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AQA Geography Geog2
 

AQA Geography Geog2

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A full effort to brief students on the Joy of Geog2. AS Geography core element x

A full effort to brief students on the Joy of Geog2. AS Geography core element x

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    AQA Geography Geog2 AQA Geography Geog2 Presentation Transcript

    • Contents1. The skillset for GEOG22. What can you expect to be asked on GEOG23. Some answers to show you how it might be done?4. A summary of the presentation techniquesGEOG2
    • THE SKILLSET FOR GEOG2
    • THE SKILLSET FOR GEOG2
    • THE SKILLSET FOR GEOG2
    • GEOG2 QUESTION 2 – THEENQUIRY PROCESSGEOG2 qu.2AIMSubhypothesisDatacollectionDataPresentationAnalysisResults &ConclusionsRiskAssessmentLocation Theory
    • THE ENQUIRY PROCESSSome AdviceSpecifically use the fieldwork practice in GEOG2 Question 2o Use clear evidence that you have experienced the investigative process e.g. detailof sampling techniques used, names of locations where sampling took place etco The assumption must be that you have not just undertaken the fieldwork but thatyou will have written it up – in the interests of the subject we will forgo a formalwrite up stage.The Personal Fieldwork Investigation has the following task:“....investigation of a geographical argument, assertion, hypothesis, issue or problem..”The stages of the “Enquiry Process”1. The “aim”, “research question” or “hypotheses”The “aim” is what you are trying to achieve overall in your fieldwork location. This willdepend on the time, environmental conditions, equipment and risk assessment. The“hypothesis” is a statement and more significantly the “null hypothesis” is a statement thehighest quality of statement to form at the base of an investigation.
    • 1. THE “AIM”, “RESEARCHQUESTION” OR “HYPOTHESES”For any Investigation there will always be a;“Locational Context” that pertains to the area within which the study is to takeplace and a“Theoretical Context” That refers to the theory base of the investigation. It isimportant to recognise all potential sources of data on ether of these themes. Thismust include and range from GIS to personal visits.From the outset is important thatRisk Assessment has featured heavily in the planning of the investigation. AllRisk Assessments follow the same sequence:• Recognition of hazard• Recognition of Risk• Development of Risk mitigation strategiesAfter recognising every potential risk and assessment should be done of the likelyimpact of the risk and the likelihood of the event occurring. Then a mitigationstrategy needs to be developed.
    • 2. METHODOLOGY AND DATACOLLECTIONTo attempt any answering or refuting of assertions requires the gathering ofdata. As it is (usually) impossible to gather the full set of data from anywhere(the “population”) sampling must feature at the beginning of this stage.The sampling techniques that could be considered: Random, Systematic,Stratified or Clustered ( a form of stratification). You will need to explain thepros and cons of the technique used relative to the others. In addition anytechnique must be piloted.
    • 2. METHODOLOGY AND DATACOLLECTIONThere is no excuse for not knowing in detail the reasons for everything thathas been done to gather information.
    • 3. DATA PRESENTATIONThe simple aim of all data presentation is to allow trends and patterns to beseen. This should also through up anomalies that may be of moreimportance as they often yield significant geographical issues.Principles for this section:• Variety of appropriate forms• Differentiate between cartographic or graphical methods as the mostsuitable• Annotated photographs have great value – be able to explain why.• Excel, repeated use of “Chart Wizard” leads to inappropriate masses ofgraphs that may have limited value• Quantitative and Qualitative techniques are always to be used• Integrate the presentation in with the analysis – an improvement on a“Data Presentation” section
    • 4. RESULTS AND ANALYSISCollation is the first stage – look at everything and look again. Draw simpleconclusions from each piece of data presentation. The highest level skill is tomake links between data sets.Find and state patterns, relationship and clear anomalies.Be able to refer how ICT can have helped such as using multi-layering ofmaps to show relationships. This of course is taken one step further withlayers in GIS such as Google Earth.Be able to comment on the use of GIS in the exam.Fully complete any statistical test to include significance testing. Always referback to the original questions, aims, hypotheses etc. Evaluate the results withrelation to any geographical theory that may be pertinent.KNOW YOUR SPEARMAN, LOVE SIGNIFICANCE “Without significance,statistical coefficients are lost in the garden of maths.”
