RMetS December 2010

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The Whitworth Observatory in Manchester. …

The Whitworth Observatory in Manchester.

Presentation slides from the meeting held in Manchester on 7th December 2010.

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Transcript

  • 1. North West Local Centre www.tinyurl.com/nwrmets
  • 2. Welcome
    • Weather news – The cold snap!
    • Prof. Tom Choularton (Uni. Manchester)
      • A history of the Whitworth Observatory
    • Dr. Michael Flynn (Uni. Manchester)
      • Instrumentation at the Whitworth Observatory
    • Dr. Hugo Ricketts (Uni. Manchester)
      • How to interpret weather data
    • Questions
    • Announcements / Next Meeting
    • Close – 7 pm
  • 3. Weather News
  • 4. Prof. Tom Choularton
    • Ph.D from UMIST in 1977 in Atmospheric Physics
    • Appointed to the academic staff in 1979. 
    • Chair in 1995 and Head of UMIST Physics Dept. during the merger of UMIST and Manchester University and head of SEAES until this year.
    • 2008 - awarded RMetS Mason Gold Medal for contributions to the understanding of processes that determine variability and predictability of weather and climate.
    • Tom continues to lead an active research group studying the microphysics of mixed phase clouds and cloud aerosol interactions.
  • 5. Reopening of the Whitworth Meteorological Observatory
  • 6. The Whitworth Observatory History
    • 1. Meteorological Observatory in Whitworth Park started operation in August 1892.
    • In 1893 the Residuary Legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, the Manchester Whitworth Institute and the Owens College endowment an agreement for the maintenance of the “Meteorological Observatory in Whitworth Park”
    • This observatory was to serve as a source of scientific and popular interest and of education. Data from the Whitworth Observatory were provided by the University to the Guardian newspaper for daily and weekly weather reports for the benefit of Manchester citizens. They were also forwarded to the Met Office
    • Burned down in 1958 under mysterious circumstances
    • It was agreed in 2003 that the shares in the fund and the unspent balance should be transferred to the School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Science (SEAES) since we "do work relevant to the purposes listed in the original 1893 Agreement."
  • 7. Sir Joseph Whitworth 1803 – 1887 Mechanical Engineer
  • 8. Sir Arthur Schuster (1851-1934)
  • 9. Observations in 1906
    • Read at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. - Barometer. - Dry Bulb Thermometer - Wet Bulb Thermometer - Maximum Thermometer - Minimum Thermometer - Black Bulb Thermometer - Grass Thermometer - Rain Gauge
    • Self recording instruments. - Barograph. - Robinson Anemometer. - Dines-Baxendell Pressure Tube - Anemometer and Anemograph - Sunshine Recorder.
  • 10. An Early Report on Urban Meteorology
    • Comparison of Observations of Temperature taken at two stations in Manchester from December 4th, 1892, to January 28th, 1893. By J. Wilson. Communicated by Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
    • Published in Memoirs and Proceedings of The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Series 4, Vol 7, pp 160-168, 1893.
  • 11.
    • Maxima.
    • Average maxima at Whitworth Park 41.4 F
    • Average maxima at Oldham Road, 40.2°F.
    • January bright sunshine Whitworth Park 17hrs, 20min
    • January bright sunshine Oldham Road l0hrs, 45mins
    • January there does not appear to be any connection between the differences in the maxima and the differences in the amount of bright sunshine on a given day. The greatest divergence 8.8°F between the maxima occurs on Jan. 5th.
    • . Minima.
    • The minima show a much greater difference than do the maxima,
    • Daily average Whitworth Park 29.5°F
    • Oldham Road daily average 32.5F
    • The days marked by the greatest divergences are December 5, December 6, January 4, January 5, and January 6, these being also the days of greatest cold.
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Dr. Michael Flynn
    • PhD from UMIST in 2000
    • Now an Experimental Officer in SEAES
    • Instrumental development and measurement techniques
    • Broad research interests – Land-atmosphere fluxes, cloud and aerosol measurement etc
  • 15. The New Whitworth Observatory Michael Flynn
  • 16. Introduction
    • Location
    • Measurements Made
    • Instruments Used
    • Operating Principles of Selected Instruments
    • Data Availability
    • Acknowledgements
  • 17. Location Map
  • 18. Location
  • 19. Location
    • Details
      • Roof of George Kenyon Building N53.467374, W2.232006, Alt 43m
      • Rooftop Height 46m AGL
      • Instrument Heights 1-5m above roof
    • Choice of Site
      • Secure
      • Measurements unaffected by surrounding buildings
      • Wind data representative of flow ventilating the city
  • 20. Measurements Made Parameter Range Resolution Accuracy Rate Wind Speed 0-65m/s 0.01m/s 1.5%@12m/s 20Hz Wind Direction 0-359deg 0.1deg 2%@12m/s 20Hz Temperature -40 - +60C 0.1C 0.1C 1Hz Relative Humidity 0-100%RH 0.1% 1.5% 1Hz Barometric Pressure 500-1100hPa 0.01hPa 0.3hPa 1Hz Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation (310-2800nm) 0-1600 W/m2 2% 5s Longwave Radiation (4.5-42um) -400 – 100 W/m2 5% 18s Meteorological Visibility 10m – 75Km 2% 60s Precipitation Type drizzle (also freezing), rain (also freezing), hail, snow, snow grains / ice needles, soft hail / ice grains 60s Precipitation Rate 0.005 – 250mm/hr 0.001mm/hr <10% 60s Precipitation size distribution 0.16 – 8mm 22 bins 60s Precipitation velocity distribution 0.2 – 20m/s 20 bins 60s Cloud Height 10 – 8200m 3m 7.5m 60s
