AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide
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AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide

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AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide AP U.S. History Exam Study Guide Presentation Transcript

  • AP History Exam Study Guide
    By Will Erickson
  • Chapter 1!
  • Aztecs
    Great mathematicians, made numerous human sacrifices, and built elaborate cities for lack of simple technology
  • Corn/ Maize
    Critical to early life
    Turned nomads into settlers
  • Christopher Columbus
    Persuaded Spain to give him 3 tiny ships, where he ventured west and ran into Bahamas (was looking for Indies, but found Americas)
  • Columbian Exchange
    Plants to Old World: Tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes
    Animals to New World: Cows, pigs, and horses
    Germs to New World: Smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria (90% killed by germs)
    To Caribbean: Sugar Cane
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
    Divided Americas into 2 for Portugal and Spain
  • Hernan Cortes
    Entered Tenochititlan amazed by its beauty , later captured it and introduced his culture
  • Chapter 2!
  • Sir Walter Raleigh
    Created colony in North Carolina
  • Roanoke Island
    England’s FIRST colony, later vanished
  • 3 Things Needed To Colonize
    1: Popular Monarch
    2: Religious Unity
    3: Nationalism
  • Primogeniture
    Only eldest sons could inherit land
  • Joint-Stock Company
    Allowed younger siblings chance for land
  • Surplus Population
    England was very overcrowded
  • Virginia Company of London
    Colonized in North America for gold
  • Jamestown
    Virginia Company of England’s colony
    Nasty conditions
  • Three D’s
    1: Disease 2: Disorganization 3: Disposability
  • Tobacco/ John Rolfe
    John Rolfe: Saved economy and tobacco industry
  • House of Burgesses
    First government in colony
  • Act Of Toleration
    Protected Catholics from Protestants
  • Barbados Slave Code
    Reduced risk of slave rebellion
  • Georgia
    Savannah helped Georgia become 13th colony
  • Chapter 3!
  • John Calvin
    Leader who expanded on Martin Luther’s thoughts
  • Visible Saints
    Most devout Christians would only
    admit Visible Saints
  • Mayflower Compact
    Agreement signed to hold government
    Colonies settled in Plymouth Bay without authority
  • Great Migration
    70,000 refugees left England (1630’s)
  • Roger Williams
    Questioned legality of colony’s charter
    Williams was forced to leave colony
    Built 1st Baptist Church (Religious Freedom)
    Built settlements in Rhode Island
  • Fundamental Orders
    Constitution for Connecticut river colony
  • New Haven
    New settlement
    Goal: Grand Seaport
  • New England Confederation
    4 colonies founded to defend enemies
  • English Navigation Laws
    Goal: Make trade more efficient
    Smuggling= Result
  • Dominion of New England
    Included NY, East + West NJ
    Blow to Massachusetts
  • Salutary Neglect
    Navigation laws- weakly enforced
  • Pennsylvania/ Penn
    Quakers arise in mid 1600’s
    William Penn- earns large amount of land (Pennsylvania)
  • Chapter 4!
  • Women/ Chesapeake
    Settlers faced many diseases
    Life Expectancy down
    Immigrants mainly men (6:1 Ratio)
  • Indentured Servants
    Tobacco labor up
    White slaves worked for certain amount of money and time
  • Headright System
    Whoever paid the passage of a servant acquired 50 acres of land
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
    Nathaniel Bacon fed up with Gov. Berkley
    Bacon + other men attacked Indians and Berkley
    Bacon dies (disease) and Berkley returns and murders followers
  • Middle Passage
    The voyage to Americas from Africa
  • Southern Social Structure
    Social Structure Ladder…
    Rich Planters (owned slaves + land)
    Small farmers (1-2 slaves)
    Landless whites (Indentured Servants)
    Black Slaves
  • Salem
    20 people killed after being accused of being a witch
  • Yankee Ingenuity
    Proud national trait of New England
  • Chapter 5!
