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Decolonization in a Global Context

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A melange of theory and case studies useful for the study of AP and IB decolonization within the context of globalization.

A melange of theory and case studies useful for the study of AP and IB decolonization within the context of globalization.

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  • 1. Decolonization Overview  Theories of World Analysis: Decolonization  Imperialism and Decolonization Overview: 
  • 2. Theories of World Analysis Focus: Decolonization How did the world get to be the way it is today? (And is it fair?)
  • 3. Colonized Voices Can the subaltern speak?
  • 4. As we listen to the following voices…  Choose a voice that most speaks to you if you can. Choose several if several speak to you equally.  Make a list of these leaders’ and writers’ frustrations, analyses and desires.  Compare their frustrations, analyses and desires to your own, especially those evoked during our simulation.  Which do you most associate with your own feelings on imperialism/colonization?  What connections to other historical events and theories can you make?
  • 5. Vaclav Havel-Czechoslovakia  Life cannot be destroyed for good, neither ... can history be brought entirely to a halt. A secret streamlet trickles on beneath the heavy lid of inertia and pseudo-events, slowly and inconspicuously undercutting it. It may be a long process, but one day it must happen: the lid will no longer hold and will start to crack. This is the moment when something once more begins visibly to happen, something truly new and unique ... something truly historical, in the sense that history again demands to be heard.  Open letter to Dr. Gustáv Husák, Communist President (8 April 1975)
  • 6. World Studies & World Analysis  Frameworks for how the world has evolved  Often economic as much as historical  World-systems theory  Globalization  Human Web  Clash of Civilizations  Imperial hegemons/vacuums  Decolonization~Neo-Colonialism  Kant-Fukuyama “End of History”
  • 7. World-System Theory  Immanuel Wallerstein (70s and 80s)  Favored by Marxists and Asianists  “Re-Orients” world history to an Asia-centric perspective  International division of labor:  Core states  (Britain)  Semi-Periphery  (Spain/Ottoman Empire)  Periphery  (India)  (19th Century Example)  Imperial/post-colonial history
  • 8. Global Patron National/Regional Client (Patron to local authorities) Local Client (Patron to producing classes) The Dependency Hierarchy Producing Classes (Patronized by the hierarchy) Collaborative Elites
  • 9. UN HDI (Human Development Index)
  • 10. Comparative Colonialisms  Which of the following qualify as decolonization issues?  According to you…  According to Springhall…  According to the IB…  What accounts for the difference? What is the role of the historian in defining struggles for independence?
  • 11. Colonized Voices Can the subaltern speak?
  • 12. Reactions and Reflections  Which did you react to the most strongly?  Which do you most associate with your own feelings on imperialism/colonization?  What connections to other historical event and theories can you make?
  • 13. Vaclav Havel  Life cannot be destroyed for good, neither ... can history be brought entirely to a halt. A secret streamlet trickles on beneath the heavy lid of inertia and pseudo-events, slowly and inconspicuously undercutting it. It may be a long process, but one day it must happen: the lid will no longer hold and will start to crack. This is the moment when something once more begins visibly to happen, something truly new and unique ... something truly historical, in the sense that history again demands to be heard.  Open letter to Dr. Gustáv Husák, Communist President (8 April 1975)
  • 14. Comparative Colonialisms  Which of the previous qualify as decolonization issues?  According to you…  According to Springhall…  According to the IB  What accounts for the difference?
  • 15. “Limitations and Values”  Debates  Before European Hegemony?  500 years or 5000?  Over-simplification?  Complicated by the growth of multi-nationals  Uses  Framework of power  Structuralism  “Haves and have nots”  Reinforces “soft” history with economic analysis
  • 16. Clash of Civilizations?
  • 17. “Up and Comers”?
  • 18. Post-World System? New WS?
  • 19. World Systems Theory  Video 1  Hugo Chavez 2  Che  FHC
  • 20. Essential Questions  What are some of the theoretical frameworks economists have suggested for understanding Latin American development?  Structurally, what has been the role of the United States in the development of Latin America?  Which framework do you think is best for Latin America? You may suggest a possibility not addressed here.  Please write a critical summary of the lecture in which you make a sincere attempt to answer the questions above. Endeavor to incorporate Research readings and Fieldwork materials in your analysis.
