iGCSE case studies A. Hazardous Environments A. Coastal Environments B. Urban Environments B. Economic Activity & Energy C. Globalisation & Migration Minimum number of case studies if well learnt = 15 Textbook case studies Non
A. Hazardous EnvironmentsTwo areas of case study requirements1. A comparative study of the impacts of tropical storms, in an LIC and an HIC. Katrina & Nargis2. Case studies of the management of one tropical storm and one tectonic event. One of these should have happened in an LIC and the other in an HIC. Katrina & Pinatubo
1. A comparative study of the impacts of TRS, in an LIC & an HIC . HIC – Katrina 2005 LIC – Nargis 2008Location, Time, Sca • 24/08/05 = tropical storm over the Bahamas • 02/05/08 = Tropical Cyclone hits Myanmar • 28/08/05 = Category 5 over Gulf of Mexico • Wind speeds max.160mph (260 kmh-1) le • 29/08/05 = Cat. 3 hit; Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama & Mississippi • Tracked W to E along the south coast of Myanmar = 25% •Wind speeds max.175mph (282kmh-1) of M. pop.tn •Storm surge = 7.3 to 8.5m along Mississippi coast • Storm surge = 3.5m • Up to 35 cm rainfall • Up to 60cm rainfall Short-term impacts Deaths / Injuries 1. @1,836 people died (mainly in Louisiana) + 705 reported missing 1. 140,000 died or were missing, 2. @ 1.2 million people given evacuation order 2. 1.5m to 3m people were displaced after the cyclone. 3. Most deaths caused by storm surge and aftermath of Katrina 3. Lack of food – 55 % of poptn = one day of food stocks or less. 4. Flooded @ 14,402 square kilometres2 (5,561 square miles) of the Irrawaddy River Delta 5. Health - 75% of health facilities in the affected areas destroyed 6. Diseases – 1. malaria & dengue fever spread by mosquitoes 2. Plague & leptospirosis spread by rodents. Buildings & 1. Accommodation 1. Accommodation – 1. @ $81 billion of damage to property 1. 60% of homes in the path of the storm were Infrastructure 2. 200,000 homes damaged or destroyed (mostly in New destroyed. Orleans) 2. 800,000 homes destroyed and 350,000 homes 2. Infrastructure damaged. 1. @ $150 billion damage to infrastructure caused 2. Infrastructure 2. 3 million people lost electricity supply 1. Many villages were cut off for several weeks as 3. winds destroyed smaller buildings, heavily damaged larger waterways clogged with debris and roads were buildings; Infrastructure mostly damaged or submerged, destroyed. (The army organising the relief was transport links inoperable unable to liaise with impacted people.) 4. 90% of coastal structures destroyed 2. Education - 4,500 schools were destroyed 3. Agriculture impact – 1. 50% of draught animals died in the region, fishing boats and jetties were destroyed, and the storm water swept away food stocks and agricultural implements.
1. A comparative study of the impacts of TRS, in an LIC & an HIC . Longer-term Social costs: 1. 40, 000 displaced = 26, 000 homeless temporarily relocated to Louisiana 1. 1.5-3 million displaced, mainly within Rangoon area Superdome ( = unsanitary = led to spread of disease) + 14, 000 housed inHomelessness Astrodome, Texas 2. Thousands of people lost their jobs & forced to move for employment (environmental internally displaced) Economic & 1. Total cost of damage = $89.6 bn 1. Total cost of damage = $10 bn, 2. 70% of damaged property was insured 2. Almost no insuranceEnvironmental 3. 53 levees damaged/destroyed 3. Difficult for country to recover, will become medium to costs 4. $105 million spent on repairs to infrastructure and housing long term effect (ROSTOW!) 5. 30 oil platforms destroyed 1. $4bin (1.7 assets, 2.3 lost income)- ASEAN 6. Agricultural & Environmental figures 1. industrial waste & raw sewage = New Orleans drains + oil spills 4. Agricultural & Environmental from offshore rigs,/coastal refineries & petrol stations 1. Shallow continental land shelf = Silt washed 2. "Witchs Brew" = 7 million gallons of oil + = could devastate the ashore ruins some farmland, but can make the region’s biodiversity for many years to come = devastating the land fertile fisheries = economic impact 2. Forests destroyed- 38,000ha 3. “Superfund Sites” Flooded = five “Superfund” sites (heavily 3. Green land flooded, @600,000ha, polluted industrial sites slated for federal cleanup) + infamous 4. Rice production drops ↓500,000 tons “Cancer Alley” industrial corridor between New Orleans and 5. Farm animals killed = no tilling of land Baton Rouge = EPA problem 6. 50% Boats for fishing destroyed, income lost 4. Contaminates Groundwater = Household hazardous wastes, pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals also created a witch’s brew of floodwater that quickly seeped down into and contaminated groundwater = long term 5. Forest industry =1.3million acres of forest lands destroyed 6. Substantial beach erosion =560 km2 of land transformed to water. 7. lost breeding homes for animals such as marine mammals, brown pelicans, turtles, and fish, as well as migratory species such as redhead ducks. Over 20% of marshes permanently turned to water. Damage forced the 8. closure of 16 National Wildlife Refuges.