  • Ethnic Makeup
    America: Melting Pot
    Germans: 6%
    Scots/Irish: 7%
    Other Euro Countries: .5%
    Africa: 20%
    Most mixed in world
  • Social Structure vs. Great Britain
    America= Opportunity
    Started to look more like Europe
    Black slaves- No Rights
  • Workaday America
    90% of people- Agriculture
    Fishing, commerce, manufacturing, lumbering, and naval stores
  • Triangular Trade
    Trade routes with West Indies, North America, England, and Africa
  • Molasses Act
    1733- Reduced trade between America and West Indies
  • Benjamin Franklin
    Walked 9 days giving word of Declaration of Independence
  • Taverns
    Social place for all statuses
  • Religion & Location
    Church of England: Official religion of 6 colonies
  • Great Awakening
    Religion- Down
    Jonathan Edwards: Stated the need for complete dependence on God’s grace
    Three lasting effects
    # Of Churches: Up
    Encouraged missionary work among Indians and some slaves
    1st spontaneous mass movement of America
  • Schools & Religion
    New England most interested in education
    Mostly male leaders were educated
    Emphasis: Religion and Language
  • John Peter Zenger
    Reported on government being corrupt, almost jailed
    Achievement for reporter’s freedom
  • 3 Types Of Colonies
    Appointed by King
    Appointed by themselves
    Themselves under self-governing charters
  • Chapter 6!
  • New France
    Quebec founded in Canada
    French gain complete control over New France
    Valuable resource = beaver
    French goal- block Spain
  • Result of wars in N.A.
    England destroyed France and Spain, rewarded land
    Spanish commander cuts off ENG captain’s ear, sends it to King
  • Ohio Valley
    England: ventured westward
    France: Link Canada + Mississippi Valley
  • Congress of Albany
    Only 7 of 13 delegates (colonies) show up
    Goal: Greater colonial unity, bolter defense against France
  • Seven Years’ War
    Fought around world
    Frederick the Great- Defeated French, Austrian, + Russian armies
    France- Wasted strength
  • Proclamation of 1763
    Prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians Mountains
  • Chapter 7!
  • Mercantilism
    Wealth- Power
    Gold- More exported then imported
  • Navigation Laws
    Aimed at Dutch, trying to trade in America
  • Sugar Act
    Increased duty on sugar imported from West Indies
  • Quartering Act
    Required America to supply food and housing to troops
  • Stamp Act
    Tax on most paper items
  • Stamp Act Congress
    27 delegates (9 colonies) going to repeal Stamp Act
  • Declaratory Act
    Reaffirmed England had right to bind colonies in all cases
  • Townshend Act
    Small import tax, colonists still enraged
  • Boston Massacre
    Colonists fired upon by ENG soldiers
  • First Continental Congress
    12 colonies met to discuss colonial grievances
  • Lexington & Concord
    England troops kill 8 Americans at Lexington, but cut off in/at Concord
    ENG + U.S.A officially at war
  • Positives/ Negatives of ENG
    POSITIVES
    Population: 3-1 over U.S.
    NEGATIVES
    Cockiness
    2nd rate generals
    No desire to kill colonists
  • Positives/Negatives of U.S.
    POSITIVES
    G. Washington + Ben. Frank.- Great leaders
    Fighting for freedom
    NEGATIVES
    Soldiers- Disorganized
  • Chapter 8!
  • Olive Branch Petition
    1775- Avoided war with England
    Reaffirmed America’s faith to England
  • Common Sense
    Thomas Paine
    Argued for American freedom from England
    Written so that common people could understand
  • Declaration Of Independence
    Declared that 13 British colonies were now independent
    Primarily written by Thomas Jefferson
  • Saratoga
    Americans won
    Turning point for U.S.
  • Yorktown
    American + French forces force English surrender
  • Treaty Of Paris
    Ended Revolutionary War
    America gained freedom
  • Chapter 9!
  • VA Statute For Religious Freedom
    Separated church and state
    Written by Thomas Jefferson
  • Republican Motherhood
    The crucial role of women in a free America
  • State Constitutions
    Created to govern states, writers worked tirelessly
  • Lack of Trading
    England: Made own goods
    America couldn’t trade with England or French West Indies
  • Articles of Confederation
    Written constitution for U.S.