    • 5. CONCLUSION AND EVALUATIONDraw all threads together, make a final summative statement to all questionsand to any over-arching hypotheses or aim. Indicate what you would do nextto develop the work further, evaluate the strengths and weakness of thetechniques that have been used.Evaluate what has been done from the original aim through the method ofdata collection to the data presentation skills.
    • STARTING POINT• Outline the aim and describe the theory, idea or concept from which youraim was derived.• Explain the geographical concept, process or theory that underpinned yourenquiry.• Outline one source of information that you used and assess the extent towhich it was "fit for purpose".• Explain how you devised your aim and how you responded to the risksassociated with your chosen site for fieldwork .• Describe the location of your fieldwork and explain why it was suitable foryour investigation.WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO BEASKED ON GEOG2
    • METHODS• Outline and justify one method of data collection that you used.• Examine the limitations of your chosen methodology.• Outline one hypothesis and describe one methodology for primary datacollection in relation to this.• How did you respond to risks associated with undertaking primary datacollection?• Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the method of data collection.• Justify the use of sampling in your study.WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO BEASKED ON GEOG2
    • SKILLS• Describe one method used to present your data.• Describe one application of ICT skills in carrying out your fieldwork andcomment on its usefulness.• Describe and illustrate one technique you used to present data in thisenquiry.• What difficulties did you face when presenting your results?• Describe a method of presentation that you used in your investigation andindicate how the chosen method was useful.• Justify the use of one data presentation technique used in your study.WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO BEASKED ON GEOG2
    • INTERPRETATION• What are the advantages and disadvantages of the analysis technique(s)that you used?• Outline and justify the use of one or more techniques used to statisticallyanalyse your results• Name one technique of data analysis and describe how it was used• What is meant by the term significance in the analysis of fieldwork data?• In the context of the analysis of fieldwork data, outline the meaning ofanomalies .• Account for the use of statistics in your enquiryWHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO BEASKED ON GEOG2
    • CONCLUSIONS• How far did your fieldwork conclusions match the geographical theory,concept or idea on which your study was based.• Summarise your findings and suggest how this enquiry could be improved.• Making specific reference to your results, suggest how your enquiry couldbe improved.• In what ways would your conclusions be of use to other people?• Drawing upon your findings, explain how your enquiry improved yourunderstanding of the topic area.WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT TO BEASKED ON GEOG2
    • Outline the aim and describe the theory, idea or concept from whichyour aim was derived.The aim of our investigation was „To investigate the changes in channelcharacteristics along the river Tillingbourne.‟ The aim was created in relationto both a location context and theoretical context. Firstly the location context,the river Tillingbourne is the highest river in Southern England therefore itwas decided that it would be a good area to challenge the theoretical contextas due to its length it would be possible to have a large sample size .The theoretical context was that of Bradshaw‟s model, this predicts that as ariver progresses downstream its channel characteristics and morphology dochange, with velocity and hydraulic radius increasing but gradient decreasing .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Explain how you devised your aim and how you responded to the risks associatedwith your chosen site for fieldwork.The aim of our investigation was „To investigate the changes in channel characteristicsalong the river Tillingbourne.‟ The aim was created in relation to both a location contextand theoretical context. Firstly the location context, the river Tillingbourne is the highestriver in Southern England therefore it was decided that it would be a good area to challengethe theoretical context as due to its length it would be possible to have a large sample size.The theoretical context was that of Bradshaw‟s model, this predicts that as a riverprogresses downstream its channel characteristics and morphology do change, with velocityand hydraulic radius increasing but gradient decreasing.Before the fieldwork, three steps were taken, recognition of possible risks was discussedand a list of possible hazards was obtained, these hazards were given both a severity ratingand likely hood rating from 0-10 based on the locational context, these ratings were thenproduced and the risks were ranked in accordance with them. Thirdly a mitigationprocedure was created in order to minimise or avoid and possible risk. In our case Weilsdisease was both sever and likely so it was high up the list. Therefore we wore gloves anddid not eat or drink the water and sanitary towels were brought along .