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Muscles of the upper limb
 

Muscles of the upper limb

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    Muscles of the upper limb Muscles of the upper limb Document Transcript

    • Muscles of the Shoulder Name Origin Insertion Pectoralis Major - clavicular part - medial anterior clavicle - sternal part - sternal and costal cartilages II-VI crest of the greater tubercle (lat. ridge of the bicipital groove) lateral + medial pectorals (C5-T1) - adducts the arm - medially rotates the arm - can contribute to inspiration Pectoralis Minor 3rd - 5th ribs coracoid process medial pectoral (C8T1) - lowers and rotates the scapula Deltoid - clavicular head - lateral 1/3 of the clavicle - acromial head acromium - spinal head - lower border of the scapular spine deltoid tuberosity of the humerus axillary nerve (C5C6) - abducts the arm - clavicular head + 1/2 acromial fibres flex the arm - spinal head + 1/2 acromial fibres extend the arm - SWINGS the arm Trapezius - descending part superior nuchal line, occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament - transverse part - C7-T3 (spinous processes, supraspinous ligaments) - ascending part - T3-T12 - descending part lateral 1/3 of clavicle - transverse part acromial end of scapula, acromion, scapular spine - ascending part triangular portion of scapular spine - accessory nerve (CN XI) - trapezius branch (C2-C4) - stabilizes the scapula and shoulder girdle - when active, pulls scapula towards vertebral column - contributes to arm elevation (shrug) Sternocleidomas - sternal head toid - clavicular head - mastoid process - superior nuchal line - accessory nerve (CN IX) - cervical plexus (C1C2) insignificant role in shoulder girdle Latissimus Dorsi - vertebral part - T7-T12 - costal part - 10th-12th ribs - scapular part - inferior angle - thoracolumbar fascia lesser tubercle thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8) - lowers and abducts the raised arm - medial rotation - forced expiration and coughing - pull shoulders backwards and downwards Rhomboid Minor Innervation C6-C7 spines Function - presses the scapula on the thoracic wall - can retract scapula towards vertebral column Rhomboid Major T1-T4 spines medial margin of the scapula (major caudal to minor) Levator Scapulae C1-C4 (dorsal tubercles of transverse processes) superior angle of the scapula - elevates the scapula - rotates the inferior angle medially Supraspinatus supraspinatus fossa upper facet of greater tubercle - holds humerus in socket - tenses the capsule - abducts the arm Infraspinatus - infraspinatus fossa - scapular spine Teres Minor Teres Major lateral border of the scapula (minor superior to major) middle fossa of greater tubercle dorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5) suprascapular nerve (C4-C6) - reinforces the capsule of the shoulder joint - external rotation of the arm lower facet of greater tubercle axillary nerve (C5C6) weak lateral rotator crest of lesser tubercle lower subscapular nerve (C6-C7) - extension of the arm toward midline - helps in adduction Serratus Anterior 1st-8th ribs entire medial margin of scapula long thoracic nerve (C5-C7) - pulls the scapula forwards - allows lateral rotation +elevation of the arm Subscapularis subscapular fossa - lesser tubercle - proximal crest subscapular nerve (C5-C8) - strong medial rotator of the arm (rotator cuff muscles)
    • Muscles of the Arm Name Origin Insertion Innervation Function Coracobrachialis coracoid process medial surface of humerus musculocutaneous (C6-C7) - flexes the arm - holds the humerus in its socket Brachialis anterior surface of humerus ulnar tuberosity, below coronioid process musculocutaneous (C6-C7) - flexes the elbow joint Biceps Brachii - long head supraglenoid tubercle - short head - coracoid process - strong tendon - radial tuberosity - flattened tendon bicipital aponeurosis; fascia of the forearm; ulnar side musculocutaneous (C6-C7) - long head - abducts the arm, rotating medially - short head - abducts the arm - flexes the shoulder joint Triceps Brachii - long head infraglenoid tubercle (extends between teres major and minor) - medial head - distal from the radial groove, dorsal surface of the humerus - lateral head - lateral and proximal from the radial groove ulnar olecranon radial (C6-C8) - extensor of the elbow - long head extends and adducts the arm Anconius dorsal surface of lateral epichondyle proximal 1/4 of the dorsal ulna radial (C7-C8) - assists triceps in extension (anterior compartment) (posterior compartment)