  • 21. “Inner National System”
  • 22. “Inner National System”
  • 23. Inner National System
  • 24. “Inner National System”  Interpretation of world-system  USA, China, Brazil, etc.  Core, Semi-Periphery, Periphery in one nation-state  Usually urban cores of economic/political power  Semi-peripheral areas: satellite cities, suburbs  consumers  Rural zones providing labor/raw materials  Draws on theories mentioned here & other theorists (Zinn’s “inner buffer state”)  --WJT.
  • 25. World Systems and Latin America  1492: Latin American integration into the world system  Columbian Exchange  Triangular Trade  Devastating impact  16th -19th Centuries: Periphery to Spain/Portugal  19th-20th Centuries: Periphery to Britain/USA  20th Century: Periphery to USA  21st Century: ??? BRIC? Semi-periphery? New World system?
  • 26. 20th Century Theorists  UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA/CEPAL)  Headed by Argentine economist RaúlPrebisch(60s-70s)  Interpretation: “Dependency theory”  CelsoFurtado (also in ECLA) applied these theories to Brazil  Debate ongoing: Capitalism or Socialism?
  • 27. 20th Century Theorists, Cont.  Recognize him?  Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC)  Sociologist/Economist/President  Variant of dependency theory— not strictly negative  Saw in growth during military client stage potential for Brazil’s development with foreign monopolies present  “Dependent capitalist development” or “Associated dependent development”  End of Brazilian economic miracle
  • 28. Iran, Latin America construct new world system  During the Cold War era, Latin America (with the exception of Cuba) was considered to be under America's 'sphere of influence'. Latin American people suffered from US imperialistic policies for more than two centuries. During Iran's Islamic Revolution, Latin America witnessed the collapse of the Shah's regime that had given away the wealth of the country to the US and Britain. Latin America saw the unstoppable Iranian people, who took over the streets following the call of Imam Khomeini. Latin America realized that they should pay attention to a country capable of overthrowing such a regime, and one that could end US domination. The recent popular revolutions that have taken place across Latin America, and which have brought to power true national leaders such as Evo Morales and Hugo Chavez illustrate that Iran and Latin America have much in common. The West is threatened by the relationships that are emerging between Latin America and Iran, and has condemned them. Thomas Shannon, the senior US official for Latin America, said recently that Iran was making allies in the region to counter Washington's traditional influence and could use such relations to threaten US security. He urged Latin American governments to comply with US sanctions against Iran and called them to be "vigilant". Immanuel Wallerstein, professor emeritus at Yale and director of the FernandBraudel Center in New York, argues that the Bush administration's endless wars have exposed the limits of American power. US hegemony is coming to an irreversible end, revealing, Wallerstein says, "multiple poles of geopolitical power". He predicts that we are entering "a situation of structural crisis towards the construction of a new world system [with no hegemonic power]." In this new system, Iran and Latin America can play a decisive role in international politics. They own important energy resources, educated
  • 29. Dependency Theory  Think of it in terms of human relationships:  Power is the ability to make others do things they wouldn’t otherwise want to do.  The basis of power is dependency  Person B depends on Person A if B has goals and needs that A can fulfill.  Person A controls Person B’s access to the “commodity” they need, therefore controlling B’s behavior/resources.  B’s dependency on A is related to both supply and demand.  Demand refers to how much B needs what A controls. (This could be validation, oil, affirmation, salary, “love”, a promotion or even a “connection to God!”)  Supply refers to the availability, quality and cost of alternative means of satisfying those needs that are in demand.  In other words, how easy/difficult it is for B to go elsewhere and gain the “commodity” A controls.
  • 30. A Hierarchy of Dependency  Specifically for Latin America and United States  But can be applied to other global relationships  Form of Patron-Client relationship  Complexity of Patrons: USA or McDonald’s?
  • 31. The Scramble for Grades  Tomorrow, you will be competing in a Knowledge Bowl competition to earn the chance to get extra-credit points for your quarter grade. Today, we will compete in a warm-up exercise whose winners will earn a great advantage in tomorrow’s game. Winning today is essential for winning tomorrow, thus earning a higher grade. You are now seated in three groups each with different colored mini-blocks:  Large Group: Green blocks. Place one on your desk and take three more. Keep them handy and do not throw them away.  Medium Group:Blue blocks. Place one on your desk and take three more. Keep them handy and do not throw them away.  Small Group: Red blocks. Place one on your desk and take three more. Keep them handy and do not throw them away.