2. The management of one tropical storm and one tectonic event. One of these should have happened in an LIC and the other in an HIC. HIC/TRS – Katrina 2005 LIC/Tectonic – Pinatubo 1991 Prediction & Responses Prediction & Responses Pre-event • 25/08/05 = Katrina made landfall = Cat. 1. Three successive evacuation zones were defined: 1 in southern Florida and weakened into 1. <10 km of the volcanos summit. a tropical storm as a result. The next 2. 10 to 20 km from the summit. (40,000) morning, after passing over the state, 3. 20 to 40 km from the summit. (331,000) 2. Five stages of volcanic alert ; Tropical Storm Katrina moved into the 1. Level 1 = low level seismic disturbances Gulf of Mexico, reintensified 2. Level 5 which is a major eruption in progress. • 26/08/05 = 56 hr before Katrinas 3. Daily alerts were issued stating the alert level and landfall = National Hurricane Center had associated danger area. predicted that the Greater New Orleans 4. Information was announced in major national and local area could face a direct hit = Louisiana newspapers, radio and television stations Governor Kathleen Blanco declares a 5. Many Aeta = left their villages of their own volition when State of Emergency in Louisiana the first explosions began in April. = Aeta gathered in a • 27/08/05 = NHC issued a hurricane village 12 km from summit. 6. COSPEC, tiltometers & seismographs used to predict watch that included the New Orleans eruption metro area,[which was upgraded to a 7. Evacuations hurricane warning by 10:00 p.m. = 1. 7/04/91 – zone 1 Blanco asks President Bush to declare a 2. 7/06/91 – zone 2 – alert 4 State of Emergency for Louisiana = Bush 3. 14//06/91 – zone 3 – alert 5 does so, authorizing the Department of BY 15th June eruption, 60,000 had evacuated from Homeland Security and FEMA "to 30km radius coordinate all disaster relief efforts…" and freeing up federal money for the state. • 28/08/05 = NHC bulletin for the New Orleans region = warning of the devastation = people in SE Louisiana & S. Mississippi, followed evacuation orders more closely, = reduced casualty toll.= New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin = mandatory evacuation of the city. The evacuation call comes only 20 hours before Katrina would make landfall – less than half the time that researchers had determined was necessary to evacuate the city
2. The management of one tropical storm and one tectonic event. One of these should have happened in an LIC and the other in an HIC. HIC/TRS – Katrina 2005 LIC/Tectonic – Pinatubo 1991Short term response 1. Local government try and deal with problems then when its sources are 1. < 500 people were killed directly from the volcano, which exhausted is very small considering the size of the blast. 2. County level, if county can not cope then the 2. + 300 were killed indirectly from things such as 3. State gets involved and finally the respiratory problems. 4. Federal government provide help if needed. 3. The main cause of direct death was from buildings PROBLEM = inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at collapsing under the weight of ash and rain from the various levels. typhoon that hit the country at the same time as the ACTIONS eruption. 1. FEMA had 4. @ 650,000 people homeless, 1. refrigerated trucks with food to worst affected areas 5. @ 8,000 homes were totally destroyed with a further 2. volunteers began distributing this food in New Orleans continued 75,000 more damaged. for six months. 6. Clark air force base was damaged to such an extent the 2. 60,000 stranded in New Orleans and the Coast guard rescued more than Americans decided not to rebuild it. 33,500. 7. The people evacuated from their homes were put in 3. 58,000 National Guard personnel 50 states to help temporary homes such as tents or cheap basic metal 4. early September congress authorised $62.3 billion in aid for victims. constructions (spontaneous settlements) and given basic 5. FEMA provided help with housing to more 700,000 families and individuals, food such as rice. e.g. trailers. 8. National disaster co-ordinating council of Philippines sent 6. FEMA aid for 12,000 hotel rooms to help with those displaced until provisions helped the homeless. February when evacuees had to claim federal assistance. 9. Local indigenous help - Aeta people 7. July 2006 37,745 people were still living in FEMA trailers. 10. Country originally refused aid as government do not want 8. Man power from as far away as New York and California. people to think that the volcano was bigger than it was 9. Two weeks after the storm more than half the states were providing and the government could not cope. shelter for evacuees, by four weeks there were evacuees in all states 11. Some of the drugs NGO’s and governments use are not 10. >70 countries gave money or other donations such as mobile hospitals, allowed or licensed in some countries. It would also have water treatment plants, helicopters, doctors, water, food, medicine. E.g. been hard to co-ordinate all the different groups coming Kuwait $500 million ,Qatar and United Arab Emirates (each $100 million), in. They also wanted to prove that they could cope with South Korea ($30 million), Australia ($10 million), India, China (both the situation. They also want to prove they can cope with $5 million), New Zealand ($2 million) Pakistan ($1.5 million) and the situation. Bangladesh ($1 million) + India, Israel, Sri Lanka, Canada, Mexico, 12. Multilateral aid from UN channelled through the World Singapore, Germany, Belgium also donated aid. Health Organisation, UNICEF and UN world food program 11. Britain, Russia and France’s offers were declined. to send food. Medicine and look after children. UNICEF 12. NGO’s such as the American Red Cross, Oxfam, along with many other used churches to help co-ordinate their efforts at religious charities offered help. In total NGO’s raised $4.25 bn in public grassroots level. donations (50% from the Red Cross. 13. The Red Cross also opened 1,470 shelters and in total they helped over 1.4 million families.
