avavares and the Arbadaos.
  12. 12. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” The explorer describes the hunger his menThe explorer describes the hunger his men and the Native Americans they lived amongand the Native Americans they lived among suffered, subsisting on roots and subsistingsuffered, subsisting on roots and subsisting on blackberries for months.on blackberries for months.
  13. 13. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” When speaking of hunger, our author alsoWhen speaking of hunger, our author also notes that the children of the Nativenotes that the children of the Native Americans were suckled until they were 12Americans were suckled until they were 12 years old so that they would not die ofyears old so that they would not die of starvation.starvation.
  14. 14. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” Cabeza de Vaca describes subsisting byCabeza de Vaca describes subsisting by bartering with the natives for combs. He putsbartering with the natives for combs. He puts a negative spin on some of the natives’a negative spin on some of the natives’ customs, like fist-fighting until they arecustoms, like fist-fighting until they are exhausted and leaving the weak to die on aexhausted and leaving the weak to die on a foraging trip.foraging trip.
  15. 15. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” Cabeza de Vaca and his men experienceCabeza de Vaca and his men experience great joy when they unite with “Christians”great joy when they unite with “Christians” under the leadership of Diego de Alcaraz.under the leadership of Diego de Alcaraz. Natives bring food for a feast to Alcaraz, andNatives bring food for a feast to Alcaraz, and Cabeza de Vaca gets into a dispute with himCabeza de Vaca gets into a dispute with him about the fact that Alcaraz wants to makeabout the fact that Alcaraz wants to make slaves of the Indians. He could not convinceslaves of the Indians. He could not convince the natives that he was of the same people asthe natives that he was of the same people as the slavers.the slavers.
  16. 16. From “The Relation of AlvarFrom “The Relation of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca”Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca” At the end, though, Alcaraz decieves him.At the end, though, Alcaraz decieves him. ““We thought we had effected the Indians’We thought we had effected the Indians’ liberty, when the Christians were but poisingliberty, when the Christians were but poising to pounce.” (p.1542)to pounce.” (p.1542) How would you summarize Cabeza de Vaca’sHow would you summarize Cabeza de Vaca’s rather complex attitude towards the natives?rather complex attitude towards the natives?
  17. 17. Anne BradstreetAnne Bradstreet
  18. 18. ““To My Dear and LovingTo My Dear and Loving Husband”Husband” Bradstreet’s tribute to her husband is aBradstreet’s tribute to her husband is a beautiful, symmetrical poem that describesbeautiful, symmetrical poem that describes everything about their love from them beingeverything about their love from them being one, to the jealousy of others upon seeingone, to the jealousy of others upon seeing their love, to their love’s eternal nature. Let’stheir love, to their love’s eternal nature. Let’s take a look at it on page 120.take a look at it on page 120.
  19. 19. ProloguePrologue In the prologue to her book of poetry,In the prologue to her book of poetry, Bradstreet humbly asks that her work beBradstreet humbly asks that her work be taken for what it is and its worthtaken for what it is and its worth acknowledged. She speaks of muses and theacknowledged. She speaks of muses and the strengths and weaknesses of both sexes andstrengths and weaknesses of both sexes and ends by stating that “this mean and unrefinedends by stating that “this mean and unrefined ore of mine/will make your glist’ring gold butore of mine/will make your glist’ring gold but more to shine.”more to shine.”
  20. 20. The tenth museThe tenth muse The nine muses were the nine goddesses ofThe nine muses were the nine goddesses of the arts and sciences in Greek mythology.the arts and sciences in Greek mythology. Bradstreet counts herself the tenth, and againBradstreet counts herself the tenth, and again humbly describes her worth.humbly describes her worth.
  21. 21. The attitude towards womenThe attitude towards women Bradstreet notes that though the muses wereBradstreet notes that though the muses were women, “Men have precedency and stillwomen, “Men have precedency and still excel,/It is but vain unjustly to wage war;/Menexcel,/It is but vain unjustly to wage war;/Men can do best and women know itcan do best and women know it well/Preeminence in all and each is yours/Yetwell/Preeminence in all and each is yours/Yet grant some small acknowledgement of ours.”grant some small acknowledgement of ours.” How do you feel about those lines?How do you feel about those lines?
  22. 22. ““In Memory of My DearIn Memory of My Dear Grandchild”Grandchild” Elizabeth Bradstreet was one and a half yearsElizabeth Bradstreet was one and a half years old when she died, and her grandmotherold when she died, and her grandmother laments her passing. Bradstreet, a Puritan,laments her passing. Bradstreet, a Puritan, consoles herself with the thought that all life isconsoles herself with the thought that all life is fleeting and in the hands of God. Comments?fleeting and in the hands of God. Comments?
  23. 23. Mary RowlandsonMary Rowlandson Mary Rowlandson writes of her captivityMary Rowlandson writes of her captivity among the Wampanoags, and emphasizesamong the Wampanoags, and emphasizes that God’s purpose was for her to be usefulthat God’s purpose was for her to be useful and incite her readers to follow Him. Her workand incite her readers to follow Him. Her work reads like a sermon and uses many biblicalreads like a sermon and uses many biblical terms.terms.
  24. 24. The narrativeThe narrative Rowlandson did not take up arms against theRowlandson did not take up arms against the Natives, but she was finally given a gun andNatives, but she was finally given a gun and became a defender of her nation against thebecame a defender of her nation against the British, the same as the males who wereBritish, the same as the males who were protesting British policy.protesting British policy.