  • 32. Introduction to Colonization & Decolonization: Case Studies in Modern Africa and Asia Colonization in 1945
  • 33. Terms  colonialism: one country’s domination of another country or people, usually achieved through aggressive actions; involves formal political control of one country over another  colony: the territory acquired, usually through aggressive actions  colonization: the act of colonizing  imperialism: similar to colonialism but used more broadly to refer to political or economic control exercised either formally or informally  new imperialism: period of European imperialism involving extension of formal political control in Africa and Asia, 1870-1914  decolonization: process of granting independence to a colony; refers particularly to the period after WWII when European colonies in Africa and Asia achieved independence
  • 34. History of Imperialism – Periods: I. Imperialism before 1450 II. Age of European Exploration & Early Modern European Imperialism (1450-1700) III. European Merchant Empires (1700-1815) IV. Imperialism of Free Trade (1815-1870) V. New Imperialism (1870-1914) VI. Mandates (post-WWI) & Trusts (post-WWII) VII. Decolonization (1945-1970) VIII. Modern Economic Imperialism & Neocolonialism
  • 35. I. Imperialism before 1450  one state attempts to dominate all others through unified system of control  new territories usually adjacent or nearly adjacent to imperial center
  • 36. Alexander the Great’s Empire, 320 B.C.
  • 37. Roman Empire, 117 C.E.
  • 38. Mongol Empire, late 1200s
  • 39. Ottoman Empire, 1300-1699
  • 40. Aztec Empire, 1400s-1521
  • 41. II. Age of European Exploration & Early Modern European Imperialism (1450- 1700)  emerging European nation-states compete for political and economic power  drives exploration of and expansion into new lands  extension of formal political control over territories  new territories typically overseas – in S and SE Asia and New World
  • 42. Why? ECONOMIC/POLITICAL POWER  desire for products  mercantilism – control trade of colonies in order to reap benefits  trade as war
  • 43. Trading Companies  British East India Company (1600)  Dutch East India Company (1602)  Dutch West India Company (1621)
  • 44. Why? GOD (i.e. RELIGION)
  • 45. Who? 1. Portugal (1415) 2. Spain 3. Netherlands, England, France
  • 46. In 1492 …. … Columbus sailed the ocean blue …
  • 47. … and the lucky guy ran into a giant heap of dirt in the way of his targeted destination. Result: Spain builds a colonial empire in the so-called “New World.”
  • 48. Going back a bit to 1488 … Bartholomeu Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope
  • 49. And in 1498… Vasco da Gama rounds the southernmost tip of Africa... … and reaches India via the sea
  • 50. Portuguese Empire, at maximum extent in the 16th c.
  • 51. Spanish Empire in 1770
  • 52. Dutch Colonies, 17th c.
  • 53. British Colonies in North America, 1763-1775
  • 54. French Colonial Empire Key light blue = first empire of 1600s-1700s; dark blue = second empire, built after 1830
  • 55. III. European Merchant Empires (1700-1815)  by 18th c. European exploration and expansion resulted in the creation of powerful sea-based empires  world system = area where different cultures are related through commercial and other interactions
  • 56. 3 world systems North Atlantic South Atlantic Indian Ocean
  • 57. North Atlantic system  regions: Western Europe, Russia, the Baltic, Scandinavia, Newfoundland, Canada and northeastern USA  colonial powers: French, Dutch, English  main products: timber, fish, fur
  • 58. South Atlantic system  regions: South and Central America, Brazil, Caribbean, West Africa, southeastern USA  colonial powers: Spanish, Portuguese, English  main products: silver, sugar, tobacco, African slaves, cotton
  • 59. Indian Ocean system  regions: South and Southeast Asia, East Africa  colonial power: Britain  main products: spices, silk, other luxury goods
  • 60. IV. Imperialism of Free Trade (1815-1870)  extension of informal influence (namely economic) rather than asserting formal political control  driven by capitalism  product of Industrial Revolution (begins in Britain ca. 1780)  Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • 61. “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
  • 62. V. New Imperialism (1870-1914)  states resume extending formal political control, not just economic or diplomatic influence  territories acquired in Africa and Asia  still driven by capitalism
  • 63. Imperialism in Africa, 1914
  • 64. Imperialism in Asia, 1914
  • 65. VI. Mandates (post-WWI) & Trusts (post-WWII)  League of Nations mandates – transferred control of German and Ottoman colonies to WWI victors  United Nations Trust Territories – successors to mandates when UN replaced League of Nations in 1946  colonial power required to set target date for trust’s independence
  • 66. League of Nations mandates in Africa, the Middle East, and the Pacific
  • 67. VII. Decolonization (1945-1970)
  • 68. VIII. Modern Economic Imperialism & Neocolonialism economic domination: the domination by a powerful, usually Western nation of another nation that is politically independent but has a weak economy greatly dependent on trade with the powerful nation
