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    SPS igcse fieldwork opportunities SPS igcse fieldwork opportunities Document Transcript

    • SPS Geography DepartmentiGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Name………………………………………………………… iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 1
    • 1. The Enquiry Process Fieldwork enquiries should follow the same format & hence questions will focus on parts of the list a. Planning & data collection i. Choose the SUBJECT & Choose the LOCATION ii. Identify a HYPOTHESIS to test iii. Decide on the DATA REQUIRED iv. Choose a DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE v. RISK ASSESSMENT vi. Develop a STRATEGY TO GATHER THE DATA vii. SAMPLING (see Appendix A) viii. METHOD(S) OF GATHERING DATA ix. PILOTING x. DATA GATHERING xi. Identify potential SECONDARY DATA SOURCE – if relevant b. Presentation & Analysis i. PRESENT THE DATA ii. ANALYSE THE DATA iii. Draw CONCLUSIONS – relating to the initial HYPOTHESIS c. Limitations & Evaluation i. Assess the LIMITATIONS of the process and suggest IDEAS FOR IMPROVING THE ENQUIRY. 2. The iGCSE fieldwork opportunities by subject areaUnit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities  Views on Hazards. Hazardous Environments  Gathering weather data. A  Beach Morphology & Beach Sediments. Coastal Environments  Views on Coastal Management.  Land Use survey. Urban Environments  Environmental Quality Survey. B  Reasons for the location of factories or services. Economic activity & Energy  Investigating peoples views on the use of renewable and non-renewable energy. 3. The iGCSE exam and Fieldwork Opportunities Unit Mode of examination Marks (/30) A a. Planning & Data Collection focus only. 6 a.b.c. The whole enquiry process; planning, data collection, data presentation, analysis, conclusions and evaluation.B&C 8 BUT Candidates do not need to refer to the data they gathered – iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 2
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities A Hazardous Environments Views on Hazards. Similar to other questionnaire fieldwork. Focus on questionnaire design and Skills use e.g. number of questions; question wording; sampling. Aim Surveying peoples views on the management of a hazard event Location Virtual fieldwork that could be used in a place that had experienced a natural hazard event or was threatened by one. e.g. MontserratQuestion or Do people believe that the management of the natural hazards was effectiveHypothesis Data Three main techniques (see Appendix D): Collection 1. Questionnaires; Focus on a particular hazard e.g. hurricane and what formTechnique effective management might take e.g. warnings; shelters. • How many questions are you to write e.g. five? Short, focused questionnaires based on clear aims are more successful. • Draft sharp, unambiguous questions which are easy to answer and the answer easily recordable e.g. will the storm wave protection barrier harm seabird habitats? Yes / No / Don’t Know. • Opinions or attitudes can be explored by either asking which of a range of possible opinions most closely matches their own (e.g. are safety measures practiced and checked: regularly? occasionally? never?) or making a definitive statement and seeing how far people agree or disagree with it (e.g. the new emergency shelters are badly located --‐ Strongly agree/Agree/Don’t know/Disagree/Strongly disagree). • Put a short list of distinctive questions together and run a pilot study with fellow students, parents etc. Use the piloting to revise questions before writing up and running off copies of your final questionnaire. • Think about practicalities, fieldwork methods. How are you going to use your questionnaire? • Decide on your sampling strategy (see Appendix A) i.e. random, systematic or stratified. If stratified, what type of person are you looking to interview e.g. old? female? professional? A cross--‐section of society? • Decide on your sample size e.g. fifteen? twenty? The bigger the better whilst at the same time being practical. • Decide where people will be interviewed e.g. stopped in the street? knocking on doors? posted for later collection?  Recording of data; a structured sheet allowing tally counts and text to be recorded; useful to keep the responses of each person together to be able to draw correlations. • Finally, address other safety and risk assessment issues (see Appendix B) e.g. ID cards; working in pairs. 2. Focus Groups – consider; Sampling strategy, Questions, Method of recording 3. Interviews – consider Who? Questions to be asked – link to any initial responses or trends from the questionnaires. Method of recording – video, notes, audio? Risk ID cards, groups, mobile phones, public spaces (see Appendix B)Assessment Potential 1. Describe a survey of the peoples’ views on the management of a hazard questions event. (6) iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 3
