Literature

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Literature

  1. 1. Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  2. 2.  Main characteristics  Extreme diversity  Menacles  Schools Authors  Majority  Circles  Movements  Minority “Literature for the masses”“Small and clannish Somerset Maugham – Graham Greengroup” George Orwell T. S. Elliot Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  3. 3.  Main characteristics Tendencies Realistic-Naturalistic Neo- Romantic  Begun in 19th century Interests in the exotic Concerned with the affairs of the and unusual classes Fantastic, heroic and  Faith in science and liberalism superhuman characters  Charles Dickens James Joyce  Thackery Virginia Woolf Now let’s consider a few aspects about the two tendencies…
  4. 4.  Main characteristics: Tendencies Realistic-Naturalistic Realism Psychological novel Hero’s inner conflicts and motivations examined for thereader Hero thinks about his own actions and emotions
  5. 5.  Main characteristics: Tendencies Realistic-Naturalistic Naturalistic Literature of revolt Personification of various social classes Human life controlled by fates of heredity and enviroment Concerned with less elegant aspects of life ( alcohol,desease, brutality) Influenced by: Darwin (Theory of evolution) – Marx(Socialist radical movement) - Freud (Subconscious life)
  6. 6.  Main characteristics: Tendencies Neo- Romantic movement  Impresionism and Stream of consciousnes Concerned about how the brain reacts to externalstimulations Internal monologue The true existence of the individual lies in his mentalprocess Mental life is intuitive and associative rather than logical
  7. 7.  Main characteristics: Tendencies Neo- Romantic movement  Intellectual and ideological literature The return of tradition and faith Revival of mysticism and religious idealism Salvation of humanity is contingent upon its abandonment ofmaterialism for some spiritual needImportant writers: Graham Greene ( I spy) William Golding (The Lord of the flies)
  8. 8.  Main characteristics: Tendencies Neo- Romantic movement  Liberals and Humanitarians Influenced by Marxist ideology Period between the wars (I and II) Authors against capitalistic State Demand for greater rights and privileges for the commonmanImportant writers: G. B. Shaw (Pygmalion)- George Orwell(Animal Farm)
  9. 9.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness Stream of Consciousness is a literary technique which waspioneered by Dorthy Richardson, Virginia Woolf, and JamesJoyce. Stream of consciousness is characterized by a flow ofthoughts and images, which may not always appear to have acoherent structure or cohesion. The plot line may weave in andout of time and place, carrying the reader through the lifespan of a character or further along a timeline to incorporatethe lives (and thoughts) of characters from other timeperiods. Writers who create stream-of-consciousness worksof literature focus on the emotional and psychologicalprocesses that are taking place in the minds of one or morecharacters. Important character traits are revealed throughan exploration of what is going on in the mind. Also Known As:Interior Monologue.
  10. 10.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness The term was coined by William James Consciousness flows like a stream The flux of thought is continuosly changing Mental processes involvedDifferent levels of consciousness: (focus on the pre-speechlevel)
  11. 11.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness Speech level Involves communication Pre-speech level Not censored Not rationally controlled Not logically ordered Oblivion
  12. 12.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction) Individual’s psychic life The character’s mind Where the mind wished to go
  13. 13.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction) The range of memories Lack of punctuation Symbolism Interior monologue
  14. 14.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction)
  15. 15.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction)  The author is absent  Consciousness is presented to the reader with negligible author interference The character is not speaking to anyone within the fictional scene, not even to the reader
  16. 16.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction) The author intervenes between the character’s mind and the reader An omniscient narrator presents unspoken material as if it were the character’s thoughts
  17. 17.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction) An omniscient author describes the psychic content and processes of the character  The unusual thing is the object of description: consciousness
  18. 18.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (in fiction) Similar to interior monologue, but it is coherent The purpose is to communicate emotions and ideas to the reader
  19. 19.  What is Stream of Consciousness? Stream of Consciousness (important considerations) Moves freely in time Has the ability of synthesis Absorves interferences from outside and pssesthem on to the levels of consciousness
  20. 20.  What is Stream of Consciousness? Stream of Consciousness (important considerations)  Free association  The memory  The senses  The imagination
  21. 21.  What is Stream of Consciousness? Stream of Consciousness (important considerations)  Cinematic devices (to express movement and coexistence) MontageTo show interrelation and association of ideasSuccession or superimposition of images Slow-up –Fade out-Close up: to describe subjective detailsMechanical devices
  22. 22.  What is Stream of Consciousness? Stream of Consciousness (important considerations) The space remains  Time remains fixed fixed in time  Camera eye,  Superimposition of multiple view images  Occurrence of  Present, past and plural images at one future are intertwined point of time  FLASHBACKS
  23. 23.  What is Stream of Consciousness? Stream of Consciousness (important considerations)  Parenthesis  No punctuation at all (Ulysses J. Joyce)  Italics
  24. 24.  What is Stream of Consciousness?  Stream of Consciousness (important authors) Use Stream of Consciousness…For processes of inner to get an insight into the man’s mind to be satirized realization to show the incongruity of For cosmic his aspirations andidentification achievements
  25. 25.  Stream of Consciousness (important authors) “MRS. DALLOWAY” (1925)MRS. DALLOWAY said she would buy the flowers herself.For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges;Rumpelmayers men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what amorning-fresh as if issued to children on a beach.What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a littlesqueak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the Frenchwindows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stillerthan this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; thekiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was)solemn, feeling as she did, standing there at the open window, that somethingawful was about to happen; looking at the flowers, at the trees with the smokewinding off them and the rooks rising, falling; standing and looking until PeterWalsh said, "Musing among the vegetables?"-was that it?-"I prefer men tocauliflowers"-was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when shehad gone out on to the terrace-Peter Walsh. He would be back from India one o£these days, June or July, she forgot which, for his letters were awfully dull; it washis sayings one remembered; his eyes, his pocket-knife, his smile, hisgrumpiness and, when millions of things had utterly vanished-how strange itwas!-a few sayings like this about cabbages.