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Outline one source of information that you used and assess the extent towhich it was “fit for purpose”.One source of information was secondary sources that were taken from othergroups exploring the same theoretical context in the same locational context, theriver Tillingbourne. Therefore these sources focussed upon the same factors asour enquiry, velocity, gradient and hydraulic radius. These secondary sources wereincorporated into the samples we took in order to increase sample size.These sources were fit for purpose as they focussed on the same factors as ours,so they could be analysed in the same way, also their methodology was the same ashe one used in our enquiry which meant that they two data sets were comparable.However, the time context of the secondary sources were unknown, this meantthat the river may have been at a different base level and therefore have a differentwetted perimeter as well as a different velocity. This would have meant that thetwo data sets, primary and secondary, were incompatible as they were noteffectively measuring the same stream .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Outline and justify one method of data collection that you usedOne method of data collection used was the use of a Hydroprop, aninstrument comprising of an impellor and a hard brass bolt, this was placed4cm into the river at three periodically sampled points along the cross sectionof the river. When the hydroprop was in position it was timed to see how longit took for the water to move the impellor from one end of the fixed lengthbrass bolt to the other, this data was then compared against the secondarydata table in order to attain the actual velocity of the water. This method canbe justified as it is reliable, as it can be repeated several times as it can be at afixed depth and the brass bolt is of a constant length it is accurate as thepropellor is specifically created to precise dimensions and so is the bolt toalways give accurate results when compared to the table, it is precise as thetable shows velocity to 2 decimal places. Also it is quick and easy which wereuseful considering time constraints .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Examine the limitations of chosen methodology.Unfortunately the hydroprop method suffers from its locational context in relation to theriver, if the river carries a large load or if there are many other persons working on the river atthe same period of time as this method is used, sediment carried, perhaps in suspension, bythe river is likely to get trapped between the plastic propellor and the brass bolt, this serves tonullify the method as an accurate one as it will cause a higher resistance and therefore anunderestimate when compared against the calibration curve which has been constructed uponthe false assumption that the propeller is almost restriction free. Another limitation of thetechnology is the difficulty of always finding the thalweg within the river‟s horizontal plane.This piloted area which would yield the most accurate results is almost impossible to findreliably on repeated occasions. This creates a false area of accuracy and it may be piloted thatit would be better to agree on a fixed depth rather than the thalweg. A limitation of themethodology is the fragility and the difficulty to set up of the instrument itself. In order to setthe hydroprop up to considerable skill and it was easy to mis-assemble the apparatus; thiswould lead to a false result as it would not be comparable to the calibration curve. Themethodology also relies on the data given on the instrument, the calibration curve, as this isnot tested directly by the user, this may be incorrect and may be providing false information,and this would falsify the experiment .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • How did you respond to risks associated with undertaking primary datacollection?Before fieldwork had begun, three separate steps were taken in order to minimise andif possible remove risks associated with the primary data collection. The first step wasthe recognition of potential hazards and these were compiled into a list of every hazardthat could possibly befall the team as data was collected. Secondly, the chance of theoccurrence of these risks was analyzed and each risk was given a level of 1-10according to how likely this hazard was to occur. Thirdly, the impact and severity of therisk was taken into account and again given a level of 1-10 depending on how severethe risk would potentially be if it occurred. These two levels were then multiplied andthe list was prioritised accordingly. A mitigating procedure was then developed in orderto reduce the risk as far as possible focussing primarily on those whose product hadbeen high and therefore prioritised. An example of a risk in the river was Weil‟s disease;this is both severe, with possible death and a high likelihood and therefore wasprioritised highly. Our mitigating procedure included not eating and drinking near theriver, washing hands after contact with river and wearing gloves in order to minimisecontact with water .