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Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World
 

Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World

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Homo Sapiens A La Conquista Del Mundo

Homo Sapiens A La Conquista Del Mundo

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    Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World Presentation Transcript

    • H. Sapiens Conquers the World
    • Primera Salida de Africa: H. erectus (2 mya)
      • Restos de H. erectus más antiguos fuera de Africa son de 1.8 mya (Alemania)
    • H. erectus exits Africa 2 mya
    • H. erectus site in China
    • Map of H. erectus sites
      • Llegaron hasta el norte de Africa, pero no cruzaron a la Peninsula Ibérica por Gibraltar (13 millas), sino que caminaron desde Medio Oriente.
    • H. Erectus vs. Modern Humans
    • Segunda Salida de Africa : H. sapiens arcáico (60,000)
      • after Homo erectus migrated out of Africa the different populations became reproductively isolated, evolving independently, and in some cases like the Neanderthals, into separate species
      • Homo sapiens arose in one place, probably Africa (geographically this includes the Middle East)
      • Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding
      • modern human variation is a relatively recent phenomenon
    • Archaic H. sapiens (Appear in Africa 250,000 ya)
      • While these early Homo sapiens were anatomically modern they were not behaviorally modern.
      • It is significant that modern anatomy evolved prior to modern behavior.
      • No changes are seen in the shape of the skulls between earlier and later Homo sapiens .
      • These early sapiens were characterized by :
      • a cranial vault with a vertical forehead, rounded occipital and reduced brow ridge
      • a reduced facial skeleton lacking a projecting mid-face
      • a lower jaw sporting a chin
      • a more modern, less robustly built skeleton
    • H. Sapiens y H. neandertalis (co-habitan en Europa por 10,000 años)
      • H. erectus llega a Europa hace 1 mya
      • Permanecen aislados, y esto ocasiona la especiación
      • Aparece H. neandertalis (200,000 ya)
      • H. sapiens arcáico llega a Europa (40,000 ya)
      • Cro-Magnon (Francia): Evidencia más temprana de H. sapiens en Europa (30,000 ya)
      • Para 30,000 ya, H. neandertalis desaparece por completo
      • Simultaneamente, en Asia, H. sapiens reemplaza a H. erectus
      • Desede hace 30,000 años H. sapiens es la única especie de hominido que sobrevive
    • H. neandertalis en Europa
      • H. erectus sale de Africa hace 2 mya, y llega a Eurpopa hace 1 mya
      • Por aislamiento, evoluciona a H. neandertalis
    • H. neanderthalis child
      • -- long, low braincase
      • and double-arched browridge
      • -- flaring, funnel-shaped chest
      • -- flaring pelvis
      • -- robust fingers and toes
      • -- tall, rounded braincase and small, divided browridge
      • -- cylindrical, barrel- shaped chest
      • -- narrow pelvis
      • -- slender fingers and toes
      H. neanderthalis vs. H. sapiens
    • H. neandertalis vs. H. sapiens
    • Neanderthals are distinguished by a unique set of anatomical features
      • a large, long, low cranial vault with a well-developed double-arched browridge
      • a massive facial skeleton with a very projecting mid-face, backward sloping cheeks, and large nasal aperture, with large nasal sinuses
      • an oddly shaped occipital region of the skull with a bulge or bun
      • molars with enlarged pulp chambers, and large, often very heavily worn incisors
      • a mandible lacking a chin and possessing a large gap behind the last molar
      • a massive thorax, and relatively short forearms and lower legs
      • although short in stature they possessed robustly built skeletons with thick walled limb bones
      • long clavicles and very wide scapulas
    • H. neanderthalis behavior
      • little variation in stone tool types, with a preponderance of flake tools that are difficult to sort into discrete categories
      • lack of tools fashioned out of bone, antler or ivory
      • burials lacked grave goods and signs of ritual or ceremony
      • hunting was usually limited to less dangerous species and evidence for fishing is absent
      • population densities were apparently low
      • no evidence of living structures exist and fireplaces are rudimentary
      • evidence for art or decoration is also lacking
    • Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) Cannibalism
    • Great Leap Forward H. sapiens (40,000 ya)
      • a remarkable diversity in stone tool types
      • tool types showed significant change over time and space
      • artifacts were regularly fashioned out of bone, antler and ivory, in addition to stone
      • burials were accompanied by ritual or ceremony and contained a rich diversity of grave goods
      • living structures and well-designed fireplaces were constructed
      • hunting of dangerous animal species and fishing occurred regularly
      • higher population densities
      • abundant and elaborate art as well as items of personal adornment were widespread
      • raw materials such as flint and shells were traded over some distances
      • Well established hunters and gatherers societies were in place everywhere. This would be the only type of society until the Neolithic Revolution.
      • Precisely how this transformation occurred is not well understood, but it apparently was restricted to Homo sapiens and did not occur in Neanderthals.
    • Earliest Evidence of Art
      • Engraved Ochre (Africa, 75,000 ya)
    • Arte Rupestre Lascaux, Francia (40,000 y)
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    • Bisonte de Altamira
    • Otras Migraciones Importantes
      • Australia: 60,000 ya (hay 60 millas de Asia a Australia)
      • America: 20,000 ya (Bering Strait)
      • Desaparicion del Bosque
      • Separación de los chimpanceses
      • Eva Africana
      4-8mya 4mya 2mya 1mya 60,000 40,000 30,000 15,000 5,000 1789 ________________________ 1.Primer hominido 2. Bipedalismo
      • Herramientas
      • Dieta carnivora
      • Aparicion primer Homo
      • H. erectus exits Africa
      H. erectus enters Europe Migración a Australia
      • Great Leap Forward
      • Art
      • H. sapiens llega a Europa
      H. Sapiens reemplaza otros Homos Migración a las Américas Revolución Neolitico Revolución Industrial