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1. Meteorological Observatory in Whitworth Park started operation in August 1892.
In 1893 the Residuary Legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, the Manchester Whitworth Institute and the Owens College endowment an agreement for the maintenance of the “Meteorological Observatory in Whitworth Park”
This observatory was to serve as a source of scientific and popular interest and of education. Data from the Whitworth Observatory were provided by the University to the Guardian newspaper for daily and weekly weather reports for the benefit of Manchester citizens. They were also forwarded to the Met Office
Burned down in 1958 under mysterious circumstances
It was agreed in 2003 that the shares in the fund and the unspent balance should be transferred to the School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Science (SEAES) since we "do work relevant to the purposes listed in the original 1893 Agreement."
Sir Joseph Whitworth 1803 – 1887 Mechanical Engineer
January bright sunshine Whitworth Park 17hrs, 20min
January bright sunshine Oldham Road l0hrs, 45mins
January there does not appear to be any connection between the differences in the maxima and the differences in the amount of bright sunshine on a given day. The greatest divergence 8.8°F between the maxima occurs on Jan. 5th.
The minima show a much greater difference than do the maxima,
Daily average Whitworth Park 29.5°F
Oldham Road daily average 32.5F
The days marked by the greatest divergences are December 5, December 6, January 4, January 5, and January 6, these being also the days of greatest cold.
Good temporal resolution at all precipitation rates (1min)
Identification of onset of precipitation
Measurement of particle size distribution and particle velocity
Recognition of different precipitation types (drizzle, rain, hail, snow)
No moving parts, cannot get blocked
Precipitation Recognition Matrix Particle Fall Speed Particle Diameter
Figures from “INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE IMPROVEMENT OF AUTOMATED PRECIPITATION TYPE OBSERVATIONS AT KNMI” by Marijn de Haij and Wiel Wauben 2010. Laser Distrometer – Precipitation Type Rain Snow Particle Fall Speed Particle Fall Speed Particle Diameter Particle Diameter
Light Transmission and Extinction Scattering Absorption Extinction = Scattering + Absorption Meteorological Optical Range = 3.00/Extinction Coefficient
Visibility and Meteorological Optical Range Meteorological Optical Range The path length in the atmosphere required to reduce the luminous flux in a collimated beam from an incandescent lamp at a colour temperature of 2700 K to 0.05 of its original value. Where β is the extinction coefficient Daytime Visual Range The limiting distance at which a black target is visible against the horizon sky. Koschmieder’s Law (1924) Where β is the extinction coefficient Night-time Visual Range The distance at which an observer can see lights through the atmosphere at night. Allard’s Law (1876) Where E t is the observers illuminance threshold and β is the extinction coefficient