    • Superficial Anterior Forearm Muscles Name Origin Pronator Teres Insertion Innervation lateral surface of the humerus - pronates the forearm - flexes the elbow joint Flexor Carpi Radialis median nerve Palmaris Longus medial epichondyle of the humerus Function - weak flexor and pronator of the elbow joint - palmar flexion of the wrist - radial abduction radiates into palmar aponeurosis - flexes the hand toward palm - tenses the palmar aponeurosis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis middle phalanges of 2nd-5th fingers - strong flexor of the wrist and finger joints Flexor Carpi Ulnaris - pisiform bone - hamate - 5th metacarpal ulnar nerve - palmar flexion - ulnar adduction of the hand Deep Anterior Forearm Muscles Name Origin Insertion Pronator Quadratus distal ulna distal radius Flexor Digitorum Profundis proximal 2/3 of the palmar surface of the ulna and interosseous membrane base of the terminal phalanges of the 2nd to 5th fingers Flexor Pollicis Longus - anterior surface of the radius (distal to radial tuberosity) - interosseous membrane terminal phalanx of the thumb Innervation Function - pronation anterior interosseous nerve (medial 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundis supplied by ulnar nerve) flexor of wrist, midcarpal, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal joints - flexor of terminal phalanx of thumb - abducts terminal phalanx of thumb in the radial direction Lateral Forearm Muscles Name Origin Insertion Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis - common head of lateral epichondyle of the humerus - lateral collateral ligament - annular radial ligament base of the 3rd metacarpal Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus suprachondylar ridge of the humerus base of the 2nd metacarpal Brachioradialis suprachondylar ridge of the humerus radial surface of the styloid process of the radius Innervation Function - weak flexor of the elbow joint - brings the forearm to the midposition from ulnar adduction and extends it radial nerve - weak flexor of the elbow joint - supinator is the forearm is extended - produces dorsiflexion and radial abduction at the radiocarpal and mid-carpal joints - elbow flexor - brings arm to mid-position between pronation and supination
    • Superficial Extensor Forearm Muscles Name Origin Extensor Digitorum Insertion Innervation Function - forms the dorsal aponeurosis of the 2nd-5th fingers - slips of the tendons run to the bases of the proximal phalanges and to the capsules of the metacarpophalangeal joints - intertendinous connections deep branch of between 3rd, 4th and 5th the radial nerve fingers - extends and spreads the fingers - strong dorsiflexor of wrist and midcarpal joints - ulnar adductor Extensor Digiti Minimi dorsal aponeurosis of the 5th finger - extends the 5th digit - helps in dorsiflexion and adduction of the hand Extensor Carpi Ulnaris base of the 5th metacarpal - strong ulnar adductor lateral epichondyle of the humerus (ulnaris also from the ulna) Deep Extensor Forearm Muscles Name Origin Insertion Innervation Function Supinator - supinator crest of the ulna - lateral epicondyle of the humerus radius - supinates the forearm (in every position of flexion and extension) Abductor Pollicis Longus - dorsal surface of the ulna (distal to the supinator crest) - interosseous membrane - dorsal surface of the radius base of 1st metacarpal bone - flexes hand towards palm - abducts it radially - extension of the thumb Extensor Pollicis Brevis radius (distal to abductor pollicis longus) base of proximal phalanx of thumb - extends the thumb Extensor Pollicis Longus dorsal surface of the ulna base of distal phalanx of thumb - extends the thumb - at the wrist, dorsiflexes and abducts the hand radially Extensor Indicis distal 1/3 of dorsal surface of ulna dorsal aponeurosis of index finger (2nd finger) - extends index finger - participates in dorsiflexion at the wrist and midcarpal joints deep branch of the radial nerve