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities A Hazardous Environments Gathering weather data. Skills You must be able to use/appreciate how basic meteorological instruments work (i.e. max-min thermometer in Stevenson Screen; rain gauge; anemometer; wind vane etc) in standardised conditions to collect data, and how readings can be recorded. Aim To gather weather data from the local area Location SPS Hypothesis There are differences in the climates around the site of SPSData Collection Stevenson Screen Technique It forms part of a standard weather station. An enclosure to shield meteorological instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them. 1. Standard rain gauges (UK Met Office)  Used for measuring depth of precipitation  Units = mm (1 mm = 1 litre m-2 across the drainage basin)  Set in open ground  Rim proud of the ground ≥30 cm  Calibration may be used – where standard requirements are not fully met  Funnelled aperture of 15-17 cm water transferred to measuring cylinder for reading depth of precipitation. Negatives – not a continuous record Alternative - Autographic gauge  Tipping-bucket type.  Rotating drum records daily profile of precipitation  Buckets (0.2mm or 0.5mm) catch water. Number of “tips” recorded  Both can feed to digital recorders 2. Anemometer  Use a standard anemometer with cups to catch the wind and a counter to record the number of rotations  Use the standardised calibration for the anemometer; o Hold the anemometer at arm’s length and shoulder height o Count the number of revolution in one minute o Plot your recording on the calibration graph and read off the windspeed (both in kmh-1- and the Beaufort Scale) Negatives – may give a reading of local wind gusts, in high winds the anemometer may not be accurate Alternative – utilise a standard automated weather station.Risk Assessment Identification of potential risks and development of mitigation strategy to reduce the probability of the event occurring, e.g. injury from flying debris – stand clear of trees or loose fitting tiles catching cold! – ensure appropriate clothing is worn (see Appendix B) Potential 1. Describe how you would collect and record wind speed and precipitation data. questions iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 4
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities A Coastal Environments Beach Morphology & Beach Sediments. For a shoreline-to-cliff foot/sea-wall transect you need to be familiar withSkills needed equipment and procedures to measure; length, height and slope of beach plus size/shape of material along transect. Aim “Groynes have no impact on beach profile or beach material” Location Shoreham on Sea – selected as there are beach protection measures along the easily accessible coastline that when sampled and surveyed might reveal the impact on the beach profile and sediment distribution that the groynes have had. Hypothesis Groynes have a direct impact on beach profile and sediment distribution Data 1. A field sketch to show the profile of the beach – you should try in 3 Collection dimensions. If you have the capacity then take some photos or video too. Technique – This helped in deciding the location of the sample of profiles to survey Beach profile surveying method 2. Select sampling points (using stratified sampling to ensure sites either side of groynes were used) for beach profiles across the width of the beach. 3. At each sample point in turn, place a ranging pole at the start and finish (see Appendix E). Point A should ideally be the low tide mark, or as close to this as is safe. 4. Note the main changes in slope angle up the beach, and use them to inform the ‘sections for the profile. 5. For each change in slope, use the clinometer to take a bearing to record the slope angle (ii). For example, from point A to point B in the diagram below. It is important to ensure that the bearing is taken from a point on the ranging pole that coincides with the eye level of the person using the clinometer. Many ranging poles have stripes which can be used for this purpose. Alternatively, bearings can be taken from the eye level of a person of a similar height holding the ranging pole. 6. Measure the distance along the ground of the section and record this information alongside the slope angle. 7. Repeat processes (4) and (5) for each break in slope that you have identified Limitations Low tide is the best time to measure beach profiles, but places a time constraint on the activity. This can be overcome if groups of students complete profiles at different locations simultaneously and share their results. It is important to ensure that the ranging poles are held straight and prevented from sinking into sand, both of which may affect angle readings. Sampling technique is an important consideration. A balance needs to be struck between time available and the need for a number of profiles across the width of the beach to ensure the validity of results. There may be some user error when taking readings with a clinometer, and the sophistication of models of clinometer can vary enormously. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 5