  • 69. 105
  • 70. Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building  Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920s and 1930s.  Process continues between 1920- 1980; incomplete colonialisms continue to exist according to some arguments 106
  • 71. Definitions I  Colonialism  colonialism: one country’s domination of another country or people, usually achieved through aggressive actions; involves formal political control of one country over another  Imperialism  imperialism: similar to colonialism but used more broadly to refer to political or economic control exercised either formally or informally  new imperialism: period of European imperialism involving extension of formal political control in Africa and Asia, 1870-1914  Decolonization  decolonization: process of granting independence to a colony; refers particularly to the period after WWII when European colonies in Africa and Asia achieved independence
  • 72. Definitions II  Hegemony  An indirect form of imperial dominance in which the hegemon (leader state) rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means of power rather than direct military force.
  • 73. Definitions III  Dependence (-y theory)  The premises of dependency theory are that:  Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets for developed nations, without which the latter could not have the standard of living they enjoy.  Wealthy nations actively perpetuate a state of dependence by various means. This influence may be multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, culture, sport, and all aspects of human resource development (including recruitment and training of workers).  Wealthy nations actively counter attempts by dependent nations to resist their influences by means of economic sanctions and/or the use of military force.
  • 74. Definitions III.1  According to former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso  there is a financial and technological penetration by the developed capitalist centers of the countries of the periphery and semi-periphery;  this produces an unbalanced economic structure both within the peripheral societies and between them and the centers;  this leads to limitations on self-sustained growth in the periphery;  this favors the appearance of specific patterns of class relations;  these require modifications in the role of the state to guarantee both the functioning of the economy and the political articulation of a society, which contains, within itself, foci of inarticulateness and structural imbalance
  • 75. Definitions IV  World System (Theory)  World-systems theory stresses that the world-system (and not nation states) should be the basic unit of social analysis. World-system refers to the international division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries and the periphery countries. Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials. This constantly reinforces the dominance of the core countries. Nonetheless, the system is dynamic, and individual states can gain or lose the core (semi-periphery, periphery) status over time. For a time, some countries become the world hegemon; throughout last few centuries, this status has passed from the Netherlands, to the United Kingdom and most recently, the United States.
  • 76. Definitions IV.1  World-system theory asks several key questions:  how is the world-system affected by the changes in its components (nations, ethnic groups, social classes, etc.)?  how does the world-system affects its components?  to what degree, if any, does the core need the periphery to be underdeveloped?  what causes the world-systems to change?  what system may replace capitalism? Some questions are more specific to certain subfields; for example, Marxists would concern themselves whether the world-system theory is a useful or unhelpful development of Marxist theories
  • 77. Definitions V  Neo-Colonialism  the practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural forces to control a country (usually former European colonies in Africa or Asia) in lieu of direct military or political control. Such control can be economic, cultural, or linguistic; by promoting one's own culture, language or media in the colony, corporations embedded in that culture can then make greater headway in opening the markets in those countries. Thus, neocolonialism would be the end result of business interests leading to deleterious cultural effects
  • 78. Definitions V.1  As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism."  Che Guevara  In place of colonialism as the main instrument of imperialism we have today neo-colonialism. [...] Neo-colonialism, like colonialism, is an attempt to export the social conflicts of the capitalist countries. The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world. Investment under neo-colonialism increases rather than decreases the gap between the rich and the poor countries of the world. The struggle against neo-colonialism is not aimed at excluding the capital of the developed world from operating in less developed countries. It is aimed at preventing the financial power of the developed countries being used in such a way as to impoverish the less developed  Kwame Nkrumah, Neocolonialism, the Last Stage of Capitalism
