AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide

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AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide

  1. 1. AP History Exam Study Guide<br />By Will Erickson<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 1!<br />
  3. 3. Aztecs<br />Great mathematicians, made numerous human sacrifices, and built elaborate cities for lack of simple technology<br />
  4. 4. Corn/ Maize<br />Critical to early life<br />Turned nomads into settlers <br />
  5. 5. Christopher Columbus<br />Persuaded Spain to give him 3 tiny ships, where he ventured west and ran into Bahamas (was looking for Indies, but found Americas)<br />
  6. 6. Columbian Exchange<br />Plants to Old World: Tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes<br />Animals to New World: Cows, pigs, and horses<br />Germs to New World: Smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria (90% killed by germs)<br />To Caribbean: Sugar Cane<br />
  7. 7. Treaty of Tordesillas<br />Divided Americas into 2 for Portugal and Spain<br />
  8. 8. Hernan Cortes<br />Entered Tenochititlan amazed by its beauty , later captured it and introduced his culture<br />
  9. 9. Chapter 2!<br />
  10. 10. Sir Walter Raleigh<br />Created colony in North Carolina<br />
  11. 11. Roanoke Island<br />England’s FIRST colony, later vanished<br />
  12. 12. 3 Things Needed To Colonize<br />1: Popular Monarch<br />2: Religious Unity<br />3: Nationalism<br />
  13. 13. Primogeniture<br />Only eldest sons could inherit land<br />
  14. 14. Joint-Stock Company<br />Allowed younger siblings chance for land<br />
  15. 15. Surplus Population<br />England was very overcrowded<br />
  16. 16. Virginia Company of London<br />Colonized in North America for gold<br />
  17. 17. Jamestown<br />Virginia Company of England’s colony<br />Nasty conditions<br />
  18. 18. Three D’s<br />1: Disease 2: Disorganization 3: Disposability<br />
  19. 19. Tobacco/ John Rolfe<br />John Rolfe: Saved economy and tobacco industry<br />
  20. 20. House of Burgesses<br />First government in colony<br />
  21. 21. Act Of Toleration<br />Protected Catholics from Protestants<br />
  22. 22. Barbados Slave Code<br />Reduced risk of slave rebellion <br />
  23. 23. Georgia<br />Savannah helped Georgia become 13th colony<br />
  24. 24. Chapter 3!<br />
  25. 25. John Calvin<br />Leader who expanded on Martin Luther’s thoughts<br />
  26. 26. Visible Saints<br />Most devout Christians would only <br /> admit Visible Saints <br />
  27. 27. Mayflower Compact<br />Agreement signed to hold government<br />Colonies settled in Plymouth Bay without authority<br />
  28. 28. Great Migration<br />70,000 refugees left England (1630’s)<br />
  29. 29. Roger Williams<br />Questioned legality of colony’s charter<br />Williams was forced to leave colony <br />Built 1st Baptist Church (Religious Freedom)<br />Built settlements in Rhode Island<br />
  30. 30. Fundamental Orders<br />Constitution for Connecticut river colony<br />
  31. 31. New Haven<br />New settlement<br />Goal: Grand Seaport<br />
  32. 32. New England Confederation<br />4 colonies founded to defend enemies<br />
  33. 33. English Navigation Laws<br />Goal: Make trade more efficient<br />Smuggling= Result<br />
  34. 34. Dominion of New England<br />Included NY, East + West NJ<br />Blow to Massachusetts <br />
  35. 35. Salutary Neglect<br />Navigation laws- weakly enforced<br />
  36. 36. Pennsylvania/ Penn<br />Quakers arise in mid 1600’s<br />William Penn- earns large amount of land (Pennsylvania)<br />
  37. 37. Chapter 4!<br />
  38. 38. Women/ Chesapeake<br />Settlers faced many diseases<br />Life Expectancy down<br />Immigrants mainly men (6:1 Ratio)<br />
  39. 39. Indentured Servants<br />Tobacco labor up<br />White slaves worked for certain amount of money and time<br />
  40. 40. Headright System<br />Whoever paid the passage of a servant acquired 50 acres of land<br />
  41. 41. Bacon’s Rebellion<br />Nathaniel Bacon fed up with Gov. Berkley<br />Bacon + other men attacked Indians and Berkley<br />Bacon dies (disease) and Berkley returns and murders followers <br />
  42. 42. Middle Passage<br />The voyage to Americas from Africa<br />
  43. 43. Southern Social Structure<br />Social Structure Ladder…<br />Rich Planters (owned slaves + land)<br />Small farmers (1-2 slaves)<br />Landless whites (Indentured Servants)<br />Black Slaves<br />
  44. 44. Salem<br />20 people killed after being accused of being a witch<br />
  45. 45. Yankee Ingenuity<br />Proud national trait of New England<br />
  46. 46. Chapter 5!<br />
  47. 47. Ethnic Makeup<br />America: Melting Pot<br />Germans: 6%<br />Scots/Irish: 7%<br />Other Euro Countries: .5%<br />Africa: 20%<br />Most mixed in world<br />