    • Alternative method - Pantometers can be used by one person, and the slope can be surveyed systematically at regular, short intervals Beach sediment survey Equipment Clear ruler, pebble meter or stone-board, Roundness or angularity charts / indexes, Recording sheet, Quadrats (optional), Random number table (optional) Methodology At each sampling point 1. Reach down with the index finger extended and select the first pebble it touches. 2. Measure the length of the longest axis on this pebble. 3. Repeat this process, perhaps 10 times per location or as you decide after your piloting 4. Analyse your findings using a roundness index or chart. Power’s scale (see Appendix E) can be used to classify the roundness of the sediments Alternative method - Quadrats can be used to select sediment for sampling. Alternatively, ten surface pebbles touching your foot can be selected at each location. Considerations and possible limitations Consideration needs to be given to the size of the sample and the method used to select pebbles in order to avoid bias. The use of visual charts such as Powers can be subjective. Deciding on the sampling strategy is very important in reducing subjectivity and increasing the validity of results. A sampling method should always be adopted to avoid the temptation to ‘select the pebbles! Random requires a “3rd party” selector – a coin or dice for example, Systematic requires a regular interval “Every third pebble”, Stratified requires a deliberate selection – say for example from one side or another Sample size should be large enough to provide a representative sample In reality, using Powers scale will reveal mostly class 5 / 6. Anything which may affect the results should be noted, e.g. recent storms or management structures which may alter the composition of beach material. Risk Varying tidal conditions can affect access and safety - check tide timesAssessment before you embark on your fieldwork. Distances between surveys and the noise of the sea may make communication impossible – establish a lifeguard 1. Describe how a fieldwork investigation of a beach profile was planned. 2. Describe how a fieldwork investigation into beach sediments was carriedPotential out.questions 3. Draw a sketch map of the site of a field investigation into beach sediments iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 6
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities A Coastal Environments Views on Coastal Management. Skills You need to be able to design and use (i.e. sampling) a questionnaire to get views on how a pressured (from either erosion or conflicting uses use) coastline is managed. Aim Surveying peoples’ views on the management of the coast at Shoreham (& Lancing). Location Shoreham on Sea – a small coastal village with mixed residential and commercial functions that have a clear “Shoreham Harbour Regeneration Project” that aims to protect this pressured coastline. Hypothesis The people of Shoreham on Sea will be in favour of the local beach protection measures Data 1. Questionnaire – see earlier sections on this method of gathering date. Collection Method used: Technique 2. In pairs you will need to conduct the questionnaire with as many people as possible in the period of time designated to you. 3. Please make sure that you keep safe and contactable at all times. 4. Limitations - DO NOT JOIN UP INTO A LARGER GROUP – THIS IS INTIMIDATING TO OTHERS AND THEREFORE VERY UNFAIR ON THE LOCAL PEOPLE – who after all you are wanting to get information from. Risk Interpersonal risk – work in pairs, regular meeting up with group leader Assessment Potential 1. How would you plan a survey of peoples’ views on the management of a coastline questions threatened by either development or erosion? (6) iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 7
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities B Urban Environments Land Use survey. Skills Be able to explain how you set up a urban land use survey to include ideas of how you sample an area and the classifications to be used Aim To investigate the land use pattern of an urban area Location Reading – the scale and symmetry of the town provide a suitable scale of settlement to be able to identify land use patterns in the time available Hypothesis Reading’s land use pattern conforms to that of urban models Data Equipment Collection Technique 1. Base maps of study locations 2. RICE POTS - appropriate land-use classification key (Appendix C) 3. Pencils and clipboard 4. Note-pad or record sheets 5. Digital camera/mobile phone camera with geotagging Methodology  Selection of transects – major routeways provide good access into the centre of Reading – allowing the area to be surveyed by nearly equidistant belt transects radiating from the CBD outwards. – STRATIFIED SAMPLING to ensure the whole study area was covered.  Use RICE POTS land use classification key (Appendix C), it should allow you to easily classify each individual building you encounter on your transect. You may decide to use a GOAD map of the area as your base map.  Land use classification - Use a standardised classification system for all groups e.g. RICE POTS. (see Appendix C). Each group assigned a different transect recorded land use according to the same classification every 30 metres from a drop off on the outskirts of their transect  Transect data was recorded on fieldwork paper and then converted onto Excel spreadsheets to give distance v. land use for ground floor usage  Mapping – the data can also be plotted onto base maps – both in the field and then in neat form using groupings and colour once out of the field. In addition you can use a GIS package to create land use maps using AEGIS on a computer. Alternatively, you can complete your maps by hand. Risk All work in urban areas has multiple risks that can be easily identified, from theAssessment basic “trip hazard” to potential traffic accidents. In all cases these need to be identified and a simple mitigation strategy adopted. An essential modern element to the mitigation would be regular check ins with a teacher in charge at either pre-arranged places or at pre-arranged times by phone if necessary.Presentation Mapping of land use using GIS; AEGIS is a specialist package but even Google method Earth allows data to be placed over the location using “layers”. In addition it is iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 8