  26. 26.  Stream of Consciousness (important authors) “Ulisses” (1922)On the doorstep he felt in his hip pocket for the latchkey. Not there. In the trousers I left off.Must get it. Potato I have. Creaky wardrobe. No use disturbing her. She turned over sleepilythat time. He pulled the halldoor to after him very quietly, more, till the footleaf droppedgently over the threshold, a limp lid. Looked shut. All right till I come back anyhow.He crossed to the bright side, avoiding the loose cellarflap of number seventyfive. The sunwas nearing the steeple of Georges church. Be a warm day I fancy. Specially in these blackclothes feel it more. Black conducts, reflects (refracts is it?), the heat. But I couldnt go inthat light suit. Make a picnic of it. His eyelids sank quietly often as he walked in happywarmth. Bolands breadvan delivering with trays our daily but she prefers yesterdays loavesturnovers crisp crowns hot. Makes you feel young. Somewhere in the east: early morning:set off at dawn, travel round in front of the sun, steal a days march on him. Keep it up forever never grow a day older technically. Walk along a strand, strange land, come to a citygate, sentry there, old ranker too, old Tweedys big moustaches leaning on a long kind of aspear. Wander through awned streets. Turbaned faces going by. Dark caves of carpet shops,big man, Turko the terrible, seated crosslegged smoking a coiled pipe. Cries of sellers in thestreets. Drink water scented with fennel, sherbet. Wander along all day. Might meet a robberor two. Well, meet him. Getting on to sundown. The shadows of the mosques along thepillars: priest with a scroll rolled up. A shiver of the trees, signal, the evening wind. I passon. Fading gold sky. A mother watches from her doorway. She calls her children home intheir dark language. High wall: beyond strings twanged. Night sky moon, violet, colour ofMollys new garters. Strings. Listen. A girl playing one of these instruments what do you callthem: dulcimers. I pass
  27. 27. Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  28. 28.  How to analyse fiction 1 Physical or chronological events  It exists before the story is written  One or two sentences  Concrete nouns and dramatic symbols Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  29. 29.  How to analyse fiction 2 Connected to subject matter  Chronological sequence of events  It follows a line Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  30. 30.  How to analyse fiction 3 The meaning of the story  Not the moral  There might be different themes within a story Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  31. 31.  How to analyse fiction 4  Connected to theme  Parallel sequence of changes  There is always a conflict: moral or physical Stages: Beginning, middle and end Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  32. 32.  How to analyse fiction 5  Flat: Simple we know very little  Round: Complex, to many details  Static: they don’t change  Developing: They change/ self realization  Protagonist: central character in the story  Antagonist: conflicting character  Foil: opposite to the protagonist  Confidant: The protag. Tells him his secrects Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  33. 33.  How to analyse fiction 6  The element which reveals where and when  Neutral: No interest  Dynamic: assumes the role of a major character  Place and influence, social classes, time and religion  Atmosphere and symbols Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  34. 34.  How to analyse fiction 7  The attitude towards the subject matter  Discrepancy  Stated or sugested  Exageration  Purpose: For rhetorical effect Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  35. 35.  How to analyse fiction 7 The voice who tells the story Limited: 1st person (inside) 3rd person (outside)  Omniscient: knows everything, can be everywhere  Protagonist narrator: we only see what he sees Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  36. 36.  How to analyse fiction 8 The author’s way of using language Literary tendency  Diction: Choice of words  Imagery: Collection of images  Syntax: lengh of sentences, simple or complex Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
  37. 37. Power point presentation by Guillermo Torres 08
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