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Muscles of the lower limb
 

Muscles of the lower limb

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    Muscles of the lower limb Muscles of the lower limb Document Transcript

    • Muscles of the Gluteal Region I: Hip Extensors Name Origin Insertion Innervation Function Gluteus Maximus - behind the posterior gluteal line - sacrum - sacrotuberous ligament - deep part - gluteal tuberosity on the upper shaft of the femur - superficial part iliotibial tract inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2) Tensor Fascia Lata anterior aspect of the iliotibial tract superior gluteal nerve - FLEXION of the hip - helps extension of the knee through the iliotibial tract anterior superior iliac spine (blood supply from both gluteal arteries) - extension of the hip against stress/ gravity - helps extension of the knee through the iliotibial tract Muscles of the Gluteal Region II: Hip Abductors Name Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Origin Insertion lateral surface of the ilium between the posterior and anterior gluteal lines between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines greater trochanter (medius posterior to minimus) Innervation superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1) Function - abduction of the hip - stabilisation during walking Muscles of the Gluteal Region III: Lateral Rotators Name Origin Insertion Innervation Piriformis anterior surface of the sacrum trochanteric fossa nerve to piriformis (S1S3) Obturator Internus obturator membrane trochanteric fossa obturator internus nerve (L5-S2) Gemelli (Superior and Inferior) Quadratus Femoris trochanteric fossa ischial tuberosity quadrate tubercle on the femur quadratus femoris nerve (L4-S1) Function - important landmark - superior gluteal vessels and nerves emerge (L4-S1) above - inferior gluteal vessels and nerves (L5-S2) emerge below - sciatic nerve (L4-S3) usually enters the posterior thigh below it
    • Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Name Origin Insertion Semitendinosus Semimembranosus medial surface of the proximal shaft of the tibia ischial tuberosity short head of biceps originates from the lateral shaft of the femur Biceps Femoris - medial tibial condyle - recurrent slip of tendon across the back of the knee joint to the oblique popliteal ligament Innervation Function tibial nerve (L5-S1) short head of biceps supplied by common fibular (peroneal) nerve - extensors of the thigh at the hip joint - flexors of the knee - small degree of rotation head of the fibula Anterior Compartment of the Thigh Name Origin Insertion Innervation Function Iliopsoas - psoas major - L1-L5 lesser trochanter of the (vertebrae, intercalated femur discs, transverse processes) - iliacus - iliac fossa - psoas major direct from L1-L3 - iliacus - femoral nerve (L2-L3) - flexes the thigh - when fixed, flexes the trunk Sartorius anterior superior iliac spine medial aspect shaft of the tibia femoral nerve (L2L3) - flexion of hip - lateral rotation and abduction of hip - flexion of the knee - crossed leg position Pectineus pecten of the pubis spiral line of the femur femoral nerve (L2L3) and/or obturator nerve (L2-L4) - adducts the hip tibial tuberosity femoral nerve (L2L3) - main extensor of the knee Quadriceps Femoris - rectus femoris anterior inferior iliac spine - vastus medialis medial side of the linea aspera - vastus lateralis - lateral side of the linea aspera - vastus intermedius front of the femoral shaft patella is found in the common (quadriceps) tendon, after which is called the ligamentum patellae Medial Compartment of the Thigh Name Gracilis Origin pubic bone Insertion Innervation medial shaft of the tibia Function adducts the hip shared with sartorius and semitendinosus Obturator Externus obturator membrane + surrounding bone trochanteric fossa Adductor Longus linea aspera? Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus pubic bone - adductor part - entire length of linea aspera - hamstring part - adductor tubercle on the medial epichondyle of the tibia obturator nerve (L2-L4) eternally rotates the hip hamstring portion of adductor magnus tibial nerve (L5-S1) adducts the hip
    • Anterior Compartment of the Leg Name Origin Insertion Tibialis Anterior lateral surface of tibia medial side of foot (medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal) Extensor Digitorum Longus - interosseous membrane - fibula (EDL superior to the EHL) distal phalanx of the 2nd-5th digits Innervation Extensor Hallucis Longus Function - dorsiflexes the foot - inverts the foot (elevation of the medial side of the foot) deep fibular nerve distal phalanx of the 1st digit (big toe) extends 2nd-4th digits extends 1st digit (big toe) Lateral Compartment of the Leg Name Fibularis (prev. Peroneus) Longus Fibularis (prev. Peroneus) Brevis Origin lateral surface of the fibula (longus, upper part; brevis, lower part) Insertion Innervation Function medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal styloid process of the 5th metatarsal superficial fibular nerve everts the foot Posterior Compartment of the Leg Name Origin Insertion Gastrocnemius below the knee joint Plantaris lateral epicondyle of the femur Tibialis Posterior interosseous membrane tuberosity of the navicular bone (medial side of the sole of the foot) Flexor Digitorum Longus tibia distal phalanx of the 2nd-5th digits Flexor Hallucis Longus fibula distal phalanx of the 1st digit Function above the knee joint Soleus Innervation (superficial) (deep) tendocalcaneus tibial nerve plantar flexion of the foot