    • possible to use bar charts and scatter graphs to see trends in distance out from the CBD and land use.Conclusions Using Google Earth it was possible to see a pattern that could be in some way like Burgess or Hoyt’s model Limitations Considerations and possible limitations  Mapping large areas can be time-consuming and labour-intensive, so group work is a good idea!  A suitable sampling strategy should be devised to reduce bias in your land use survey.  Obtaining site maps, especially historical ones, can be difficult. There is a cost involved in obtaining GOAD maps of your area.  Care and thought should go into developing an appropriate land-use classification key to make data collection easier and less subjective. However, a degree of subjectivity is inevitable when determining land use classifications, and errors can sometimes be made in judging the age and style of the buildings  The technique only covers ground floor use and in many cases outside the CBD this may give a false overall impression of the location of different functions in the settlement. Ideas for More transects, include other levels and their land uses, take straightimprovement line transects rather than sticking to the easier major roads. Potential 1. Describe how a fieldwork investigation of land use across an urban area questions could be planned.Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities B Urban Environments Environmental Quality Survey. Skills You must be able to describe how the EQS was constructed and implemented in the study; including sampling and transects. Understand the follow-up data presentation, analysis/concluding and overall evaluation. Aim To investigate any apparent patterns in Environmental Quality within the urban area and to detect any correlations with land use. Location The same transects of Reading were used ( see the Land Use method for details of sampling and limitations) Hypothesis Environmental Quality will deteriorate with closeness to CBD Data  At 30 metre intervals (SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING) along the transect an EQS Collection was carried out (see Appendix H). Technique  A coin was tossed to decide which side of the transect would be surveyed (RANDOM SAMPLING)  The same member of the group conducted all EQS  The EQS had been piloted in class prior to going out into the field – this allowed for the recorders to have some standardisation between them as all transect data would ultimately be presented together Limitations and developments  Though piloting had been carried out, there was still a chance of divergence in this essentially subjective approach, however by piloting this may have been minimised  Roads provide barriers to assessing the urban environments - this can now be overcome by using StreetVIew on Google Maps – a valuable iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 9
    • secondary source of data. Risk As per the Land Use techniques Assessment Presentation 1. Mapping – base maps used to add data using proportional symbols or method choroplething. 2. GIS - with Google Earth, exact locations of EQSs could be plotted and with balloons the data could be presented from congruent EXCEL graphs allowing patterns in EQ across the surveyed area to be seen. 3. Graphing – distance against EQ could be readily graphed to allow patterns to be seen – all transect data being presented on one graph to show if trends or hotspots in the study area could be seen. Conclusions No clear pattern emerged Limitations The EQS only had a limited range of criteria – no graffit or litter compents that would have been easy to score and would not have added much to the time taken for each survey Ideas for  Add more criteria to the EQSimprovement  Conduct more EQSs  Make greater use of imagery taken in the field to improve standardisation  Utilise Secondary sources of images to “fill in the gaps” along each transect – problem of historical data being mixed with contemporary though. Potential 1. Describe how a fieldwork investigation of environmental quality across an questions urban area could be planned. 2. Fig 1a shows land use and EQS data collected at seven sites along a transect between the CBD and the edge of a UK town (Reading). (i) Use Fig 1a, to complete the scatter graph (Fig. 1b), to show how environmental quality changed along the transect. (ii) What conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between environmental quality and land use? iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 10
    • Figure 1a Figure 1biGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 11