  25. 25. Mary RowlandsonMary Rowlandson Rowlandson feels that the death of her babyRowlandson feels that the death of her baby girl, separation from her family and othergirl, separation from her family and other suffering she endured served a purpose insuffering she endured served a purpose in God’s plan. She ends her narrative:God’s plan. She ends her narrative: ““I have learned to look beyond present andI have learned to look beyond present and smaller troubles and be quieted under them.smaller troubles and be quieted under them. As Moses said, ‘Stand still and see theAs Moses said, ‘Stand still and see the salvation of the Lord.’”salvation of the Lord.’”
  26. 26. Red JacketRed Jacket This orator’s name comes from the red jacketThis orator’s name comes from the red jacket he was awarded by the British for his serviceshe was awarded by the British for his services as a messenger during the Revolutionaryas a messenger during the Revolutionary War.War.
  27. 27. The address to CramThe address to Cram Our assigned reading is his address to theOur assigned reading is his address to the missionary Jacob Cram in 1805. Red Jacketmissionary Jacob Cram in 1805. Red Jacket contradicts Cram’s statement that there iscontradicts Cram’s statement that there is only one way to find God by saying that otheronly one way to find God by saying that other ways may be better for other people. He callsways may be better for other people. He calls Cram Friend and brother and says, “We doCram Friend and brother and says, “We do not wish to destroy your religion, or take itnot wish to destroy your religion, or take it from you. We only want to enjoy our own.”from you. We only want to enjoy our own.”
  28. 28. The address to CramThe address to Cram Red Jacket acknowledges the differencesRed Jacket acknowledges the differences between the red and white man. Why wouldbetween the red and white man. Why would The Great Spirit then not give them differentThe Great Spirit then not give them different religions? “The Great Spirit does right. Hereligions? “The Great Spirit does right. He knows what is best for his children. We areknows what is best for his children. We are satisfied.”satisfied.” Comments?Comments?
  29. 29. Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin demonstrates the 18demonstrates the 18thth Century flair for ironyCentury flair for irony and satire in “Remarksand satire in “Remarks Concerning theConcerning the Savages of NorthSavages of North America.”America.”
  30. 30. Who are the savages, really?Who are the savages, really? When we read of the civilized ways of theWhen we read of the civilized ways of the Native Americans and the barbarous acts ofNative Americans and the barbarous acts of the settlers, we come to the conclusion thatthe settlers, we come to the conclusion that maybe the natives aren’t the savagesmaybe the natives aren’t the savages Franklin refers to in the title! Satire isFranklin refers to in the title! Satire is ultimately the art of calling someone an idiotultimately the art of calling someone an idiot (or a savage) without saying it in so many(or a savage) without saying it in so many words. Comments?words. Comments?
  31. 31. Common senseCommon sense Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to convinceThomas Paine wrote Common Sense to convince the Colonists that it was just logical and sensiblethe Colonists that it was just logical and sensible to separate from England. This is a precursor toto separate from England. This is a precursor to the Declaration of Independence and once againthe Declaration of Independence and once again definitely a product of the 18definitely a product of the 18thth Century, the Age ofCentury, the Age of Reason and Enlightenment. Any comments orReason and Enlightenment. Any comments or questions?questions?
  32. 32. Phyllis WheatleyPhyllis Wheatley Phyllis Wheatley was both a child prodigy andPhyllis Wheatley was both a child prodigy and a black slave. She was born in Africa, buta black slave. She was born in Africa, but received an education in America that evenreceived an education in America that even white women of her time didn’t enjoy.white women of her time didn’t enjoy.
  33. 33. Phyllis WheatleyPhyllis Wheatley Wheatley was freed from slavery in the fall ofWheatley was freed from slavery in the fall of 1773, already having written a book of poetry.1773, already having written a book of poetry. Her owner, Susannah Wheatley, made herHer owner, Susannah Wheatley, made her education and success possible, andeducation and success possible, and Wheatley launched the black literary traditionWheatley launched the black literary tradition in this country, though this fact escapedin this country, though this fact escaped literary scholars for years.literary scholars for years.
  34. 34. ““On Being Brought from Africa toOn Being Brought from Africa to America”America” This poem expresses both her gratitude forThis poem expresses both her gratitude for being brought to America and her view that allbeing brought to America and her view that all people of all colors can be saved. Let’s read itpeople of all colors can be saved. Let’s read it together. It’s on page 403.together. It’s on page 403.
  35. 35. ““To the University of Cambridge,To the University of Cambridge, in New England”in New England” Here, Wheatley reminds the students that sheHere, Wheatley reminds the students that she is just recently arrived and they who wereis just recently arrived and they who were born here and are receiving an education atborn here and are receiving an education at Cambridge should follow Jesus to “gloryCambridge should follow Jesus to “glory without end.” They have the advantage andwithout end.” They have the advantage and should do great things.should do great things.
  36. 36. ““To His Excellency GeneralTo His Excellency General Washington”Washington” Full of references to poetry, muses and theFull of references to poetry, muses and the country, this poem to George Washingtoncountry, this poem to George Washington uges him to:uges him to: ““Proceed, great chief, with virtue on thy side.Proceed, great chief, with virtue on thy side. Thy every action let the goddess guide;Thy every action let the goddess guide; A crown, a mansion and a throne that shine,A crown, a mansion and a throne that shine, With gold unfading WASHINGTON! Be thine”With gold unfading WASHINGTON! Be thine” Comments on this author and her works?Comments on this author and her works?
  37. 37. Thanks for sharing!Thanks for sharing! Any questions or comments now that youAny questions or comments now that you have seen this presentation?have seen this presentation?

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