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Describe a method of presentation that you used in your investigation andindicate how the chosen method was useful.A method of presentation used to illustrate the results was the scatter graph, thepresentation method involved creating two sets of axis, taking the independent variableof distance down stream on the x-axis and plotting the data for velocity, gradient andhydraulic radius on the y-axis which theory tells us will be dependent on the distance,this allows us to see readily, whether or not there is a correlation present in the data thatappears to fit with the Bradshaw model. This created a graph which indicated vitalfactors about the results. These included: maximum/minimum, averages (mean, mediumand mode) and anomalies. The scatter graph is useful as it can quickly indicate theseabove factors as they can easily be located, for example it was clear on the gradientscatter graph that the maximum was at the upper course and the minimum was at thelower course of the river. Also a best fit line can be created upon the diagram in orderto formalise the graph and allow the trend to be seen clearer, in all these cases, our trendlines behaved according to Bradshaw‟s model. This trend can then be statistically testedusing spearman‟s rank theorem in order to remove chance from the trend. This allowstrends to be proved upon the data set .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • What difficulties did you face when presenting your results?A difficulty associated with the usage of scatter graphs as an instrument to presentour data is the uncertainty that comes with the usage of best fit lines. The line ofbest fit can either be linear or a curve, it is important that the correct line is used inorder to portray the correct image, as if the wrong line were to be used then a falseconclusion could be created. On an even more basic level, whether it is possible tocreate a best fit line at all is debatable, often data has a vague trend spoilt by outliersand anomalies, therefore it is uncertain whether the trend is significant enough tohave a best fit line, it was tempting to create one that would agree with Bradshaw‟smodel, however, this might invalidate our results and lead us to the wrongconclusions. Our solution to this problem was to test each scatter graph according tospearman‟s rank theory, we pre-decided a significance level that would be necessary inorder to create a best fit line, a significance of 85%, this then gave us a critical valueand if passed we created a best fit line .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Describe one application of ICT skills in carrying out your fieldwork andcomment on its usefulnessICT skills were used in the overlaying of data upon GoogleEearth. Scatter graphsand data were overlaid on Google Earth to create a layer upon the satellite image ofthe river Tillingbourne. Each result set was linked to the exact location where it wasgathered. This allowed the trends to be shown even more substantially as thelocational context could be viewed easily and any anomalies could be examined andit was possible to search for factors which could have contributed to theiranomalous nature. However, there were some problems associated with thisapplication; often the images were out of date as the satellite producing the imageshad not passed over the particular location in the recent update. This could lead tofalse conclusion stemming from mis-information. An example of this would bewhere the river was recently straightened by the local council and therefore the riverhad a higher discharge than would have been expected from the satellite image.Also whose land was not shown; this could lead to problems associated withsampling as it could not be taken into consideration, this could lead to falsesampling methods .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the analysis techniqueused?The analysis technique used in this context was the Spearmen‟s rank techniquecoupled with significance testing. The advantages of this analysis techniquewere that it was possible to negate chance as a factor for the trends seen, itallows a comparison between data sets (eg velocity and gradient) as to theirdegree of certainty and it also is easy and quick to perform as a statistical test.The disadvantages of the technique are the need for a large sample size inorder to gain an accurate result, it offers no explanation for the pattern shownand it pays no regard to the magnitude of the values used .