  • 79. Colonial Empires in 1898
  • 80. Colonial Empires in 1945
  • 81. UN Human Development Report 2010
  • 82. World System Theory Depiction of the Modern World
  • 83. Patterns I  Three general overarching patterns: 1. Civil war (China) 2. Negotiated independence (India and much of Africa) 3. Incomplete and/or violent de- colonization (Palestine, Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam)
  • 84. Patterns II Violent vs. non-Violent Resistance Algeria & Vietnam vs. India Active Resistors v. Passive Victims Bystanding issues
  • 85. Failed Traditional Rebellion (Late 19th and early 20th Centuries [Philippines, South Africa, Sudan, India China, etc.]) Western Inspired Nationalist Movement (Leaders & Goals) WWI, WWII, Cold War Independence Violent or Non-violent (Events/Methods) Resurgence of Indigenous Challenges (Major Problems) Building a Nation-State (Structure of new Gov’t) Modern, but not Western Society DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM 1914-Present
  • 86. Explanations  Internationalist explanations  The influence of the United Nations, the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement and other international influences and support networks  Nationalist explanations  The influence of nationalism and national movements  Metropolitan explanations  Reasons stemming from the political, economic and ideological developments of the colonial metropoles  Collaborative elites  The role of collaborative elites both in maintaining and ending empire; and in neo-colonial power structures
  • 87. Theories Analysis itself becomes politics; interpretation acquires the undertones of a polemic ... marking our own text with the signs of battle. PARTHA CHATTERJEE, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World
  • 88. Theories—General Perspective Concepts Examples Orthodox European Agency Metropolitan explanations based on European source material; political and economic reasons—also moral ones: apologists for empire? • John Darwin: economic and political reasons for Brit empire to leave • Jacque Marseille: Pins the point of no return on the Great Depression Revisionist Colonial Agency Speaking for those unable to speak, excentricly (Collaborative elites) or radically (deconstruction of literature, thought, perspective; also: Local attempts to reclaim history—emphasize emancipation • Springhall and Chamberlain (CEs) • Spivak, Fanon, Said, Gramsci • Wallerstein, et al. • Maulana Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed Azad Post- Revisionist Joint Agency? Calls for a synthesis of approaches, still not well laid out—no comprehensive school or approach. However…”post- colonial globalization” • A.G. Hopkins
  • 89. New Thoughts: A. G. Hopkins …the study of decolonization needs to be extended beyond Africa and Asia to include the old dominions. The subject needs to become truly global because, to complete the argument, decolonization was a response to changes in the process of globalization after the Second World War. The dialectic of empire had begun by promoting a form of imperial globalization that subordinated outlying regions and integrated them with a dominant metropolitan centre. Structures of dependence put in place in the nineteenth century survived the upheaval of the Second World War and were perpetuated for a decade after 1945. Hierarchical imperial systems were then subverted by a mixture of ideological and material forces that emerged in the mid 1950s, partly as a result of developments arising from imperial rule and partly in reaction to them. The propagation and implementation of principles of human and civil rights undercut systems of domination based on claimed ethnic superiority; profound changes to the world economy reduced the value of colonial forms of integration and created new alignments; principles of civic nationality were adopted to meet the needs of an increasingly cosmopolitan world. The result was a novel synthesis, post-colonial globalization, which washed over and eventually eroded the boundaries that had marked out both Greater Britain and the colonial dependencies.
  • 90. Theories—Specific  Subalterns: Spivak  Post-Colonial Studies and Power (literary criticism): Fanon, Said  Negritude: Léopold Sédar Senghor  Nationalist Explanations: Springhall, Chamberlain, Anderson  Springhall and Chamberlain are not restricted to this one idea  World Systems Theory  Springing from the Annales school (New regional interpretations)
  • 91. Structural Analysis I  Comparison  French v. English decolonization patterns  Peaceful v. Violent decolonization patterns  Civil War v. Negotiated v. Incomplete patterns
  • 92. Structural Analysis 2  Categorization/Classification  Determining examples of:  Negotiated independence  Nationalist/metropolitan/internationalist explanations  Collaborative elites explanations  When does colonialism become neocolonialism?