  48. 48. Social Structure vs. Great Britain<br />America= Opportunity<br />Started to look more like Europe<br />Black slaves- No Rights<br />
  49. 49. Workaday America<br />90% of people- Agriculture<br />Fishing, commerce, manufacturing, lumbering, and naval stores<br />
  50. 50. Triangular Trade<br />Trade routes with West Indies, North America, England, and Africa<br />
  51. 51. Molasses Act<br />1733- Reduced trade between America and West Indies<br />
  52. 52. Benjamin Franklin<br />Walked 9 days giving word of Declaration of Independence<br />
  53. 53. Taverns<br />Social place for all statuses<br />
  54. 54. Religion & Location<br />Church of England: Official religion of 6 colonies<br />
  55. 55. Great Awakening<br />Religion- Down<br />Jonathan Edwards: Stated the need for complete dependence on God’s grace<br />Three lasting effects<br /># Of Churches: Up<br />Encouraged missionary work among Indians and some slaves<br />1st spontaneous mass movement of America<br />
  56. 56. Schools & Religion<br />New England most interested in education<br />Mostly male leaders were educated<br />Emphasis: Religion and Language<br />
  57. 57. John Peter Zenger<br />Reported on government being corrupt, almost jailed<br />Achievement for reporter’s freedom<br />
  58. 58. 3 Types Of Colonies<br />Appointed by King<br />Appointed by themselves<br />Themselves under self-governing charters<br />
  59. 59. Chapter 6!<br />
  60. 60. New France<br />Quebec founded in Canada<br />French gain complete control over New France<br />Valuable resource = beaver<br />French goal- block Spain<br />
  61. 61. Result of wars in N.A.<br />England destroyed France and Spain, rewarded land<br />Spanish commander cuts off ENG captain’s ear, sends it to King<br />
  62. 62. Ohio Valley<br />England: ventured westward<br />France: Link Canada + Mississippi Valley<br />
  63. 63. Congress of Albany<br />Only 7 of 13 delegates (colonies) show up<br />Goal: Greater colonial unity, bolter defense against France<br />
  64. 64. Seven Years’ War<br />Fought around world<br />Frederick the Great- Defeated French, Austrian, + Russian armies<br />France- Wasted strength<br />
  65. 65. Proclamation of 1763<br />Prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians Mountains<br />
  66. 66. Chapter 7!<br />
  67. 67. Mercantilism<br />Wealth- Power<br />Gold- More exported then imported<br />
  68. 68. Navigation Laws<br />Aimed at Dutch, trying to trade in America<br />
  69. 69. Sugar Act<br />Increased duty on sugar imported from West Indies<br />
  70. 70. Quartering Act<br />Required America to supply food and housing to troops<br />
  71. 71. Stamp Act<br />Tax on most paper items<br />
  72. 72. Stamp Act Congress<br />27 delegates (9 colonies) going to repeal Stamp Act<br />
  73. 73. Declaratory Act<br />Reaffirmed England had right to bind colonies in all cases<br />
  74. 74. Townshend Act<br />Small import tax, colonists still enraged<br />
  75. 75. Boston Massacre<br />Colonists fired upon by ENG soldiers<br />
  76. 76. First Continental Congress<br />12 colonies met to discuss colonial grievances<br />
  77. 77. Lexington & Concord<br />England troops kill 8 Americans at Lexington, but cut off in/at Concord<br />ENG + U.S.A officially at war<br />
  78. 78. Positives/ Negatives of ENG<br />POSITIVES<br />Population: 3-1 over U.S.<br />NEGATIVES<br />Cockiness<br />2nd rate generals<br />No desire to kill colonists<br />
  79. 79. Positives/Negatives of U.S.<br />POSITIVES<br />G. Washington + Ben. Frank.- Great leaders<br />Fighting for freedom<br />NEGATIVES<br />Soldiers- Disorganized<br />
  80. 80. Chapter 8!<br />
  81. 81. Olive Branch Petition<br />1775- Avoided war with England<br />Reaffirmed America’s faith to England<br />
  82. 82. Common Sense<br />Thomas Paine<br />Argued for American freedom from England<br />Written so that common people could understand<br />
  83. 83. Declaration Of Independence<br />Declared that 13 British colonies were now independent<br />Primarily written by Thomas Jefferson<br />
  84. 84. Saratoga<br />Americans won<br />Turning point for U.S.<br />
  85. 85. Yorktown<br />American + French forces force English surrender<br />
  86. 86. Treaty Of Paris<br />Ended Revolutionary War<br />America gained freedom<br />
  87. 87. Chapter 9!<br />
  88. 88. VA Statute For Religious Freedom<br />Separated church and state<br />Written by Thomas Jefferson<br />
  89. 89. Republican Motherhood<br />The crucial role of women in a free America<br />
  90. 90. State Constitutions<br />Created to govern states, writers worked tirelessly<br />
