Differentiation in the science classroom Kristi Williams EDU 610 University of New England
What is differentiated assessment?• Differentiated assessment is a continuous process of data collection by teachers using a variety of assessments.• Teachers identify the individuality of students and address their needs and strengths from multiple activities before, during ,and after instruction. (Chapman and King, 2005)
What is differentiated instruction?• Differentiated instruction acknowledges that all students have varying amounts of background knowledge, ability levels, personalities, and interests that make each student different.• Differentiated instruction provides a variety of learning experiences to meet the diverse needs of students (Tomlinson, 2001).
In what areas should teachers differentiate?• CONTENT taking in information• PROCESS interpreting information• PRODUCT creating products to communicate what they learn (Tomlinson, 2001)
What is the teacher’s role in differentiated assessment?• The teacher is a facilitator monitoring student progress and supporting students when needed. (Tomlinson, 2001)
What are three things teachers need toassess in a mixed-ability classroom to plan instruction? • Learning profiles • Interests • Readiness levels (Tomlinson, 2001)
How do teachers understand each student’s learning style?• Multiple intelligence tests• Learning profile inventories• Learning environment preferences
What are Multiple Intelligences?• Howard Garner defined abilities or gifts as multiple intelligences in which he believes all humans possess in varying quantities.• These intelligences are different for each person as a result of genetic inheriting and environmental factors, and these profiles influence cognitive activities.http://pzweb.harvard.edu/PIs/HG_MI_after_20_years.pdf
What are the eight different kinds of multiple intelligences?• http://www.scribd.com/doc/8727642/Multiple-Intelligences-8-Ways-of-Being-Smart• Verbal-linguistic• Math-logic• Spatial• Bodily-kinesthetic• Musical• Interpersonal• Intrapersonal• Naturalist
How can teachers assess a student’s multiple intelligence?• http://www.scholastic.com/familymatters/par entguides/middleschool/quiz_learningstyles/i ndex.htm#error• http://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/LearningStyleI nv.html• http://people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning -style/stylest.html
What are some examples of questions a teacher might use in a learning profile inventory?• What are your strengths as a student?• What are your weaknesses as a student?• What is important to you at school?• What is important to you at home?• What do you want to learn more about?• What are your hopes and dreams for school this year?• What type of learning environment do you prefer?
What are examples of environmental learning preferences for students? •Small group •Partners •Independent •Quiet •Noisy •Warm •Cool •Light •Dark •Movement (Tomlinson, 2001) •Sitting still
What are some questions a teacher could ask to learn about a student’s interests?• What are your hobbies?• What is your favorite subject at school?• Do you participate in after school activities?• Do you have any collections?• Do you have any pets?• What is your favorite season of the year?
How can a teacher assess student readiness?• Pre-assessments of content (background knowledge)• Pre-assessment of skills• State Mastery Test scores (including subject tests)• Reading assessments from Reading Specialist
What are examples of content- based pre-assessments?•Name an example of a producer•Draw and label a food chain including plantsand animals•What does the word photosynthesis mean?
What are some examples of skill- based pre-assessments?•Create a Venn diagram comparing andcontrasting two objects found in the classroom•Create a bar graph with the information listedin the data table•Write a complete sentence describing whatthe word science means to you.•Draw an illustration to help explain youranswer.
What are some examples of differentiated instruction andassessment in the science classroom?•Flexible grouping•Learning centers or stations•Tiered lessons•Choice boards•http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/sciencedifferentation.asp•http://www.doe.in.gov/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/science/6SL.pdf•http://elearn.une.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_9608_1%26url%3D•http://www.e2c2.com/uploads/Tiered_Jigsaw%20centers_pdf.pdf•http://www.pealcenter.org/images/Hendrickson.Science_Think_Tac_Toe.pdf
How can I challenge all ability levels in the science classroom using Bloom’s Taxonomy?Choice boards can be based on MultipleIntelligences and Bloom’s Taxonomy.http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/Blooms_Gardner_Handout.pdfhttp://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Choice+Boards
What is an example of a Think Tac Toe board? Continued on the next pageName ______________________________________________Science Think Tac Toe due date: Parent signature _______________________________________Directions: Please select three activities in a tic-tac toe design by placing a check mark in the box. These activities are aligned withHoward Gardner’s multiple intelligences that we have been discussing in science class. You will have class time to complete theseassignments, but you may need to work at home if you think you will not meet the deadline. Verbal/linguistic Naturalist Visual/spatial RAFT activity Compare/contrast two macro- Create a hand-drawn poster orWrite a leter to our representative invertebrates we found in Assekonk PowerPoint presentation of plants andDiana Urban pretending to be an Pond in a Venn diagram. Please include animals found in Assekonk Pond. If youorganism living in Assekonk Pond or a four entries in each category of the would like to use pictures from thevernal pool in N.S. This letter must by Venn diagram and a picture of each Internet, you must provide the webtyped and include an illustration. Please organism. sites you used.use at least three of our vocabulary *You may complete this activity on the *Create a food web including arrowswords in your letter and address one of computer in a Microsoft Word document showing the direction of energy flowthe following problems: and include pictures from the Internet. *Label organisms with names and*an exotic species has been introduced *Please remember to include the web feeding levelsto your ecosystem and is threatening sites of your pictures. *Animals and plants must be living inyour niche Or Connecticut*an organism has been eliminated from Create a scavenger hunt with five ofyour food web the plants or animals we saw outside*Your habitat is threatened with a new when we went pond-dipping in Assekonkhousing development Pond. Please type the scavenger hunt and provide an illustration or a picture from the Internet (include the web sites you used)