2. The management of one tropical storm and one tectonic event. One of these should have happened in an LIC and the other in an HIC. HIC/TRS – Katrina 2005 LIC/Tectonic – Pinatubo 1991Long term responses 1. Local governments used cost benefit analysis. 1. The volcano eruption reshaped the land around causing more risks 1. To rebuild poorly built homes or leave them? and disasters. 2. .To move people into the new more improved 1. River cut new channels in the ash = erosion of the land. Due homes which they had built, or move them out of to built up ash, torrential rain from the typhoon and the the area? flooding from the rivers, lahars started happening. 2. Before building could begin all the flood water had to be 2. Lahars then destroyed more homes and devastated more removed, from New Orleans = 43 days into Lake lives. Pontchartrain. = millions of fish died (pollution) 3. $500,000 property damage and 650,000 jobs lost. 3. Adjustment Temporary homes built in affected areas to 2. Four months on from the eruption 200,000 people were still get people to move back into the area before their new homeless. homes were built. 3. Problems for the government. 4. Populations in badly hit places dropped 1. majority of clean drinking water = contaminated either by ash 1. 2006 Louisiana’s population had dropped 4.87%. or the sewers overflowing. = disease spreading quickly in the 5. Trust - get used to the idea that more storms would areas where the homeless were grouped. happen = trust new levees as old ones had failed and a 2. 50% of cattle in the surrounding area were killed & many government which some people felt had failed them. crops were ruined meaning a shortage in food. 6. Prediction had to be improved. More money was spent on 3. A lot of people could not afford to pay their taxes = hurricane prediction + preparation + equipment government had even less money to rebuild homes meaning 7. More spent on education people were homeless for even longer. 8. Improve was communication as it had gone so badly 4. Aeta tribe = hit the hardest as all their land was destroyed meaning wrong during the hurricane. they had to all be re-distributed. 5. Long term positive recovery aid. 1. The Entrepreneur volunteer assistance (EVA) taught the Aeta to take the volcanic ash and make it into pottery to sell to fund education, healthcare and training programs. 2. Multiplier effect, microfinance used to start up tourist activities – bottom up
A. Coastal EnvironmentsThree areas of case study requirements1. Case study of a located coral reef or a mangrove stand and its management. SMMA2. Case study of a stretch of a coastline under pressure. SMMA3. Case study of one stretch of retreating coastline. Holderness
1 . Case study of a located coral reef or a mangrove stand and its management. & 2. Case study of a stretch of a coastline under pressureThreat Management• During the 1980s, resource use conflicts Department of Fisheries → in the area increased dramatically Soufriere Regional Development• local opposition to central Foundation (SRDF) a community- Government’s management activities based organisation → and zoning decisions. Soufriere Marine ManagementTourism Area (SMMA)• important part of the local economy, • demarcation of areas,• And it generates a significant proportion • the establishment of the fee of GDP. systems,• Due to damage from boats, anchors and • the provision of technical people, the corals can be destroyed = assistance to fishers and other Threatening the income generated by resource users, fishing and tourism from coral reefs. • the facilitation of specific negotiations amongYachting stakeholders,• anchors can destroy the corals. • Created in 1994• Fuel leaks (toxic) & organic pollution • Covers 11km of coast (eutrophication) = damage ecosystems Creation of 5 different types of zone. 1. Recreational Areas- areas alongDiving the beach reserved for tourists.• allows tourists to come close to the Good for diving and water reefs in great numbers risking contact sports. with coral polyps (fragile) 2. Marine Areas- Access heavily restricted . All uses forbidden. Fishing priority Areas- NoFishing diving or Yachting• important part of the local economy and 3. Yacht mooring Areas – Yachts provides significant employment for moored here locals. 4. Multiple Use areas – Open to• Over fishing + the threat from boats and all Issues: nets have been a threat to the local ecosystem and reef 1997= local fishing community, against the SMMA and to demand changes in• Fishermen have been in conflict with management arrangements as they felt their livelihoods were in peril many other stake holders, such as divers RESULT – new representation for all parties in the Soufriere Marine and Yachts. Management Association,
3. Retreating coastline: HoldernessBackground • Holderness Coast is on the NE coast of the UK, facing the North Sea. • Coastline = soft, easily eroded boulder clay cliffs (20-30m high), • Including a spit across the Humber estuary - Spurn Head. • Retreating at greater than 1m / yr (fastest rate in Europe) • 4km of land have been lost since Roman Times, including many villages and farm buildings. • Easington Gas Station is situated on the cliffs top and its position is under threat • Destructive waves dominate + mass movement • Most of the Material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea (the coastal cell) • the rest is moved by lsd = the beaches are therefore narrow = little to protect the coastline. • Further threatened by sea-level rise.Management • Groynes to trap material and provide a protective beach • Sea walls as wave-resistant structures at the base of the cliffs • artificial off-shore breakwaters like tyres and concrete blocks, to dissipate wave energy offshore • sea wall used to protect Easington Gas Station (cost £4.5 million) • Cost/Benefit analysis - only the most valuable areas of land are protected. Much of the area is farmland which is not protected. Example Mappleton • 1998, the main road running through the village was only 500m from the cliff top and in places it is now only 50m • The area suffers from erosion rates of up to 2m per year. Protecting Mappleton • 2 rock groynes were constructed in 1991 at Mappeleton. Problems for further down coast • South of Mappleton village have experienced repercussions of altering the beach cell • The groynes disturbed the natural longshore drift movement, trapping the coastal material. • Whilst material is still being moved south of Mappleton, there is no fresh sediment to replace it. • Beaches have become even narrower and the cliffs are unprotected. • It has accelerated cliff erosion south of Mappleton to 10m / yr.