  • 93. Structural Analysis 3  Construction (of parameters)  When does decolonization begin?  When does it end?  Has it ended?  Where did decolonization take place?  USA?  Soviet Union?  Korea?  Ireland?
  • 94. Structural Analysis 4  Contextualization  How does the process of decolonization fit in the larger history of the 20th Century? (And further back.)  What impact did the Cold War have on decolonization?  What impact did the United Nations have on decolonization?  What impact did the non-Aligned movement have o decolonization?  What impact did the post WWI and post WWII economic and political status quos have on decolonization?  What theories and perspectives do these questions speak to?
  • 95. Structural Analysis 5  Causality  A myriad of possibilities  Which can we think of?
  • 96. Structural Analysis 6  Complexity  Understanding the processes of decolonization in the context of:  The Cold War  The End of European Hegemony  The varying strands of international communism and socialism (China, Vietnam, Ghana, Cuba etc.)  Globalization  Resurgence of Islam and Islamic states  Individual idiosyncrasies: Gandhi in South Africa, etc.
  • 97. Structural Analysis 7  Change and Continuity over time  How do DAPI structures  (Desire  Acquisition  Power  Identity)  Resistance movements  ..change and remain the same over time (le longue duree)  …and 19th-20th Century…
  • 98. Structural Analysis 8  Coincidence  Great Depression coincides with rising self-rule sentiment  Leaders educated in metropoles (HCM, Gandhi, etc.)
  • 99. Structural Analysis 9  Contingency  Also multiple, almost endless possibilities  Which can we think of?
  • 100. Structural Analysis 10  Conjuncture  Conjunctures of  Education/Diffusion  Rise of Superpowers  End of Empire  World Wars
  • 101. Structural Analysis 11  Convergence (Synthesis)  Communism and decolonization  Nationalism and decolonization  Islam (and other religions) and decolonization  Syntheses of all of the above…  All of the theories we have read…
  • 102. Structural Analysis 12  Creation  What new theories, observations and syntheses can you make based on your reading of the documents, data and theory of decolonization?
  • 103. Beginnings
  • 104. Pre-WWII  1931, Britain: Statute of Westminster  converted the British Empire into the British Commonwealth  also allowed varying degrees of autonomy 140
  • 105. End of WWII  1941 – Atlantic Charter written by Roosevelt and Churchill – affirming all nations the right self determination  By the end of WWII, colonialism seemed to contradict the spirit of the Allies fight against Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy  Over 200,000 Africans had fought in Europe and Asia for the Allies’ freedom and democracy – most noticed the contradiction  Most also learned that they could fight, and win, against white Europeans 141
  • 106. End of WWII  In 1945, the 5th Pan African Congress met and discussed the prospect of independence – attending were a number of leaders who would eventually lead their nations to independence  In the years immediately after the war, several colonies had achieved independence or were on the road to independence in north east Africa, some peacefully, others not 142
  • 107. End of WWII  Started a new pan-African nationalism that would spread throughout continent  In 1960 the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1514 that supported the end of colonization 143
  • 108. Global Events influential in Decolonization Imperialism Growing Nationalism World War I World War II Cold War
  • 109. World War I Promises of self-determination Use of colonial soldiers in trenches Locals filled posts left by colonial powers during war Financial strain on empire Treaty of Versailles
  • 110. World War II Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI and as a result of the global depression Costs of empire US support of anti-colonial liberation movements Atlantic Charter (1941) “right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live” Soviets condemned colonialism
  • 111. Atlantic Charter, 1941
  • 112. Cold War Provided inspiration a blend of capitalist and socialist economies and agendas. Provided arms to those who sided with one or the other (proxy wars and arms races). Encouraged violent recourse for some as a result of the power politics of cold war competition.
  • 113. Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. Three patterns: 1. Civil war (China) 2. Negotiated independence (India and much of Africa) 3. Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam)
  • 114. China Case study Japanese invasion interrupted the 1920’s and 1930’s conflict between the Communists (Mao Zedong) and the Nationalists in China (Chiang Kai- shek)
  • 115. China Case study During the war,Communists expanded peasant base, using appeals for women (health care, divorce rights, education access, graduated taxes, cooperative farming). Growth of party during the war in part through use of anti-Japanese propaganda. Resumption of civil war after Japanese surrender. 1949 Great People’s Revolution- Mao Nationalist leaders fled to Taiwan.