Body/kinesthetic Free choice InterpersonalCreate a life-size organism of a macro- Plan a class discussion with the topic ofinvertebrate of your choice living in If you choose this inquiry activity, you your choice that is relevant to one ofAssekonk Pond. must have your idea approved by me. vocabulary words with a current event*All identification marks and adaptations found in the newspaper.must be included in your model and be *Please type at least three discussionready to share this natural history with questions for this activity and providethe class. the newspaper article. Or OrConstruct an ecosystem in a 2 liter Present this information in a PowerPointbottle. Please include plants and animals presentation for the class discussion.living in North Stonington. Please see mefor directions. Intrapersonal Logical/mathematical MusicalResearch information about an exotic Create a data table and a bar graph using Please create a science rap, rhyme orspecies threatening our native organisms Excel of the macro-invertebrates we jingle that will help someone rememberin Connecticut. Create a poster or collected at Assekonk Pond. at least three of our vocabulary words.PowerPoint presentation with newspaper Or *This activity must be typed and includearticles or information from the Create a PowerPoint to present this an illustration or a picture from theInternet. Please include the web sites information to the class. Internet.you used for your research and pictures. *All web sites used for research or Or pictures must be listed on your paper.Research the function and importance of Orvernal pools and examples of some of the Tape record or video tape your friendsanimals that depend on them for survival. singing your song to share with the class.Please create a poster or PowerPointpresentation to showcase your work.
How do I keep students on task whenthey are grouped with varying ability levels, interest levels, or completing independent work? Student learning contracts
How do student learning contracts work?•Student contracts are negotiated between theteacher and the student.•They establish expectations to help thestudent complete the assignment on time.This kind of ownership is empowering tostudents and encourages them to be engagedin their learning.•It also allows the teacher to be a facilitatorand to guide a student in the learning process. (Tomlinson, 1999)
What are some examples of differentiated assessment in the science classroom?• Authentic assessmentshttp://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/examples/authentictaskexamples.htm •Formative assessmentshttp://www.edutopia.org/blog/formative-assessments-importance-of-rebecca-alber •Tiered assessments •http://challengebychoice.wordpress.com/tiered-science-assessments/
Why should teachers use technology in the science classroom?• Virtual field trips allow students to leave the classroom without a permission slip• Video clips allow student to collect data along with other scientists• On-line quizzes help teachers assess comprehension without using paper and pencils• Interactive web sites encourage responsibility and independence• Electronic texts provide a different learning modality
What are some examples of digitallessons to use in the science classroom? • http://www.stroudcenter.org/research/index.shtm • http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/ • http://www.edtechmag.com/k12/issues/november- december-2007/waterworks.html • http://www.projectwild.org/ • http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/games/action games/geogames/ • http://exploretheblue.discoveryeducation.com/ • http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/explorations/a daptation/
Why should teachers have students reflect on their work?• Teaching children to assess their work habits help make students take more ownership over their learning and help increase self- esteem and motivation.• Teaching students about metacognition helps them evaluate their own learning process and helps them to understand what strategies they need to become successful in school. (Chapman and King, 2005).
What are some examples of self- reflective questions?•How many adjustments or changes did youmake? Tell me about one of them.•What obstacles did you overcome?•How will you do this differently next time?•Describe the easiest part.•Describe your least favorite part.•Tell about the most enjoyable part of theassessment activity. (Chapman and King, 2005)
What are the goals for students in a differentiated classroom?• To become independent and successful learners• To be aware of individual metacognition• To be engaged in meaningful activities• To challenge all ability levels• To challenge all multiple intelligences• To empower children (Chapman and King, 2005) (Tomlinson, 2001)
What are the goals for teachers in a differentiated classroom?• to create connections between teachers and students• to establish a safe learning environment• to gather information about students to foster the relationship between students and the teacher• to learn about students’ interests, hobbies, and multiple intelligence strengths and weaknesses.• to encourage students to become more independent learners by teaching them to assess their work habits and to make them more self sufficient. (Chapman and King, 2005)
How can science teachers learn more about differentiation?• http://differentiationcentral.com/videos.html• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJMkcL6D o0Q• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6P- XVPFXL4I• http://www.edutopia.org/stw-differentiated- instruction-learning-styles-video
References• Chapman, C. & King, R. (2005). Differentiated assessment strategies: One tool doesn’t fit all. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Inc.• Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.• Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.