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities Reasons for the location of factories or B Economic activity & Energy services. Skills Can be individual factory / service or an area (e.g. business park, shopping mall) or a service location within a town/city. Mapwork, location visit, secondary sources may be involved plus analysis/conclusions. Aim To assess the individual decisions made by businesses in their choosing of locations and to detect any common decision making factors for similar businesses in a business park. Location Business parks around the periphery of Reading – Green Park in the south, the Thames Valley business park closer to the centre. Hypothesis Business locating in the same business park will have evaluated the location factors in a similar way to come to their decision for location Data Interviewing those making location decisions should reveal the factors they Collection considered and perhaps how important each of the factors was. This applies Technique to both manufacturers making factory location decisions, and to businesses and government, perhaps local government such as councils when deciding on where to locate public services such as libraries and hospitals, or private services such as supermarkets and leisure clubs. Successful interviewing to find out these reasons may require the structure that a well--‐planned questionnaire provides. One way of doing this is to list a range of reasons behind location choice and ask those you are interviewing to either tick those that applied to them and/or to place them in order of importance. The reasons to include in your questionnaire might be: •close to markets • suitable transport facilities • access to other factories/services • assistance or encouragement by local groups • suitable buildings and site • reasonable local operating costs • proximity to raw materials • personal reasons The reasons will obviously vary according to whether you are investigating factory or services locations. You might also ask the interviewee to give an example of reasons that they thought important e.g. personal reasons might mean their home town or a popular golf course; suitable site might mean ample room for parking and expansion, especially if you are investigating a service. Government financial incentives might be important to factories locating in an area from outside, especially foreign transnational corporations. One useful way forward is to survey a number of companies on an industrial estate or business park so that you have a good range of results. This makes data presentation and analysis more meaningful. The basic geography of the area around the factory(s) or service(s) should be carefully mapped e.g. population, road network, land availability etc. Where questionnaire surveys are not appropriate e.g. the location of doctors’ surgeries in a town, this mapping and your interpretation of the likely locational reasons may be sufficient. Factories and services do tend to cluster, so the reasons can be teased out. Services usually cluster in town and city centres and in HICs on the urban fringes. Your investigation should include an analysis and conclusion iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 12
    • about the relevant locational reasons. Finally, be aware that you can evaluate the accuracy and relevance of both the raw information you have used and the conclusions you have come to. It is a good idea to do this. Risk All interviews carry risks that are readily overcome – mitigation of any Assessment potential inter-personal issues by using pairs in each interview Presentation Flowlines, bar charts, mapping of factors (see Appendix I for a worked example) method Conclusions Depend on data given in questions but look for trends and anomalies together with any correlations. Link where possible to the type of activity being analysed Limitations Gaining the accurate information from the businesses or industries concerned. Ideas for Develop a method scoring the various location variables so that a moreimprovement quantitative analysis can be done. Potential 1. Study Figure X which shows the results of a fieldwork investigation on a questions business park. (i) Use the data to complete the missing bars in Y. (2 marks) (ii) What conclusions can be drawn from Figures X & Y (iii) Suggest how this investigation might be evaluated and improved . (6 marks) 2. Fig. 2a shows the total scores given by five factories during a fieldwork investigation into the importance of various location factors. (i) Use Fig. 2a to complete Fig. 2b. (ii) Suggest how this investigation might be evaluated and improved. Fig 2a iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 13
    • Fig. 2biGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 14
    • Unit Subsection Fieldwork Opportunities Investigating peoples views on the use of B Economic activity & Energy renewable and non-renewable energy. Skills You need to appreciate how attitudes to the renewables/non-renewables issue (e.g. energy efficiency) can be explored by means of questionnaire design and use. Aim To investigate people’s views on renewable and non-renewable energy Location Virtual Hypothesis People have similar views with regard to using renewable energy Data Questionnaire method as outlined elsewhere. Collection Sampling in this case must be STRATIFIED to achieve a clear section of views Technique Questionnaires may vary depending on the nature of the local issue Risk As per other questionnaires Assessment Presentation Graphs; pie, bar. method Statistics; use of means and ranges in the data to be abel to draw conclusions about the trends in views Note that with an emotive local issue there is a greater chance of there being some extreme answers. Conclusions AS per data given in the exam Limitations Size of sample, limits of questionnaire design, time available, reluctancy of respondents to give answer. Development here may be to use a postal/leaflet or online questionnaire. Ideas for 1. Describe how people’s views on the use of renewable and non-renewableimprovement energy could be investigated. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 15
