Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
FOCUS GROUPS AS A RESEACH METHOD: Will Reid –LJMU Learning and Information Services Elena Zaitseva, Beth Mithcell -CETL
Introductions   <ul><li>Principal Information Officer  –Off campus and partnerships, subject support for Languages and Bus...
Outline   <ul><li>Focus groups as a research method  </li></ul><ul><li>How to run focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>A case st...
The big fear..…? http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =rLl7xZU3iXk
What is a focus group? <ul><li>… a group of individuals selected and assembled by researchers to discuss and comment on, f...
When to use focus groups? <ul><li>Can be used at any stage of research or evaluation as a method in their own right or as ...
Why use focus groups? <ul><li>A method to obtain data on respondents’ attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reacti...
Why use focus groups? <ul><li>Useful when there are power differences between the participants and decision-makers (less i...
Benefits for participants <ul><li>The opportunity to be involved in decision making processes  </li></ul><ul><li>If FG  re...
Drawbacks…. <ul><li>Practical arrangements  </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator could h...
How to attract participants <ul><li>Most ethical way – to ask volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Use a clear, understandable lan...
What does facilitator need? <ul><li>Organisational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport building skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ques...
Organisational skills <ul><li>Equipment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock </li><...
Building Rapport <ul><ul><li>Use the participant’s own words  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarise/ paraphrase  </li></ul>...
Questions <ul><li>Try to ask open questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ‘double-barrelled’ questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid l...
After the Focus Group <ul><li>Write down any observations you have about the FG </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes on your notes...
Ethical considerations  <ul><li>Ethical approval  </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain permission t...
Case Studies   <ul><li>New Social Learning Zone.  </li></ul><ul><li>Having introduced anew SLZ management were keen to get...
FG Questions – for discussion <ul><li>Are you satisfied with the project so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you experience pers...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

NOWAL Fcous Groups Exchange of Experience

294

Published on

Published in: Business, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
294
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "NOWAL Fcous Groups Exchange of Experience"

  1. 1. FOCUS GROUPS AS A RESEACH METHOD: Will Reid –LJMU Learning and Information Services Elena Zaitseva, Beth Mithcell -CETL
  2. 2. Introductions <ul><li>Principal Information Officer –Off campus and partnerships, subject support for Languages and Business Information and oversee User Education issues. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Focus groups as a research method </li></ul><ul><li>How to run focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>A case study to look at (questioning skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Not discussing data analysis this time </li></ul>
  4. 4. The big fear..…? http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =rLl7xZU3iXk
  5. 5. What is a focus group? <ul><li>… a group of individuals selected and assembled by researchers to discuss and comment on, from personal experience, the topic that is the subject of the research (Powell et al 1996: 499). </li></ul><ul><li>FG is a form of group interviewing, but there are differences between the two </li></ul><ul><li>FG relies on interaction within the group </li></ul>
  6. 6. When to use focus groups? <ul><li>Can be used at any stage of research or evaluation as a method in their own right or as a complement to other methods : </li></ul><ul><li>For preliminary/exploratory study (to generate hypotheses etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>During study </li></ul><ul><li>To assess results/generate further programme of study </li></ul><ul><li>To develop other research tools (questionnaires) </li></ul><ul><li>For data triangulation and validity checking </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why use focus groups? <ul><li>A method to obtain data on respondents’ attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions in a way in which would not be feasible using other methods </li></ul><ul><li>FG enables to gain a larger amount of information in a shorter period of time (time saving) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why use focus groups? <ul><li>Useful when there are power differences between the participants and decision-makers (less intimidating for participants) </li></ul><ul><li>Useful when one wants to explore the degree of consensus on a given topic </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to get insight into the ways in which individuals are influenced by others in a group situation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Benefits for participants <ul><li>The opportunity to be involved in decision making processes </li></ul><ul><li>If FG research is of an applied nature, empowerment can be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>FG gives them a chance to explain their point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Could enhance their understanding of a topic/issue through interaction </li></ul>
  10. 10. Drawbacks…. <ul><li>Practical arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator could have a limited control over discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to identify individual view from group’s view </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to attract participants <ul><li>Most ethical way – to ask volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Use a clear, understandable language explaining the purpose of your study and (possible) benefits for the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Some incentives could be used (coffee and biscuits, book vouchers), but be careful! </li></ul>
  12. 12. What does facilitator need? <ul><li>Organisational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport building skills </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical procedures in place </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organisational skills <ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>About 8 participants </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise key points at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate whole group involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Do listen to the &quot;loudmouth” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Building Rapport <ul><ul><li>Use the participant’s own words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarise/ paraphrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nod and make affirmative sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt your head slightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a high level of eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid giving your own opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid interruptions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Questions <ul><li>Try to ask open questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ‘double-barrelled’ questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading questions </li></ul><ul><li>Have a general question at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify responses you do not understand </li></ul>
  16. 16. After the Focus Group <ul><li>Write down any observations you have about the FG </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes on your notes (so you can read them later) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ethical considerations <ul><li>Ethical approval </li></ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain permission to record </li></ul><ul><li>If possible do not interview your own students or students you know </li></ul><ul><li>Establish/make it clear who will have access to the information at what level </li></ul>
  18. 18. Case Studies <ul><li>New Social Learning Zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Having introduced anew SLZ management were keen to get face to face feedback quite promptly prior to official opening. Cross faculty, cross level </li></ul><ul><li>QAA Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Student Experience Review </li></ul>
  19. 19. FG Questions – for discussion <ul><li>Are you satisfied with the project so far? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you experience personal difficulties while being mentor? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you manage to achieve a rapport with your mentee? </li></ul><ul><li>How often you were online, checking the questions of your mentee? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think you did right and what wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to participate in the programme in the next semester? </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×