B. Urban EnvironmentsThree areas of case study requirements1. A case study of one city to show the land use patterns and the distribution of social/ethnic groups. Reading2. A case study of shanty town management in a LIC city. Sao Paulo3. A case study of one named urban area in an HIC to explain how and why changes are taking place. Reading – rural/urban fringe
Land use Location(s) 1. Land Use: Reading ExplanationResidential 1. CBD = gentrification + attempts to rejuvenate Reading, • Changed over time with the city itself and the desires of high quality, + high density housing found i.e. Privately its populace. owned/developed modern high rise flats next to Oracle • During the industrial revolution, factory workers 2. Inner city = Terraced housing occurs mainly nearest the would have needed to have easy access to their CBD, mixed with other lower quality council housing workplace in the CBD, hence the terraced (high rise flats) along main industry roads. (heralding housing still left over from that era. back to when accessibility was more crucial, and less • Manufacturing moved away from CBDs = derelict → accessible itself)e.g. New Town to the East (Asian modern day regeneration = community), Oxford Rd = West = Afro/Caribbean • High rise flats in CBD, 3. Some areas of gentrification inside city, with terraced • housing developments on rurban fringe, Oracle and semi-detached housing seen together. shopping centre etc) 4. Edges of the urban area, away from areas of industry, • Gentrification in twilight zone and towards the located close to services and transport links (rail/road) edge of the city o = people who have previously are suburban clusters e.g. Earley. moved out of the city or first time buyers seek 5. New housing developments taking place on brownfield cheap housing in the city that they can sites. E.g. Kennet Island n. of Madjeski, jct. 11 renovate,(reurbanisation) which itself multiplies 6. Low quality housing area around Reading uni for poor the effect. students.e.g. White Knights • Infilling on Victorian properties with spacious gardens, or equipped below modern standards. • Suburbanisation those able to afford it moving away from the city centre into private housing, low in services, high in residential. e.g. EarleyIndustry Located mainly along 3 main roads: Basingstoke Road e.g. Gillette Accessibility → industry needed transport links to ship factory, A323 and A4, leading into CBD. Services located in CBD goods inc. Kennet & Avon canal, and now requires (Oracle) and out of town around suburbs e.g. offices, hi-tech, transport links for out of town, or suburban commuters, Courage. e.g. To the business parks. Businesses are relocating back to the CBD as manufacturing (more out of town) becomes less and less prevalent.
Reading Industrial area, mostly university Industrial area, mostly council flats and terraced located near council flats and terraced housing e.g. New Town affordable housing e.g. Oxford Rd housing i.e. White KnightsNew housingdevelopment (inpartnership with localgovernment to encouragerejuvenation of Reading) CBD, newe. g. Tilehurst services and modern high density flats.Reading follows Hoyt’s E.g. Oraclemodel of a city, but with anadditional industrial sector,rather than one for higherquality housing, which islocated around the city assuburbs. ‘Twilight Zone, terra Higher quality, semi- Industrial brownfield detached housing Privately ced zone, majority moving out from CBD, developed housing terraced housing with examples of suburbs. E.g. e.g. some gentrification gentrification and Lower Earley Oxford Rd e.g. Kennet Island infilling.