  • 21. Instruments Used
  • 22. Sonic Anemometer
  • 23.
    • Advantages
    • High accuracy (1.5%)
    • Good resolution (1cm/s)
    • Able to measure low wind speed without stalling
    • Fast response rate (20Hz) – able to capture atmospheric turbulence
    • 3d wind speed – can derive direction and wind angle
    • No moving parts
    Sonic Anemometer
  • 24. Laser Distrometer
  • 25. Laser Distrometer
    • Advantages .
    • Good temporal resolution at all precipitation rates (1min)
    • Identification of onset of precipitation
    • Measurement of particle size distribution and particle velocity
    • Recognition of different precipitation types (drizzle, rain, hail, snow)
    • No moving parts, cannot get blocked
  • 26. Precipitation Recognition Matrix Particle Fall Speed Particle Diameter
  • 27. Figures from “INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE IMPROVEMENT OF AUTOMATED PRECIPITATION TYPE OBSERVATIONS AT KNMI” by Marijn de Haij and Wiel Wauben 2010. Laser Distrometer – Precipitation Type Rain Snow Particle Fall Speed Particle Fall Speed Particle Diameter Particle Diameter
  • 28. Present Weather Sensor
    • Capability
    • Extinction Coefficient
    • Meteorological Optical Range
    • Presence of cloud/fog/haze
    • Precipitation rate and type
    • Temperature
  • 29. Light Transmission and Extinction Scattering Absorption Extinction = Scattering + Absorption Meteorological Optical Range = 3.00/Extinction Coefficient
  • 30. Visibility and Meteorological Optical Range Meteorological Optical Range The path length in the atmosphere required to reduce the luminous flux in a collimated beam from an incandescent lamp at a colour temperature of 2700  K to 0.05 of its original value. Where β is the extinction coefficient Daytime Visual Range The limiting distance at which a black target is visible against the horizon sky. Koschmieder’s Law (1924) Where β is the extinction coefficient Night-time Visual Range The distance at which an observer can see lights through the atmosphere at night. Allard’s Law (1876) Where E t is the observers illuminance threshold and β is the extinction coefficient
  • 31. Present Weather Sensor - Schematic
  • 32. Present Weather Sensor
    • Extinction Coefficient
    • Calculated from measured scattering coefficient (45deg forward)
    • Assume all extinction is due to suspended particles (no scattering by gases – valid for optical range < 100Km)
    • Assume all extinction is due to scattering (no absorption – valid for most environments except under very heavily polluted conditions)
    • Between 35 and 55 deg scattering angle, very little variation in scattering phase function for different types of haze and fog
    • Haze/Fog calibration still valid in snow for 45deg scattering angle
    • Haze/Fog calibration overestimates extinction coefficient in rain
    • Precipitation
    • Integrated particle size distribution used for precipitation intensity
    • Particle size and velocity matrix and forward/back scatter ratio used for precipitation recognition.
  • 33. Ceilometer
    • Capability
    • Determination of cloud height using LiDAR principle
    • Range 30-8300m
    • Vertical resolution 3m
    • Time resolution 2s max (typically 15s)
    • Algorithm for cloud cover
  • 34. Ceilometer
  • 35. Ceilometer Data
  • 36. Data Availability
    • Website http://www.cas.manchester.ac.uk/restools/ whitworth/
      • Current Plots
      • Current Table
      • Archive Plots
    • Future Plans
      • Display in Manchester Museum
      • Mobile phone app etc.
  • 37. Acknowledgements
    • Sir Joseph Whitworth (1803-1887)
    • Carl Dixon and Barry Gale – SEAES Workshop
    • Estates Team
    • Dr. Keith Bower, Prof. Martin Gallagher – SEAES
  • 38. Dr. Hugo Ricketts
    • Ph.D from Uni Manchester 2010 – Ozone Lidars
    • NCAS Research Scientist
      • Lidar instrument developer
      • Boundary layer processes
      • Aerosol transport / Iceland Volcano
  • 39. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 40. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 41. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 42. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 43. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 44. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Relative Humidity Temperature Dew Point Temp. Solar Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Visibility
  • 45. Yesterday - 6 th Dec © University of Manchester Ceilometer
  • 46. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Yesterday 2:53am infra-red
  • 47. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Yesterday 8:54am infra-red
  • 48. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Yesterday 12:47pm infra-red
  • 49. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Yesterday 12:47pm visible
  • 50. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Yesterday 6:48pm infra-red
  • 51. © NERC Satellite Receiving Station / University of Dundee Today 12:27pm infra-red
  • 52. Announcements
    • Feedback forms
    • E-mail list
    • Weather balloon video!
    • RMetS membership info
    • Suggestions welcome?
  • 53. http://thebarometer.podbean.com
  • 54. Next Meeting (25 th Jan 2011 – Renold D9, 6pm)
    • Dr. Lindsay Bennett (Uni. Leeds)
      • A real life storm chaser!
      • The Verification Of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2), USA 2009/2010.
      • Largest study ever undertaken to study tornadoes with a mobile armada of over 100 scientists and 40 research vehicles.
      • Lindsay will talk about her role in the team and some of her experiences of getting up close and personal with severe weather