Frederick Law Homestead Act- Act Olmsted- was passed by Landscape Congress, offered architect, started 160 acres of land the movement for free to any citizen planned urban who was the head parks. Helped of household. For draw plans for the next 40 years various parks families took and landscaping. advantage of this offer. 1850 1857 1862Soddy- A sod Bessemer process-home, were Developed bysmall, and offered Britishlittle light or air. manufacturer HenrySoddies were Bessemer andfireproof but William Kelly.leaked when it Method includedrained. Were injecting air intomade by pioneers molten iron andand removing carbonhomesteaders. and other impurities, used to produce Steel.
Transcontinental Railroad- This was railroads that extended west to the Mississippi River, crossed Missouri. Formed a golden spike, which marked the turning point for the nation, made other lines follow. 1862 1867 1868 1869Exoduster- Oliver Kelly- HeAfrican started Grange, Tammany Hall-Americans that organized this This was Newmoved from the because he York Cityspost- pushed for Democratic PartyReconstruction reformers. He political machine,South to Kansas. eventually started started by WilliamThousands of The Farmers M. Tweed. Thethese people Alliance, trying to Tweed Ring alsodealt with the help farmers. dealt with this.Homestead Actwhen settling.
Jacob Riis- Found work as a police reporter, and took Civil Service- Is a his work to the government slums of New administration that York City. He should go to the used his talents to most qualified expose the people, this was hardships of the believed by citys poor. reformers. Created the term Dumbbell Tenements. 1870 1871John D. Trust- Is a large Tweed Ring-Rockefeller- business, used by Started by TweedEstablished Rockefeller to and also dealtStandard Oil gain control of oil with TammanyCompany. He industry in Hall. Startedreaped huge America. having his friendsprofits by paying Companies were elected into office.in low wages. entitled toAlso, founded the dividends onRockefeller profits earned byFoundation. this.
Alexander Graham Bell- Invented the most dramatic invention for his time period, the Telephone. 1874 1876Great Plains- The George Thomas Alva Telephone-grassland Armstrong Edison- A Invented by Bell.extended through Cluster- He pioneer, Opened up thethe west. Federal fought against the established the way for worldwidegovernment Sioux and worlds first communicationspassed an act so Cheyenne, and research network. Thisthat it made the died along with laboratory. Also, affected officePlains a huge his men of the perfected work and createdreservation, set Seventh Cavalry. incandescent light jobs for women.aside for Native bulbs and entireAmericans. system for electrical power.
Dumbbell Grange- An Tenements- organization for These were farmers. Purpose overcrowded and was to provide a unsanitary social outlet and multifamily urban educational forum dwellings. After for isolated farm working class families. left, immigrants took over their housing. 1877 1878 1879 1870sNez Perce- A Homesteader- Long Drive- Thistribal group that Settlers on the is a overlandwas forced off free land of the transport of thetheir land. They Homestead Act. animals whichcame back 120 often lasted aboutyears later to three months.recover the land. IncludedNative Americans numerous peoplehad harmless to complete theinteractions with dangerous trip.Fremont andexpedition.
Melting Pot- A mixture of people of different cultures and races who are blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs. This was thought by Native-born Americans. 1870s Late 1870sNational Farmers Mark Twain- Longhorns-Alliance- Named Samuel Animals fromOrganized by Langhorne Texas, sturdy,Grange, group Clemens, a short temperedincluded many novelist and breedsothers who humorist. Inspired accustomed to thesympathized with over authors dry, grasslands offarmers. Alliances when he declared Southern Spain.sent out lectures his independence Were raised byto educate of "literature..." Spanish settlerspeople. who taught American settlers.
Joseph Pulitzer- Hungarian immigrant, bought the New York World, pioneered popular innovations. Pulitzer surpassed opponents by emphasizing "sin, sex, and sensation." 1881 1883Assimilation- Booker T. Sitting Bull-Were supported Washington- Was Leader of theby many a prominent Sioux, neversympathizers, a African American signed. Earnedplan under which educator, believed his name after aNative Americans that racism would fight with a crow.would give up end once blacks Led people by thetheir beliefs and acquired useful strength of hisway of life and labor skills and character andbecome apart of more, Headed purpose.white culture. Tuskegee Normal Surrendered to and Industrial the federal Institute. government.