    States get land
    Each state= 1 vote
  • Northwest Ordinance
    Territorial stages, 60,000 people = state
    Path to Statehood
  • Articles of Confederation
    +: Form of government, outlined constitution
    -: No power to regulate commerce, tax collection program
  • Land Ordinance
    NW land bought- National Debt
  • Ugly Duckling
    U.S. + ENG: Tension
    ENG: Kept trading posts in U.S.
    Spain: Claimed north of Gulf of Mexico + Florida
    French- Wanted debts payed off
  • Shay’s Rebellion
    Farmers demanded lighter taxes
    Daniel Shay raised small army
    Rebellion crushed
  • Mobocracy
    Fear of mass public disorder
  • Constitutional Convention
    Held in Philadelphia
    Saved by Alexander Hamilton
    Held in secrecy
    Each state= 1 vote
    Meant to agree on Constitution
  • C.C. Delegate Make-Up
    Most delegates- lawyers
    55 Delegates
    All rich, young, but experienced
    Goals: Preserve union, ensure security of life
  • Small/Large State Plan
    “Large State” Plan: Both houses should be based on population
    “Small State” Plan: Equal representation in population + size
  • Great Compromise
    Equal representation
    2 senators/ state
  • Electoral College
    Elects the president
  • 3/5th Compromise
    Slavery citizenship debated
    3/5th of a vote per slave
  • “We The People”
    First words of constitution
  • Anti vs. Federalists
    Anti-Federalists: Opposed stronger fed. gov’t
    Federalists: Influence of- rich-
  • Federalist Papers
    In favor of Constitution
    Supported federalists
  • Ratification Process
    Bitter, riots erupted in NY + Penn
    4 final states join
  • Chapter 10!
  • Population/ 25 Years
    Doubled
    Cities emerge + grew
  • The Cabinet
    Not in Constitution
    Evolved by George Washington
    Members: Thomas Jefferson (secr. of state), Alexander Hamilton (treasury), and Henry Knox (War)
  • Rural/ Urban Population
    Rural: 90%
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
    Organized Supreme Court
    Chief Justice- John Jay + 5 Associates
  • Bill Of Rights
    Protection for freedom of religion, speech, press, bear arms, trial by jury, and prevent cruel punishment
  • Hamilton/ “funding at par”
    Federal government paid off debt at face value + interest
  • Customs Duties/ Excise Tax
    How to get/collect money? – Taxes
    1791- Excise Tax: domestic items (whiskey)
  • Bank of the U.S.
    Government- major stockholder + print $
    Useful, but constitutional?
  • Strict vs. Loose Constructionism
    Strict Constructionist: Interpret constitution literally (Thomas Jefferson)
    Loose Constructionist: Loose and broad interpretation of constitution (Alexander Hamilton)
  • Whiskey Rebellion
    SW Pennsylvania
    Tarred + Feathered revenue officers
    Collections came to a halt
    13,000 citizens rally to crush rebellion
  • Reign of Terror
    French king killed, church attacked
    Daily hangings
    French Revolution
  • Neutrality Proclamation
    U.S. neutral to war in France
    Self- Interest
  • Fallen Timbers
    Native Americans defeated, give up land
  • Treaty of Greenville
    U.S. gives $20,000 and hunting rights
  • Jay’s Treaty
    England: Left posts, paid ship damage
    America: Paid off Pre-Revolution debts (merchants)
  • Pickney’s Treaty
    U.S. + Spain
    America gained Florida and Mississippi
  • XYZ Affair
    Secret French officials demand $32 million
    $250,000 just to speak with French foreign minister
  • Convention of 1800
    Peace between France + U.S.
    Back to normal (ships, $, etc.)
  • Alien & Sedition Act
    Alien Laws- President could deport illegal immigrants, never enforced
    Sedition Act- Reduced freedom of speech + press, deface law= fine and/or prison
  • Nullification
    Right to refuse laws
    No other states agree, 1803 adopted by Supreme Court
  • Federalist vs. Dem-Repubs