    • Appendix A (geographyteachingtoday)Sampling techniquesIntroductionWhat is sampling?  A ‘short-cut method for investigating a whole population  Data is gathered on a small part of the whole ‘parent population or ‘sampling frame and used to inform what the whole picture is likeWhy sample?In reality there is simply not enough:  Time  Energy  Money  Labour / man power  Equipment  Access to suitable sitesto measure every single ‘item or site within the ‘parent population or whole ‘sampling frameTherefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adopted to obtain a representative, and statisticallyvalid sample of the whole.Sampling considerations  Larger sample sizes are more accurate representations of the whole  The sample size chosen is a balance between obtaining a statistically valid representation, and the time, energy, money, labour, equipment and access available.  A sampling strategy made with the minimum of bias is the most statistically valid.  Most approaches assume that the parent population has a ‘normal distribution where most items or individuals clustered close to the mean, with few extremes.  A 95% probability or confidence level is usually assumed, e.g. 95% of items or individuals will be within + or - 2 standard deviations from the mean (see graph)  This also means that up to 5% may lie outside of this - sampling, no matter how good can only ever be claimed to be a very close estimate. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 16
    • Sampling techniquesThree main types of sampling strategy: 1. Random 2. Systematic 3. StratifiedWithin these types, you may then decide on a:a) Pointb) Linec) Areamethod.1. Random sampling  Least biased of all sampling techniques: there is no subjectivity - each member of the total population has an equal chance of being selected  Can be obtained using random number tables  Microsoft Excel has a function to produce random number;MethodologyA. Random point sampling  A grid is drawn over a map of the study area  Random number tables are used to obtain coordinates / grid references for the points  Sampling takes place as feasibly close to these points as possibleB. Random line sampling  Pairs of coordinates or grid references are obtained using random number tables, and marked on a map of the study area  These are joined to form lines to be sampledC. Random area sampling  Random number tables generate coordinates or grid references which are used to mark the bottom left (south west) corner of quadrats or grid squares to be sampled iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 17
    • Figure 1: A random number grid showing methods of generating random numbers, lines and areas.Advantages and disadvantages of random samplingAdvantages:  Can be used with large sample populations.  Avoids bias.Disadvantages:  Can lead to poor representation of the overall ‘parent population or area if large areas are not ‘hit by the random numbers generated. This is made worse if the study area is very large.  There may be practical constraints in terms of time available and access to certain parts of the study area.2. Systematic samplingSamples are chosen in a systematic, or regular way.  They are evenly / regularly distributed in a spatial context, e.g. every 2 metres along a transect line.  They can be at equal / regular intervals in a temporal context, e.g. every half hour or at set times of the day.  They can be regularly ‘numbered, e.g. every 10th house or person.MethodologyA. Systematic point samplingA grid can be used and the points can be at the intersections of the grid lines (A), or in the middle ofeach grid square (B). Sampling is done at the nearest feasible place. Along a transect line, sampling iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 18
    • points for vegetation / pebble data collection could be identified systematically, e.g. every 2 metresor every 10th pebbleB. Systematic line samplingThe ‘eastings or ‘northings of the grid on a map can be used to identify transect lines (C and D)Alternatively, along a beach it could be decided that a transect up the beach will be conducted every20 metres along the length of the beachC. Systematic area samplingA ‘pattern of grid squares to be sampled can be identified using a map of the study area, e.g. every2nd / 3rd grid square down or across the area (E) - the south west corner will then mark the cornerof a quadrat. Patterns can be any shape or direction as long as they are regular (F)Figure 2: Systemic sampling grid showing methods of generating systemic points, lines and areas.Advantages and disadvantages of systematic samplingAdvantages:  It is more straight-forward than random sampling.  A grid doesnt necessarily have to be used - sampling just has to be at uniform intervals.  A good coverage of the study area can be more easily achieved than using random sampling.Disadvantages:  It is more biased, as not all members or points have an equal chance of being selected.  It may therefore lead to over - or under - representation of a particular pattern.3. Stratified sampling iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 19