Settlement house- Established by few reformers, community centers in slum neighborhoods. These provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants. 1886 1887Samuel Collective Dawes Act- WasGompers- Led Bargaining- A passed bythe Cigar Makers negotiation Congress, aimedInternational between at the NativeUnion. President representations of Americans. Thisof the American labor and act broke up theFederation of management, to reservations andLabor, focused on reach written gave some of thecollective agreements on land to individualbargaining. wages, and Natives. Gave various things, them 260 acres to Gompers AFL a family and less dealt with this for individuals. term.
Grandfather Clause- Added by several Southern states to their constitution. Stated that even if a man failed his literacy test or couldnt afford poll tax, could still vote, if father or grandfather had been eligible. 1888 1889George Eastman- Poll tax- an Jane Adams-He developed annual tax that One of the mostmore convenient had to be paid influentialalternatives to before qualifying members of theheavy glass to vote, even movement- Socialplates already applied to black Gospel, she andused. Introduced and white others foundedkodak camera, sharecroppers Chicagos Hullcreated a factory but were often too House.in Rochester to poor to pay.develop film forphotographers.Photojournalism.
Late 1870/80s 1880s Kickback- A Wild Bill Hickok- Political Machine-Segregation- To Jim Crow Laws- portion of the He served as a Offered servicesseparate white Laws after a earning to the scout and a spy to voters andand black people popular old minstrel machine. Illegal during the Civil businesses inin public and song that ended in payments for their War, then as a exchange forprivate facilities. the words "Jump services, marshal in political financialBlacks lost voting Jim Crow." Law enriched the Abilene, Kansas. support. Alsorights,Southern dealt with political machine. Hickok was a known as a groupstates passed segregation and violent man and that controlledlaws to enforce how the South put began the term of activities ofsegregation. them in effect "dead mans political party in a everywhere. hand", by getting city. shot while playing poker.
Angel Island- A Graft- The illegal place where mostly use of political Asian immigrants influence for had to pass personal gain. inspection at the San Francisco Bay. Immigrants endured harsh questionnaires in filthy buildings while awaiting decision. 1890Wounded Knee- A Sherman Antitrust Ellis Island-Abattle that brought Act- Act made it place wherethe Indian wars illegal to form a trust immigrants had toand entire era to a that interfered with pass inspectors atbitter end. Battle free trade between immigrantwas against states or with other stations. OrdealSeventh Cavalry countries. that could take upand Sioux, Seventh Eventually to five hours orCavalry won. government stopped more. Happened trying to enforce act. at New York Harbor, Island became chief station.
Eugene V. Debs- He made the first major attempt to form an industrial union, the American Railway Union. 1892 1894 1895Ida B. Wells- She Scab- Also known as W.E.B. Dubois-was born into Strikebreakers, who He was the firstslavery, before were hired to keep African Americanemancipation. operating while to receive aMoved to Memphis guards from doctorate fromand worked as a Detective Agency to Harvard. He alsoteacher, later protect the plant. founded thebecame a editor. Scabs were hired by NiagaraHer theme was Pullman by ended up Movement inRadical Justice. firing most of them 1905. because of President Cleveland.
Bimetallism- A monetary system in which government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks. Favored by "silverites- farmers and laborers. 1896 1898 1899 Late 1890s Andrew Carnegie-William Mckinley- William Jennings William Randolph He became aHe was nominated Bryan- He was Hearst- Was a private secretary atfor the 1896 nominated for the wealthy man, Penn. Railroad.Presidential 1896 Presidential already owned the With help from hiscampaign, campaign, San Francisco boss CarnegieRepublican Party. Democratic Party. Examiner. Hearst began his fortune inhe had a firm Had a difficult purchased Journal stock. First of thecommitment to the campaign, leaked to outdo Pulitzer by industrial moguls togold standard. support and lost filling his Journal make his ownWon election, with the election to with exaggerated fortune. Establishedhelp of votes from Mckinley. tales of personal Carnegie Steelthe west. scandals and more. Company.
Orville and Wilbur Urbanization-The Wright- Brothers growth of cities that were the first mostly in the to have a regions of the successful flight in Northeast and North Carolina. Midwest. This Inspired the U.S. was a rapid government to process due to established first the contribution of transcontinental technology. airmail service.Late 1800s Late 19th 1901 1903 1911 Century Monopoly- A Debt Peonage-ASocial Darwinism- complete system thatDerived from the controller of its bound laborersnaturalist Charles industrys into slavery inDarwins theory of production, order to work offbiological wages, and a debt to theevolution. Theory others. Was a employer. Mostlywas well liked by way to be set up Mexicans andEconomist, it was by buying out the Africana way to justify the stock of other Americans weredoctrine of laissez companies. forced into this.faire. Headed by banker J.P. Morgan.