  • 116. Negotiated Independence in India and Africa Independence with little bloodshed in India and much of colonial Africa in decades following World War II. Why? At what cost?
  • 117. India Case Study Background India and other Asian colonies were the first to establish independence movements. Western-educated minorities organized politically to bring about the end of modification of colonial regimes.
  • 118. India: History of the Movement Indian National Congress party founded in 1885. (Elite group not mass movement) Growth of Indian national identity- presented grievances to the British. Congress party attracted mass following which opposed shift from the production of food to commercial crops. Gandhi and Congress leadership tried to prevent mass peasant uprising (as was happening in China) by keeping power centered on middle class leaders.
  • 119. Militant Nationalists B.G. Tilak urged a boycott of British manufactured goods and used threats of terrorism. Attracted a violent conservative Hindu following. Tilak was exiled and his movement was repressed by the British.
  • 120. Peaceful Protests Mohandas Gandhi and other western educated lawyers led peaceful alternative. Nation-wide protest against colonialism through boycotts and campaigns of civil resistance. His efforts were not well received by the Muslims who formed a separate organization in 1906, The Muslim League. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League) insisted on partitioned state (Hindu and Muslim).
  • 121. Continued Indian Resistance Salt March, 1931 Government of India Act 1935
  • 122. Indian Independence August 1947 Pakistan and India gained independence. Mass killings of Muslims and Hindus (1 million) followed by mass migrations (12 million). (Gandhi fasted to prevent war- > assassination) Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister,began modernization campaign.
  • 123. Decolonization in the Middle East- Palestine and Israel Zionism 1917 Balfour Declaration Immigration of Jews to Palestine European Holocaust Increase of migration 1947- end of British mandate of Palestine and failed UN partition solution 1948 establishment of Israel Regional conflicts->
  • 124. Egypt 1906 Dinshawai incident aroused nationalist passions. Actions post- Indep (1936) not sufficient. Coup d’etat in 1952 Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalization of Suez 1956 protested by Israelis, British and French but diplomacy won over eventually. Nasser= symbol of pan-Arab nationalism.
  • 125. Africa for Africans Nationalists composed of ex- servicemen, urban unemployed & under-employed, and the educated. Pan-Africanism and Negritude Senghor (Senegal) and Dubois (African-American)
  • 126. De-colonization in Africa 1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah. By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent.
  • 127. De-colonization in French-ruled Africa Initially more resistant than the British. Encouraged closer French ties- assimilation, not autonomy. Not willing to go far enough in granting rights. With exception of Algeria, by 1960 had granted independence.
  • 128. Leopold Sedar Senghor Western educated Francophone intellectual from Senegal Poet who became first president of Senegal. Advocated democratic socialism and negritude. Negritude: validation of African culture and the African past by the Negritude poets. Recognized attributes of French culture but were not willing to be assimilated into Europe.
  • 129. Violent and Incomplete Decolonizations Presence of European immigrant groups impeded negotiations, leading to violence. For example, Kenya, Palestine, Algeria, and southern Africa Vietnam’s de-colonization complicated by France’s colonial ties and cold war politics.
  • 130. Kenya Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. 1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta.
  • 131. Algeria Appeal of Arab nationalism Large French settler population 1954- 1962 war between FLN (nationalist party) and French troops “part of France” 300,000 lives
  • 132. South Africa 4 million white residents Afrikaner-dominated (white) National Party won 1948 election Apartheid No protests tolerated (African National Congress, Mandela, Sharpeville massacre 1960) 1990’s black government elected
  • 133. Vietnam French rule since 1880’s –rice, mining, and rubber exports Rise of foreign educated intelligentsia (Ho Chi Minh) Formation of Viet Minh in 1941 Guerrilla War with France (1946-1954) Divided country in 1954 led to gradual US entry to contain communism.
  • 134. Women as leaders in the Movement Women fought alongside men in whatever capacities were permitted in Algeria, Egypt, China, Vietnam,India and elsewhere. China, 1942: “ The fighting record of our women does not permit us to believe that they will ever again allow themselves to be enslaved whether by a national enemy or by social reaction at home.” Women given constitutional rights but social and economic equality rarely achieved in postcolonial developing nations.