1. Ethnic & Social groups: ReadingMap Ethnic Group Distribution White • White population > all other census ethnic categories in number in Reading. • Highest out to N. (Caversham) & W. (Tilehurst) = most expensive housing in the suburbs. • Much lower population occupying the cheap inner city housing around the CBD and in the less expensive southern and western suburbs (Southcote & Calcot). As they are generally richer than the others, they can buy the large, detached properties. Afro- • Afro-Caribbean = 3rd largest in Reading • Highest in central W. (Battle) = near the Reading West train station. Caribbean • Occupy the cheaper, inner city terrace housing W. nearer to the CBD, declining from the centre. • Low transferable work skills forces them into the lowest quality housing in these areas. • Very small presence north of the river (Caversham)
1. Ethnic & Social groups: ReadingMap Ethnic Group Distribution Asian • Asian = smallest ethnic population in Reading. • Highest = Inner city E. (New Town & Park) • Very low population in the suburbs, especially N.(Caversham) & W (Tilehurst) • Cheaper housing near to the University (White Knights) is preferred, coupled with student accommodation Mixed • Mixed race = 2nd largest ethnic group in Reading • Equably spread except N. (Caversham) and W. (Tilehurst) • Mixed population = southern suburbs (Lower Earley) = visibly cheaper housing then N. (Caversham)
2. Shanty Town management: Sao PauloType of Location & Methodmanagement Bottom up schemes = grey area as they are now government policy; • puts their money into favelas through NGOs and government owned companies • Schemes to improve the quality of life of people on a very small, very wide scale. • Gradually improves individual quality of life and standard of living of individuals, over a wide scale, therefore improving favelas 1. Paraisópolis 2005- International Copper Association (ICA) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID) set up international programme to promote sustainable electricity services in slum areas, as people risk lives making illegal electricity connections to overhead lines. 2006- Pilot project initiated in Paraisópolis favela 1. Heliópolis 2nd largest favela in Brazil has undergone structuralisation = buildings & roads are permanent + recognised by the Sao Paulo government. 1986- UNAS (Union of Heliópolis’ Residents’ Associations and Centre) = a grassroots movement, created in and led by members of the Heliópolis community; • Meetings to negotiate housing rightsBottom Up • Lobbying authorities • Using litigation to affirm and guarantee rights • Public demonstrations • Using buildings to demonstrate against unequal and unjust access and control of property • Confronting the police • Communication (Community Radio, Bulletins, videos, etc.) • “Housing Forum” = government & grassroots have meetings to negotiate and build public policies; • “Heliópolis Homeless Movement”, est. 2000, by 2003 occupied an area owned by the City Hall with > 700 people. 1. Role of Unilever ( a TNC) 1997- Unilever sets up Rexona-AdeS Volleyball Programme Centres = volleyball as an educational tool to teach low- income children “values, vitality and joy of sport” at 45 centres 2004- Unilever:- Omo launches Omo Community Laundry-provides means of washing clothes to community 2008- Omo launched Brincar – improves play areas and educates teachers Favela Upgrading – Bottom-up or Top Down? Upgrading favelas became the government policy around 1980. It is a bottom up government policy. This meant that only around 10% of the population had to be shifted rather than 50%.
2. Shanty Town management: Sao PauloType of Location & Method Assessmentmanagement • Governments = large amounts of money → large scale developments, e.g. Cingapura new high-rise residential block in a The Cingapure Project failed due to: cleared favela in Paraisopolis. •Inertia = People not wanting to move away to • Other top down schemes = new infrastructure and the newly developed high rise buildings structuralisation = roads & installing electricity and permanent •Not enough open land at affordable prices for buildings. the low-income residents who will occupy it. • 1992- Paulo Maluf newly elected mayor = a solution to the favela •New land being too far away from based on the experience of Singapore. employment areas for favela dwellers • The project ran 1995 to early in 2001. (especially informal employment) • São Paulo’s planners felt that the Cingapure (Singapore) model •Destruction of social networks in favelas was especially applicable because of the limited availability and •Too expensive development costing 15 times high cost of urban land in both cities. more than slum upgrading • Most housing blocks were built next to slum housing whose •Only a modest increase in the availableTop Down residents were to receive priority. housing stock (14,000 not 100,000) • Early buildings were low rise, with higher buildings preferred as •Quality of living issues with housing built- the project advanced. inadequate living space and rents too high • When built, ownership passed to the municipal COHAB which • Legitimisation = adding permanent collected rents (R$57.00 per month). infrastructure to favelas is that this recognises • Each new project was assigned a social worker to oversee the the favelas’ legality, making the government transfer of families from the favela to temporary settlements to seem as if it condones them. the new housing unit. • ↑quality of life in favelas can cause more • Landscaping and leisure areas were included in the layout of rapid urbanisation, causing even greater developments. problems. • A criticism has been that no provision was made for small-scale businesses within the projects.