  91. 91. Lack of Trading<br />England: Made own goods<br />America couldn’t trade with England or French West Indies<br />
  92. 92. Articles of Confederation<br />Written constitution for U.S.<br />States get land<br />Each state= 1 vote<br />
  93. 93. Northwest Ordinance<br />Territorial stages, 60,000 people = state<br />Path to Statehood<br />
  94. 94. Articles of Confederation<br />+: Form of government, outlined constitution<br />-: No power to regulate commerce, tax collection program<br />
  95. 95. Land Ordinance<br />NW land bought- National Debt<br />
  96. 96. Ugly Duckling<br />U.S. + ENG: Tension<br />ENG: Kept trading posts in U.S.<br />Spain: Claimed north of Gulf of Mexico + Florida<br />French- Wanted debts payed off<br />
  97. 97. Shay’s Rebellion<br />Farmers demanded lighter taxes<br />Daniel Shay raised small army<br />Rebellion crushed<br />
  98. 98. Mobocracy<br />Fear of mass public disorder<br />
  99. 99. Constitutional Convention<br />Held in Philadelphia<br />Saved by Alexander Hamilton<br />Held in secrecy<br />Each state= 1 vote<br />Meant to agree on Constitution<br />
  100. 100. C.C. Delegate Make-Up<br />Most delegates- lawyers<br />55 Delegates<br />All rich, young, but experienced<br />Goals: Preserve union, ensure security of life<br />
  101. 101. Small/Large State Plan<br />“Large State” Plan: Both houses should be based on population<br />“Small State” Plan: Equal representation in population + size<br />
  102. 102. Great Compromise<br />Equal representation<br />2 senators/ state<br />
  103. 103. Electoral College<br />Elects the president<br />
  104. 104. 3/5th Compromise<br />Slavery citizenship debated<br />3/5th of a vote per slave<br />
  105. 105. “We The People”<br />First words of constitution<br />
  106. 106. Anti vs. Federalists<br />Anti-Federalists: Opposed stronger fed. gov’t<br />Federalists: Influence of- rich-<br />
  107. 107. Federalist Papers<br />In favor of Constitution<br />Supported federalists <br />
  108. 108. Ratification Process<br />Bitter, riots erupted in NY + Penn<br />4 final states join<br />
  109. 109. Chapter 10!<br />
  110. 110. Population/ 25 Years<br />Doubled<br />Cities emerge + grew<br />
  111. 111. The Cabinet<br />Not in Constitution<br />Evolved by George Washington<br />Members: Thomas Jefferson (secr. of state), Alexander Hamilton (treasury), and Henry Knox (War)<br />
  112. 112. Rural/ Urban Population<br />Rural: 90%<br />
  113. 113. Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Organized Supreme Court<br />Chief Justice- John Jay + 5 Associates<br />
  114. 114. Bill Of Rights<br />Protection for freedom of religion, speech, press, bear arms, trial by jury, and prevent cruel punishment<br />
  115. 115. Hamilton/ “funding at par”<br />Federal government paid off debt at face value + interest<br />
  116. 116. Customs Duties/ Excise Tax<br />How to get/collect money? – Taxes <br />1791- Excise Tax: domestic items (whiskey)<br />
  117. 117. Bank of the U.S.<br />Government- major stockholder + print $<br />Useful, but constitutional?<br />
  118. 118. Strict vs. Loose Constructionism<br />Strict Constructionist: Interpret constitution literally (Thomas Jefferson)<br />Loose Constructionist: Loose and broad interpretation of constitution (Alexander Hamilton)<br />
  119. 119. Whiskey Rebellion<br />SW Pennsylvania<br />Tarred + Feathered revenue officers<br />Collections came to a halt<br />13,000 citizens rally to crush rebellion <br />
  120. 120. Reign of Terror<br />French king killed, church attacked<br />Daily hangings<br />French Revolution<br />
  121. 121. Neutrality Proclamation<br />U.S. neutral to war in France<br />Self- Interest<br />
  122. 122. Fallen Timbers<br />Native Americans defeated, give up land<br />
  123. 123. Treaty of Greenville<br />U.S. gives $20,000 and hunting rights<br />
  124. 124. Jay’s Treaty<br />England: Left posts, paid ship damage<br />America: Paid off Pre-Revolution debts (merchants)<br />
  125. 125. Pickney’s Treaty<br />U.S. + Spain<br />America gained Florida and Mississippi<br />
  126. 126. XYZ Affair<br />Secret French officials demand $32 million<br /> $250,000 just to speak with French foreign minister<br />
  127. 127. Convention of 1800<br />Peace between France + U.S.<br />Back to normal (ships, $, etc.)<br />
  128. 128. Alien & Sedition Act<br />Alien Laws- President could deport illegal immigrants, never enforced<br />Sedition Act- Reduced freedom of speech + press, deface law= fine and/or prison<br />
  129. 129. Nullification<br />Right to refuse laws<br />No other states agree, 1803 adopted by Supreme Court<br />
  130. 130. Federalist vs. Dem-Repubs<br />

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