What Is Hepatistis St E. TransitionPresentation Transcript
BY HIDA PIERSMA 05/03/2008 Hepatitis Presentation
HEPATITIS IS THE INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER, RESULTING IN LIVER CELL DAMAGE AND DESTRUCTION. HEPATITIS CAN BE CATEGORIZED IN TWO GROUPS.
What is Hepatistis?
Viral Hepatitis is a major concern in America 152, cases of hepatitis A occurs in the U.S., 10m world wide, about 15% infected will have reoccurring symptom over 6-9 months period.
Epidemic year the cases for hepatitis A reached 35,000 in the U.S.
In hepatitis B 30% of people shows no sign,
90% of people die with chronic Hepatitis B. about 1.25m American has chronic HB, 20 -30 were infected during childhood
About 80% of person with hepatitis C has no symptom.
Chronically infected American with HC is 2.7m
About 3.9m American have been infected with HC
Hepatitis D is 20% due to co-infection with HBV
Hepatitis E have few cases in the U.S.
Hepatitis G is not very well known.
Common causes are:
Infection with virus such as Viral hepatitis A,B,C, D, E, and drug overdose such as acetaminophen
It’s dx is specific lab test, liver function test, and medical exam and hx.
Signs and Symptom
Jaundice, nausea, vomiting, lost of appetite, fever, tenderness in the LUQ, sore muscle, joint pain, and itchy red hives on skin.
Treatment is by age, medical hx, extends of disease, and tolerance to medication.
Severe acute require hospitalization.
Common causes are: delay to recover from acute hepatitis as the liver continue to sustain more damage and inflammation. The symptom is considered chronic if it last more than 6 months.
Alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis from heavy alcohol consumption. Chronic active hepatitis- which leads to chirosive, autoimmune disorder, reaction to some medication, and metabolic disorder such as hemochromatosis or Wilson’s disease.
Dx, medical hx, liver function test, liver biopsy to determine the inflammation and scarring.
Treatment is to stop the damage and alleviate the symptom with antiviral agent, cortiscosteroid, and discontinuation of the drug that is causing the damage.
There are six main types of hepatitis
1) Hepatitis A is a is a picornavirus family. It is transmited through fecal-oral contact or fecal infected food, but may also be spread by blood born infection ( though it is rare). Acute illness is symptomatic, chronic illness is rare and vaccine is avaliable.
How do you protect yourself?
Wash your hand before you touch food products.
Do not drink contaminated water , take care of children in diapers
Use condom for sexual contact with an infected person.
Types of Hepatitis continues
2) Hepatitis B is a family of hepadnaviridae. Has both acute and chronic stages, it can be mild without a symptom. It is transmitted through sexual contact, blood product, body fluid from mother to child during delivery, and saliva.
At risk people with Hepatitis B are people who live in long term care facilities or disable
People with blood clotting disorder for example Hemophillia
IV drug abusers, dialysis for Renal failure, and healthcare workers.
Types of Hepatitis Cont.
3) Hepatitis C. is a member of flavivirus family, it is usually mild and gradual, children do not show any symptom at all. Transmission is via blood products and sexual contacts though this virus has mild symptom, it leads to chronic liver disease and needs for liver transplant
Risk factors are the same as in Hepatitis B.
There are no vaccine for Hepatitis C. Person with Hepatitis C needs to be monitored for renal failure and chronic condition.
Types of Hepatitis Cont.
4) Hepatitis D is a single stranded RNA virus it uses part of hepatitis B virus as its envelop protein.
It infect only people who are infected with hepatitis B, if hepatitis B is a mild one, hepatitis D may result to a significant exacerbation of a full blown liver failure.
Transmission of Hepatitis D is the same as in B with the exception of transmission of mother to baby is less common.
5) Hepatitis E is a calicivirus. Like Hepatitis A it is transsmited through fecal-oral route, it has an acute phase but rarely causes chronic infection. Currently there is no vaccine .
Types of Hepatitis cont.
6) Hepatitis G. it is structurally similar to hepatitis C and also transmitted through blood product especially in IV drug users, individuals with hemophilia, and individual who requires hemodialysis. Very little is known about hepatitis G, and it shows no clinical symptoms.
Hepatitis health maintenance.
Be cautious about using prescription drug, OTC, street drugs and herbal remedies
Avoid exposure to environmental toxin such as solvent, pain thinners, and pesticides
Get regular liver enzyme check up and blood work.
The best way to prevent any form of viral hepatitis is to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids of infected individuals. The use of condoms during sex also is advisable. Travelers should avoid water and ice if unsure of their purity, or they can boil water before drinking it. All foods eaten should be packaged, well cooked, or, in the case of fresh fruit, peeled. Caution should be exercised when getting tattoos or body piercing, since a 2003 report said that only about one-half of tattoo and piercing shops follow the government's guidelines concerning infection control.
US Department of Human Service Division of Viral Hepatitis CDC and Prevention National Center for HIV/AIDS, viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.
Lewis et…al (2004) Medical Surgical Nursing Assessment Management and Clinical Problem 6 th Edition Mosby.