Common causes are: delay to recover from acute hepatitis as the liver continue to sustain more damage and inflammation. The symptom is considered chronic if it last more than 6 months.
Alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis from heavy alcohol consumption. Chronic active hepatitis- which leads to chirosive, autoimmune disorder, reaction to some medication, and metabolic disorder such as hemochromatosis or Wilson’s disease.
Dx, medical hx, liver function test, liver biopsy to determine the inflammation and scarring.
Treatment is to stop the damage and alleviate the symptom with antiviral agent, cortiscosteroid, and discontinuation of the drug that is causing the damage.
1) Hepatitis A is a is a picornavirus family. It is transmited through fecal-oral contact or fecal infected food, but may also be spread by blood born infection ( though it is rare). Acute illness is symptomatic, chronic illness is rare and vaccine is avaliable.
How do you protect yourself?
Wash your hand before you touch food products.
Do not drink contaminated water , take care of children in diapers
Use condom for sexual contact with an infected person.
2) Hepatitis B is a family of hepadnaviridae. Has both acute and chronic stages, it can be mild without a symptom. It is transmitted through sexual contact, blood product, body fluid from mother to child during delivery, and saliva.
At risk people with Hepatitis B are people who live in long term care facilities or disable
People with blood clotting disorder for example Hemophillia
IV drug abusers, dialysis for Renal failure, and healthcare workers.
3) Hepatitis C. is a member of flavivirus family, it is usually mild and gradual, children do not show any symptom at all. Transmission is via blood products and sexual contacts though this virus has mild symptom, it leads to chronic liver disease and needs for liver transplant
Risk factors are the same as in Hepatitis B.
There are no vaccine for Hepatitis C. Person with Hepatitis C needs to be monitored for renal failure and chronic condition.
6) Hepatitis G. it is structurally similar to hepatitis C and also transmitted through blood product especially in IV drug users, individuals with hemophilia, and individual who requires hemodialysis. Very little is known about hepatitis G, and it shows no clinical symptoms.
The best way to prevent any form of viral hepatitis is to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids of infected individuals. The use of condoms during sex also is advisable. Travelers should avoid water and ice if unsure of their purity, or they can boil water before drinking it. All foods eaten should be packaged, well cooked, or, in the case of fresh fruit, peeled. Caution should be exercised when getting tattoos or body piercing, since a 2003 report said that only about one-half of tattoo and piercing shops follow the government's guidelines concerning infection control.