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Outline and justify the use of one or more technique used to statistically analyseyour resultsThe statistical analysis technique used was the Spearman‟s rank analysis coupled withsignificance testing. The scatter graph is first needed and a line of best fit created. Thevalues are then ranked according to the two variables, both the distance from the source (1to 10) and the velocity, gradient or hydraulic radius ranked also (from 1 to 10). The ranksnot the variables are then used in the equation 1-(6(SUM)d^2)/n(n^2 – n) this generates anumber which when compared against the sample size of the assessment forms asignificance rating which if over 90% (the decided level) can eliminate the effects of chancefrom the trend seen .This method can be justified as it is accurate, as it is a statistical method and can be asprecise as needed as the critical significance rating can be chosen according to the context.Also the rating is very useful as it can be remove chance in the assessment of therelationship between the two variables. One of the most significant advantages of thistechnique is its ease to use; this allowed the analysis to be quicker and easier .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • How far did your fieldwork conclusions match the geographical theoryconcept or idea on which your study was based?The geographical theory being tested in this assessment is Bradshaw‟s model, thatthe characteristics of the river change as the river progresses downstream. Afterpresenting and analysing the data it has been concluded that the data does match theBradshaw model and that the data sets are linked. As the distance from the sourceincreases, so does the velocity as well as the hydraulic radius although this isexpected as they are linked, as velocity increases so do erosion rates, therefore largerchannel areas.However, the data does not completely agree with the Bradshaw model, both thevelocity (only 85% significant) and gradient (only 70%) do not fully agree with themodel. This could be due to the poor and unreliable technique of the cork methodand the land use in the locational context. This has meant they do not agree with thetheoretical context.However, the aim has been fulfilled, to investigate whether the data agrees with theBradshaw model .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • Summarise your findings and suggest how this enquiry could be improvedThe aim of the enquiry was to „investigate the changes in the river Tillingbourne as it progresseddownstream‟. Our enquiry measured the following values as the river progressed downstream:velocity, gradient and hydraulic radius. The summary of these findings were that they all behavedexactly as the theoretical context, Bradshaw‟s model, predicted, velocity increased from 1m/s to20m/s , the gradient decreased from 3 degrees to 0.4 degrees and the hydraulic radius increasedfrom 0.2 to 0.8. However, the trends were not all without chance, as the gradient change trend wasonly 80% certain and the velocity was 83%, so not past our decided critical significance percentage,85%.The enquiry could have been improved, in terms of primary data, if there had been a less limitedtime context then more repeats could have taken place, this would have increased the sample size inspearman‟s rank therefore decreasing the impact of outliers, such as velocity of 0.1m/s in site 4.Another improvement would have been availability of more sites, as locational context of privateland and therefore legislation hindered our sampling method and prevented a periodic method, ifwe had a better access to land results would have been les clustered.In terms of secondary data, it would have been useful if access to the dates and context of thesecondary data had been available, so that the results were not influenced by the time context atwhich the secondary data was taken. It would also have been useful if more secondary data hadbeen available which would have increased the sample size of our spearman‟s rank .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • How far did your fieldwork conclusions match the geographical theoryconcept or idea on which your study was based?The geographical theory being tested in this assessment is Bradshaw‟s model, thatthe characteristics of the river change as the river progresses downstream. Afterpresenting and analysing the data it has been concluded that the data does match theBradshaw model and that the data sets are linked. As the distance from the sourceincreases, so does the velocity as well as the hydraulic radius although this isexpected as they are linked, as velocity increases so do erosion rates, therefore largerchannel areas.However, the data does not completely agree with the Bradshaw model, both thevelocity (only 85% significant) and gradient (only 70%) do not fully agree with themodel. This could be due to the poor and unreliable technique of the cork methodand the land use in the locational context. This has meant they do not agree with thetheoretical context.However, the aim has been fulfilled, to investigate whether the data agrees with theBradshaw model .SOME ANSWERS TO SHOW YOUHOW IT MIGHT BE DONE?
    • A SUMMARY OF THEPRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
    • A SUMMARY OF THEPRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
    • A SUMMARY OF THEPRESENTATION TECHNIQUES