3. HIC urban area change: ReadingCBD & Inner City• Reading Development- Inner distribution road (IDR)was made to take traffic away from CBD, never finished and traffic in Reading is still congested. Closed off Broad street to all and encouraged banks to relocate there.• Friar street- pedestrianised and main entertainment area with new pubs and clubs.• The Oracle- large area of CBD demolished for shopping centre, car park and Warner cinema. Near river with cafes making area attractive = mix of leisure and retail• Rose Kiln Flats- example of a Brownfield site thats being redeveloped.Junction 11 – Edge of CIty• Reading Gate- out of town shopping centre built on a Greenfield site next to the rural-urban fringe, located next to junction 11 of M4. B&Q, Comet, McDonalds. Next to Madejski stadium for continuous money flow.• Madejski stadium- Reading FC relocated from Elm Park in the inner city to a Greenfield site on the edge of city. Plus London Irish & Concert venue = Leisure and tertiary services. Next to Junction 11.• International Business Park- Business park next to Junction 11, close to M25, M4 plus public transport, has its own integrated transport = accessibility. Landscaped Car Park, Lake , Crèche, Health Club, amenities: BHS, Hilton, Madejski Millennium and Holiday Inn hence a hence quality of life. T-mobile, Harley Davidson, Wiley, Oxfam, Orange and Verizon.• Green Park- business/science park based around a water feature (high qulity of working conditions). Close to Reading University (esp.IT & Robotics); Creche, Health club, centre for conferences. (under developed as too much business space in Reading)• Courage Brewery- Built on a green field site, in 1978 and closed April 2010. there was consolidation in the brewing industry and now fewer but much larger enterprises are being built.• South side Reading- Reading Gateway development, the urban planners and architects SCOTT BROWNRIGG = a plan for Reading Borough Council & local politicians. Extension of residential and business. Links in with fast track buses. 1000 dwellings with hotel, retail park & leisure space.• Kennet island- housing development, first properties sold in 2007 and still being developed, part of the development is covered by a government backed initiative for Key Workers (public servants such as nurses and policemen)
B. Economic Activity & EnergyThree areas of case study requirements1. A comparative study of sectoral shifts in one HIC and one LIC. India & UK2. Case study of the factors affecting the development and location of one hightech industry. Biotechnology3. Case study of recent employment changes within an area of a HIC. M4 Corridor
1. Comparative case study: India v. UK 1900 20061800 • 2nd ↑ = age of manuf. Monopoly of markets • 2nd ↓ = deindustrialisation, replaced with• Primary 85% - agriculture, mining and technology specialist and protected manuf e.g. Nissan (coal, iron ore, limestone etc) • 3rd ↑ = services supporting trade e.g. • 3rd ↑ = highest added value, specialisation,• Secondary starts to grow shipping, haulage, finance new forms of work • 1st ↓ = mechanisation in manfu. & agri • 1st ↓ = exhaustion & competition UK employment structures
1. Comparative case study: India v. UK 1. Tertiary = largest sector 2. Secondary = 2nd stayed constant 3. Primary = ↓ by 50% sector1. The economy ↑ from 1973 (>300%);2. Sector contributions changed: 1. Primary ↓ from 50% to 25% 1. Primary ↓ has 2. Secondary ↑from <20% to 25% reduced but still (25x larger) remains the top 3. Tertiary ↑ grown the most from employer due to the 25% to >50% amount of subsistence farmers. 2. Secondary & Tertiary Conclusion sectors have increased in size but are still much • Majority of people are still employed in agricultural activities smaller than the (primary). As agriculture provides seasonal employment during primary sector. cropping season so chances of hidden employment are big. 3. Tertiary ↑ at the cost • A developing nation’s dependency shifts from primary sector of Secondary – towards tertiary sector in all aspects of economic development, mechanisation & new so it can be said that India is still way behind because majority forms of employment still depend on agriculture. such as hi-tech (based • Secondary & Tertiary Sector have failed to generate enough around Bangalore) employment opportunities putting a pressure on primary sector. • Although educated and skilled workforces do get employed in secondary and tertiary sector but for unskilled and semi-skilled workers there is still a lack of opportunities, hence informal employment
2. Development & Location of one hightech industry: BiotechnologyBiotech = myriad group of hi tech companies inc. subsidiaries;• R & D – located near Universities on Science Parks e.g. Cambridge Science Park (Huntingdon Life Sciences = pharmaceuticals)• Testing – often needs to be done in the country of market e.g. for the FDA = USA to gain approval• Manufacture – least cost locations with high enough production standards• Marketing – can be global or localIncludes Quaternary – Teriary – Secondary – Primary in most casesDefinition – the application of molecular and cellular processes to solve problems, conduct research, and create goods and services;healthcare, food production (e.g. GM), industrial use of crops (e.g. bioethanol production), “defence weapons” (biological warfare), environmentalimprovement (e.g. oil digestive microbes for spills