    • This method is used when the parent population or sampling frame is made up of sub-sets of knownsize. These sub-sets make up different proportions of the total, and therefore sampling should bestratified to ensure that results are proportional and representative of the whole.A. Stratified systematic samplingThe population can be divided into known groups, and each group sampled using a systematicapproach. The number sampled in each group should be in proportion to its known size in the parentpopulation.For example: the make-up of different social groups in the population of a town can be obtained,and then the number of questionnaires carried out in different parts of the town can be stratified inline with this information. A systematic approach can still be used by asking every 5th person.B. Stratified random samplingA wide range of data and fieldwork situations can lend themselves to this approach - wherever thereare two study areas being compared, e.g. two woodlands, river catchments, rock types or apopulation with sub-sets of known size, e.g. woodland with distinctly different habitatsRandom point, line or area techniques can be used as long as the number of measurements taken isin proportion to the size of the whole.For example: if an area of woodland was the study site, there would likely be different types ofhabitat (sub-sets) within it. Random sampling may altogether ‘miss one or more of these. Stratifiedsampling would take into account the proportional area of each habitat type within the woodlandand then each could be sampled accordingly; if 20 samples were to be taken in the woodland as awhole, and it was found that a shrubby clearing accounted for 10% of the total area, 2 sampleswould need to be taken within the clearing. The sample points could still be identified randomly (A)or systematically (B) within each separate area of woodland. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 20
    • Figure 3: A diagram highlighting the benefits of using stratified random sampling and stratifiedsystemic sampling within certain fieldwork sites.Advantages and disadvantages of stratified samplingAdvantages:  It can be used with random or systematic sampling, and with point, line or area techniques.  If the proportions of the sub-sets are known, it can generate results which are more representative of the whole population.  It is very flexible and applicable to many geographical enquiries.  Correlations and comparisons can be made between sub-sets.Disadvantages:  The proportions of the sub-sets must be known and accurate if it is to work properly.  It can be hard to stratify questionnaire data collection - accurate, up to date population data may not be available and it may be hard to identify peoples age or social background effectively iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 21
    • Appendix B – Risk Assessment – (SPS Iceland 2009) iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 22
    • Appendix C – Urban Land use classification iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 23
    • Appendix D Questionnaires, focus groups and interviews (Geography Review 2009) iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 24
    • iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 25
    • iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 26
    • Appendix E Using a clinometer, ranging poles, pantometers and Power’s scales Ranging poles & clinometer Power’s Scale Pantometer iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 27
    • Appendix F – Questionnaire of people’s views on coastal protection (Edexcel textbook CD)Questionnaire – all students to complete the same questionnaire to allow all responses tobe collatedRecord Gender (M/F)1. Age2. WorkIf you are working, how would you classify your job?3. Income bracket? iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 28
    • 4. ResidenceAre you local (Shoreham to Lancing), if not please state5. Opener on Sea defencesAre you aware of the sea defences along the coast here from Lancing to Shoreham. ( if nothen record that and STOP questionnaire)6. View on the Sea defences iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 29
    • Appendix G – Example Goad map (www.experian.co.uk)Goad maps show the actual user of the ground floor in CBD areas and are used for commercialservices when new shops are seeking the ideal location for them to occupy with relation to othershops. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 30
    • Appendix H – An Environmental Quality SurveyThis is a bi-polar EQS using fixed grades rather than allowing for values to given on a full potentialscale between the outlying numbers. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 31
