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Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
Task 2 – leadership
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Task 2 – leadership

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  • 1. By Will Pritchard
  • 2. What a Group is:There are many psychological factors that are important in leading sports activities. Group Dynamics is the way in which individuals in a group interact with each other to produce results. A group is an interaction between individuals. Communication is key in a group. The main features of a group should include:• Getting on with each other • Shared goals and targets • Treating each other the same and equal • Norms and Values • Achieve these goals collectively
  • 3. • The “Forming” stage begins when new team members are first brought together. Usually objects are established. • Then there is the “Storming” stage. At this stage team members become clear about their roles and what is expected of them. Conflicts arise more often during this stage. Questions could be asked about the leader at this stage. • Next is the “Norming” stage, Step back and help the team take responsibility for progress towards the goal. Lastly is the “Performing” stage. The team has a solid understanding of the processes and project framework that have been put into place and follow them efficiently.
  • 4. Steiner proposed that the results of team effort are based on the following formula:Actual productivity = Potential productivity – losses due to Faulty processes Actual productivity - this is how the team performs, meaning the results and level of the performance they put in. Potential productivity is the perfect performance the team could produce based on the individual skill and ability level of each athlete in the team and resources available. E.G: A big rugby team should beat a small rugby team. • However these “faulty processes” are the things which make the outcome go pearshaped. The groups performance in the activity usually falls well below its potential, its hard to get a perfect performance. • The key to this success is to minimise these “faulty processes” which can include coordination, motivational problems etc.
  • 5. The Ringelmann Effect The Ringelmann effect is the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases, for instance tug of war. Coordination losses involves bad timing and poor strategies, such as a football team not being able to get there striker the ball to score. Activities that require interaction, such as basketball are more prone to coordination problems. Coactive and individual sports suffer less from coordination problems. • A coactive sport – played by a team of two, badminton doubles. In an individual sport, the performer operates alone. • Excessive competition – In sport this can reduce the enjoyment and lead to a lack of coordination. • Motivational problems – including the idea of ‘social loafing’ and the Ringlemann effect.
  • 6. Social loafing Social loafing describes the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group. This is due to all the members of the group are producing all their effort to achieve a common goal, each member of the group contributes less than they would if they were individually responsible. • This is normally brought on by low arousal/motivation, low confidence, negative attitude, poor leadership, perceived low ability, lack on reinforcement from others, a perception that others aren't trying so why should they or as a team you wont change the result. • This can be prevented by highlighting individual performances, rewarding, promoting cohesion within the team, specific roles etc.
  • 7. Group Cohesion • Cohesion is the degree in which in the members of a group exhibit the desire to achieve a common goal. • Good group cohesion will ensure all members are united in achieving the common goal – winning a game. • Social cohesion is the degree to which members of a group like each other and get on with mutual trust. • When sports performers develop into groups, they can be affected by each other. When a group forms, a leader must ensure there is a strong bond, to share goal and objectives, this makes them aware of each other's roles in the team.
  • 8. Personality • Personality is defined as the sum total of an individuals characteristics that make them unique. Another definition is that personality represents characteristics of a person that account for consistent patterns of behaviour. Trait theory This theory states that we have certain personality characteristics that we were born with and which influence the way in which we balance in the situations, whether sport or everyday life. Social Learning Theory The influence of others on a person’s behaviour. We observe and imitate role models but only those that are important to us. E.G: when a captain judges a situation to have been handled well by an experienced leader, the method will be remembered and copied. This theory suggests that all behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment and that inherited factors don’t not influence our personality.
  • 9. • Stable means calm, predictable, even-tempered, controlled, doesn’t swing from one emotion to another. • Neurotic means anxious, moody, unpredictable, illogical. Introvert/Extrovert • Introvert means shy, nervous and unsociable. • Extrovert means sociable, confident, lively, outgoing. These four characteristics are combined for example ‘stable extrovert’ is used to describe a personality that is consistently loud and bright. These types of behaviour depends normally on your situation or environment, introverts may mean shyness but loud and aggressive when playing sport. Mario Balotelli can be labelled as a neurotic extrovert in his sport.
  • 10. • This theory states that both the trait and social learning theories are combined together. • It suggests to us that we base our behaviour on inborn traits that was adapt to the situation we are in. • These behaviour changes normally within a sporting activity for example if a games player may be loud, extrovert and dominant in a game because this is the way to succeed. • But meanwhile he is quite and focused in training to develop and improve techniques for the sport.
  • 11. Motivation Motivation is the drive to fulfil a target or need. From a quote from ‘sage’ he referred motivation to the internal mechanisms and external stimulus that arouse and direct our behaviour. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Extrinsic motivation – this is where motivation is involved through influences externally to the performer. This could mean the need to please others. The performers will gain tangible prizes such as medals, certificates, prizes, money etc. They could also gain intangible prizes such as winning the league or even praise from parents, others. Intrinsic motivation – this is the motivation through your own internal drive to perform well. For example – enjoyment, satisfaction, fun. If you enjoy a sport you will be more motivated to do well and improve/develop.
  • 12. Personality characteristics and the intrinsic and extrinsic motives to participate and achieve in sport are linked – the type of personality you have may determine how motivated you actually are. Atkinson related achievement motivation to personality and said that who is motivated by the need to achieve, or NACH will: • Accept challenges • Be persistent, quick and efficient • Take risks • Welcome feedback and try harder after failure A person that is motivated by need to avoid failure or NAF will: • Avoid responsibility • Take the easy option • Give up after failure
  • 13. Arousal/Stress/Anxiety Stress is a process where by an individual perceives a threat and responds with a sense of psychological or physiological change indulging increased arousal and experience anxiety. Symptoms of these stress can be from – Physiological – Injury, tightness, shaking, hair falling out, decrease in weight, being sick, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increase of adrenaline, increase in perspiration and increase in blood sugar levels. Psychological – Depression, sleep deprivation, negative thoughts, worry/apprehension, irritable, inability to concentrate, harder to make decisions, difficulty in making decisions, aggression, increased rate of speech. This stress can come from multiple sources • Competition – constantly being judged/evaluated by others, coaches, spectators etc. • Conflicts – can be caused by mistakes, refs decisions, injury. • Frustration- other players, croud, coaches. • Environment – climate uncomfortable – i.e. hot/cold, pitch unfamiliar.
  • 14. Anxiety Anxiety is a negative emotional state which is caused by a situation that is seen as threating somewhat. Meanwhile, Competitive Anxiety is feeling anxious just before a sport is being taken place. To measure this anxiety there is a range of theories that take place to understand the condition of the performer. The catastrophe theory suggests that anxiety and stress will influence performance. Arousal is where a performer is at the correct level to play in his comfort. The Drive Theory suggests there is a relationship between arousal and performance, i.e. The higher the arousal, the better the performance of the skilled players. However if the performer is less skilful that the performance is not improved with high arousal, also if the performer is less skilful then the performance will not improve with high arousal. The Inverted U Theory is a generally more accepted theory that states as arousal level increases as does the performance until it reaches an optimal level. Anything above this then the performance starts to decline.

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