2. Development & Location of one hightech industry: Biotechnology Traditionally • HQ & R&D in HIC – associated with University researchers • 50% of global biotech companies based in USA • Post development and testing; manufacture takes place in Least Cost Location But the global industry is changing, influenced by market, Government Policy and by National specialismsCountry Role in Global Biotech • An increasingly important marketChina • Large scope to displace Traditional Chinese Medicines • Chinese Government is encouraging the development of a domestic innovative biotechnology sector = direct investment,NEW MARKET intellectual property reforms (protecting the rights of the companies who develop products) and commercial incentives • A global manufacturing centreSingapore • Leading in complex & technology-intensive manufacturing of biotechnology products, • Aided by the country’s strengths in intellectual property protection, regulatory compliance and infrastructure and its highlyMANUFACTURING skilled workforce. • Attracting ↑ investments from the Government and global biotech companies. • India’s biotech industry has ↑ as domestic companies have grown aggressivelyIndia • opportunities from the country’s large, skilled workforce, lower manufacturing & research costs • ↑ demand for health care (market)LOCAL NEW BIOTECH • Local entrepreneurs with returning, highly educated brain pool • Like many emerging economies, Brazil is progressing from an imitator to an innovator (cf. China)Brazil • A leader in agricultural biotech • the world’s second-largest user of genetically modified (GM) cropsAGRICULTURAL BITECH • Switzerland-based Syngenta received approval to cultivate two varieties of its insect-resistant GM corn, while Bayer receivedSPECIALISM approval for two varieties of GM soy • Government regulators cleared the experimental planting of 15 new GM seed varieties in 2009. Of these, 12 corn, cotton and soy varieties are expected to be tested by Monsanto, • biotechnology = a key strategic focus for the nation’s policy-makers and business community in recent years.Malaysia • Government has allocated US$571.4 million = the Ninth Malaysian Plan (2006–10) to fund the development of the industry.GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT • National Biotechnology Policy (NBP) launched in 2005 • Malaysian Biotechnology Corporation - est. that the number of biotech companies has ↑ threefold since 2005
3. HIC recent employment changes: • M4 Corridor Area of development for Hi-Tech industry along the M4 Motorway - London to Bristol • Attracts many sunrise, footloose companies; Microsoft, Oracle, Computer Associates, Cisco, Honda, HP etc • Area adjacent to the M4 motorway & junctions; • eastern end in = a large number of Hi-Tech businesses, particularly in Berkshire and the Thames Valley. • Europes premier business location, with many TNCs based there inc. Vodafone @ Newbury as well as playing host the vast majority of the UKs technology sector.Locational characteristics Characteristics of the industries• Links with universities and research organizations. E.g. Oxford, Reading, Bristol, Bath • R & D-intensive industry• Office and factory space is cheaper than in London • Human resources are an relatively important locational factor• Easy access to the whole country via the motorway network e.g. M4 – M25 – M3 – M1 • A high value-added industry and ports • A footloose industry• Good rail access along the M4 corridor • Serve the global market• a high quality of life and attractive countryside that helps to recruit and retain staff • Transnational and multi-point production• Heathrow Airport provides links to Europe and the rest of the world History – to the hitech History – tradition & decline • Food manufacture inc. Courage @ Reading 1978, Mars @ Slough – first industries to • South Wales; chemicals, mining, metal working take advantage of the new M4 and the connectivity it afforded • Reading; biscuits, bricks, bulbs • Other light manufacturing followed e.g. Gillette in Reading • Bristol; docks – related • Commuters began to spread along the M4 (and railway line ) • Swindon; GWR railway works • Hi tech – quaternary companies; CA, HP, Vodafone, Oracle, Microsoft • Hence an old established industrial region prior to mid 20thCentury • Transport Hubs such as Reading , Swindon (Honda) & Slough act as clear foci for the deindustrialisation corridor • Recent encouragement of EU and Labour Government to utilise Greenfield site to link with Universities in Science/Business Parks – the knowledge economy
C. Globalisation & MigrationThree areas of case study requirements1. A case study of the global operations of a TNC or a TNC’s operations in one LIC. Rio Tinto2. A case study of a package holiday destination. Spain3. A case study of sustainable tourism (eg Galapagos, Bhutan). Bhutan4. A case study of international migration (eg asylum seekers and economic migrants to UK). UK
1. TNC operations in one LIC: Rio Tinto• Founded in 1873, Rio Tinto = one of the World’s Largest TNCs – an Anglo-Australian Co.• 1st extracted copper now; aluminium, copper, diamonds, energy products (coal and uranium), gold, industrial minerals (borax, titanium dioxide, salt, talc and zircon), and iron ore. Criteria Positive Negative Employment • 100s of local miners lead to a multiplier effect locally and • No value added processing is done in ↑national taxes Namibia (France, USA etc)- limiting the multiplier effect • Tourism can be affected by the impact of the mining on the landscape – lasting after the mines are closed Direct Taxes (levy) • Namibian government is paid for extraction rights by RT Quality of life • RT provides schooling and access to primary health care for all • 2ndry disease such as lung cancer and TB can mine workers result from continued exposure to radon and dust Environmental • Excessive water use – a semi arid country – water is a scarce resource • Exhausted mines are left un-landscaped as a scar and hazard for local people after the benefits have gone.