    • Appendix I - An example of a fieldwork investigation into the location of industry (www. http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com) Glass fibre Tube factory outside Camarles by Nike 1. Introduction: The factors that can influence the location of a secondary or tertiary organisation Markets: some factories must be close to the place where they sell there products for to prevent using money in transport and that there product is easy to cell.e.g. the easy access is only important to industries where they need to cell there products the fastest as possible like food. Environment: the industries must give a prosperous and professional image for there workers and clients so that they dont get a bad influence to there products.e.g. its important because if they have a bad image there products will sell less then if they would have a good one. Location/site: the industries must find a place that is near motorways and ports for easy transport, that the land is suitable for construction and cheap to place their industries.e.g. the industries would position there selves where the terrain is flat and not where it bumpy to prevent costs to fix there terrain. Transport: the transport of there products is very important so they place their industry close to railways, airports, harbourers, roads and motorways.e.g. they will be placed close to railways if they need to transport a lot of products, for a far distance. They will be placed close to airports if they need to transport valuable and light products. They will be placed close to the port if they need to transport over the sea. And they will be placed close to roads and motor ways to have easy transport for short distances. Government policy: the industries tend to go where the government is not so strict, like places where they dont have to give so much salary to there workers, where they dont have to pay so much taxes, etc... and that the government gives aid to them when they need it.e.g. the industries will not go to places where the government is very strict to prevent paying a lot of taxes. Raw materials: the industries stay close to the raw material that they need to prevent transport costs.e.g. its important to heavy industries like iron and steel. Energy: the industry needs energy to function so they place them selves where they can get easy access on electricity. Labour: industries need workers to work for them so they place them selves where the workers are qualified and demand less money.e.g. the industries will not position their selves where there is no qualified workers that can work for them. Capital: the industries will position there selves where they use the least money and they can sell there products at a high price. 2. Your chosen organisation: What is it? Where is it? What does it do? Its a tube factory that is located in the outskirts of Camarles and it produces are glass fibre polyester (GRP). iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 32
    • 3. Those factors that have no influence at all on your organisation andwhy you believe that to be the caseMarket: the sighting of the industry is not influenced by the market because they dont sell thereproducts there but in other places and countries. Raw materials: it is not influenced by the rawmaterials because they come from Saudi a Arabia, Turkey, England and Spain. It is a footlooseindustry. 4. The factors that do/did have an influence on its location: For each one (one at a time)– what is it? How/Why does it have an influence? Where possible, evidence of that influence? Government policy: it has an influence because they use chemical products to do the tubes, and the government give them rules and regulation for environmental protection and worker rights. Capital: it is positioned in a HIC so it can sell there products at a higher price then normal. Environment: the industry need to give a good impression to there workers and clients so that they can sell there products easier. Because if they wouldnt the workers and clients wouldnt have comfort and would think bad of the industry. Location/site: the did locate there there industry there because the land was cheap and it was near motorways and ports. They also sighted there selves there iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 33
    • because they have additional terrain to expand if needed. Transport: it has an influence because they need a wide road to transport these tubes and an access to a port to transport them to other counties. Thats why they are close to the T-340, the N-340 and the Ap-7, and its also close to the port of Sant Carlos de la Rapita that is 34km of distance. It is also close to the main railway of the city. Energy: the industry need to be close to an energy supply because they use big machinery to create these tubes. Thats why they did position there selves close to the city.Labour: the industry needs to be positioned close to qualified workers to make the tubes and thats why they did sight there selves close to the city. They have around 200 workers from the city.5. Conclusion: which in your opinion is the most important?In my opinion for this industry the most important thing is the transport because without thetransport they couldnt do any business, the citizens there do not buy any products fromthem because they do not need it. iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 34
    • Appendix J an example of “Surveying people’s views on renewable energy”(EDEXCEL iGCSE textbook CD)The table above shows the summary of views from questionnaires used in an example in Catalonia,focussing on the local issues of wind farms.BibliographyAs cited throughout the Appendices iGCSE Fieldwork Opportunities Handbook Page 35