1. TNC operations in one LIC: Rio Tinto • The Rossing Mine is the 5th largest Uranium mine in the world • It is situated partly within the Namib Nauklut Park • With increased demand for Uranium there is a top down drive to expand the mining – from the Government and from Rio Tinto
2. Package tourism: Costa BlancaLocation-Costa Blanca, South of Spain. Near Alicante airport.Resources for tourism-Primary: Hot dry summers, sea, sand àSecondary: beach resort. High rise hotels.Benefits-500, 000 visitors per year. (av. £30 per day spent) (local population = 70,000)750, 00 jobs – MULTIPIER EFFECTNew infrastructure- Alicante airport,-New road network linking Benidorm with Valencia Madrid etc.Recycled water for irrigation = export of citrus fruits. – supporting diversified economyLower crime rates (town police station throughout the year)Problems-Visual pollution- High rise hotels out of character with local building styles and materials.Seasonal low paid jobs, e.g. emptying litter bins.Congestion- traffic. Impact on local ecosystemsWater- dry summers (1- cm rain per year) – tourist consumption = double that of localsLitter – 50 million tonnes of waste pa - Impact on local ecosystemsIncrease in second home ownership – hyper seasonality, unreliable threshold populations for localservices e.g. cafes, shops Management-Visitor profile- o Height of hotels restricted and materials must blend with the environment.Mainly young people of less than 30 years old. o National Park at the end of peninsula to protect the area.Stay 10 days- 2 weeks. o People encouraged to walk to the beach – clearing of tunnels under coast road o Central area pedestrianised.From nearby European countries- UK, France, Germany, Ireland, Scandinavia. o A dam near Castillion with a lake from which water is pumped to Benidorm.On package tours. o Water treatment- recycled water used for irrigation. o Try to attract visitors all year, e.g. cheap winter package deals for older people – reduces issue of seasonality. o Litter bins emptied regularly and promenade swept. o Green flags indicate safe areas to swim. o Chemicals added to the sea to maintain the water quality. o Police patrol the beach which is cleaned by hand every day. o Theme park to reduce the honeypot effect on the beach – and to maintain interest in the mature resort (see Butler’s Model).
3. Sustainable tourism: Bhutan • Primary resources for tourism: scenery, unique, • 78% Buddhist, mountains, birds, ancient culture • Attracts sensitive tourists willing to pay a premium for ecotourism credentialsDevelopment of tourism• 1974 – King instigates a top-down investment after the influx of travellers for his coronation• Landlocked country, tourism on of the few options for generating income from “exports”• Bhutans tourism policy = larger development philosophy within Bhutan = ↑living standards of its people,• BUT development in Bhutan is not judged merely by material prosperity and income growth - happiness, contentment, and the spiritual and emotional well being of its people• tourism was managed by the Department of Tourism then• 1980 - tourism was managed by the Department of Tourism• 1983 - Royal Tourism Corporation fully autonomous – commercial• 1991– fully privatized• 33 licensed operators under the Tourism Authority of Bhutan (TAB)• principle of sustainability (i.e. it must be environmentally friendly, socially and culturally acceptable, and economically viable).• control on numbers by government regulated tourist tariffs, and a set of administrative requirements.= "High Value- Low Volume"• Pricing policy – must be package tourists - price set by the government is US$250 per day, per person. • Of this tariff, a 10% commission goes to the external foreign travel agent, • 35% is paid as a government royalty, • 55% is the tour operators to be spent in Bhutan. The tariff increases if the tourist wants to travel alone or in very small groups = small groups incur higher per capita expenditure and have a greater impact on the environment than the large groups. • Infrastructure within the country will dictate overall tourist visitors• TAB grants visas – thus controlling the number of them – not the market• Trekking in Bhutan requires another permit form TAB = ensure that no one route is over used or new ones opened • Trekking tours are only conducted on approved trails and camping in designated campsites. This also helps to even out the density of the tourist on the different trekking routes, spreading the income from tourism evenly to the local communities in theses areas. (avoiding Honeypots)
4. A case study of international migration (eg asylum seekers and economic migrants to UK). BACKGROUND •Poland joined EU in May 2004 = 300,000 workers have settled in the UK (+ thought to be many more who are not legally Registered) •A 3rd phase of Polish migrants since the WWII •1st = were 200,000 political migrants, ex-servicemen who fought for the allies, or their families who were deported from E. Poland to camps in Siberia by the Russians during the war, who came to Britain in 1948. •2nd = were here when martial law was declared in Poland in 1981. •Est. total No living in the UK today with a ‘Polish connection’ = 750,000 (= Pakistani & > Afro- Caribbean community. •59% of all applicants to the Work Registration Scheme have been Polish (mostly 18-35yrs old) •99% of Poles in the UK are in workFor Positives NegativesUK • Cheap workforce – hardworking skilled or not esp. for labour • Displaces local young workers intensive industry such as food processing • Risk of social unrest due to clustering & perceived • ↑ population in some rural area (Lincolnshire) = keeping schools crime/favoured status and shops viable • Dependency on migrants may be unsustainable if • Create demand for specialist services such as translators and delis they return = ↑ local jobs & tax raised • Leakage – remittances sent pack to Poland will not be • ↑ cultural diversity used in a local multiplier effect (£4bn) • May be guilty of crimes in PolandPoland • Remittances from overseas earnings (multiplier effect) £4bn since • Loss of young hard working group 2004. • Loss of potential entrepreneurs • Reduces unemployment • Loss of local consumers (negative multiplier) • Returning migrants bring ideas and investment capital • Loss of skilled workers – 10% of Polish doctors have left, leaving health service understaffedSome facts • 600,000 arrived from E.Europe between 2004 & 2006 • £2.54bn p.a = contributed to the economy by E.European migrants. • Migrants = 10% of builders, 31% of doctors, 12.5% of teachers UK = migrants. • 80% of migrants are between 18 and 35, offsetting the UK’s ageing population.