  • 135. Literature and Decolonization Expressions of nationalism and rejections of western superiority. Gandhi, “ I make bold to say that the Europeans themselves will have to remodel their outlooks if they are not to perish under the weight of the comforts to which they are becoming slaves.” Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart Senghor, “Snow upon Paris” Aime Cesaire, West Indian poet, founder of Negritude “Return to my Native Land”
  • 136. International Organizations and Decolonization League of Nations United Nations Organization of African Unity (1963)
  • 137. Fall of Empire: Fall out and Legacy Colonial footprint Problems of Transition Problems of Identity
  • 138. The Impact of Globalization
  • 139. Who would stop the Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere (1939)?
  • 140. How Was Japan Defeated? At What Cost??
  • 141. Results of World War II Defeat of dictatorships. Unparalleled destruction. The decline of colonial powers. The rise of the superpowers and the Cold War.
  • 142. Defeat of Dictatorships Germany, Japan, and Italy were occupied and turned into democratic, peaceful nations.
  • 143. Unparalelled Destruction Much of Europe, North Africa and East Asia lay in ruins. Total war had destroyed cities, factories, railroads, homes – and lives.
  • 144. The Decline of the Colonial Powers
  • 145. The Rise of the Superpowers
  • 146. And the Cold War
  • 147. With Its “Iron Curtain”
  • 148. And Its Arms Race!
  • 149. Made a United Nations Essential, But….
  • 150. Permanent Members Have Veto Power Associated Press "I came, I saw, I vetoed" The Economist United States. United Kingdom. France. Russia. Nationalist China (Taiwan) until 1972.(US recognition) The Permanent 5
  • 151. In the U. N. Security Council
  • 152. And Remained Divided by Cold War Issues
  • 153. Decolonization of Asia & Africa Changed the Makeup of the UN
  • 154. First, Second, & Third Worlds with a North-South Divide
  • 155. Africa Produced Many Newly- Independent Nations in a Very Short Time
  • 156. who often found themselves caught in a battle between the two superpowers
  • 157. British Colonies Were Some of the First to Seek Independence becauseBritain felt hypocritical about colonialism. War left her weak and unable to afford colonies. A New African educated middle class began to emerge in the cities.
  • 158. Ghana: First African State to Gain Independence
  • 159. Kwame Nkrumah Led the Former Gold Coast to Independence Educated abroad. Schoolteacher. Preached nonviolence. Used boycotts and strikes. Ultimately successful 1957.
  • 160. Ghana still a victim of the world-system? Market in Kumasi. Sells shoes crafted from old automobile tires. Sprawls across 25 dusty acres in ancient Ashanti capital. One of the largest marketplaces in West Africa.
  • 161. Kenya
  • 162. Kenyan Independence: 1963 London educated Jomo Kenyatta provided strong nationalist leadership. Mau Mau Rebellions made up of Kikuyu farmers weaken British settlers opposition.
  • 163. Senegal: Home of the Negritude Movement
  • 164. The Solitary Baobob Tree The national symbol of Senegal, baobab trees often mark burial sites and inspire the poetry of de-colonization…
  • 165. I heard a grave voice answer, Rash son, this strong young tree This splendid tree Apart from the white and faded flowers Is Africa, your Africa Patiently stubbornly growing again And its fruits are carefully learning The sharp sweet taste of liberty. David Diop 1956
  • 166. The old Belgian Congo, Formerly Zaire, Victim of Neo-Colonialism?
  • 167. Mobutu Sese Seko Ruled 1965-1997. Supported by U.S. as Cold War ally. Changed name to Zaire. Left “a house that had been eaten by termites” NYTimes. Reign described in 2002 documentary as an “African Tragedy.”
  • 168. Today many parts of Congo are experiencing punishing local conflicts Michael Kamber for The New York Times About 5,000 people fleeing the ethnic warfare in and around Bunia, Congo, sought safety at a camp in 2002.
  • 169. Death in Congo!
  • 170. The Allure Rich Mineral Resources: Gold Diamonds Copper Have Often Drawn Foreign Exploitation.
  • 171. Child Soldiers & a Victim
  • 172. Child Rebels A child fighter in a rebel group stands watch with a U.N. armored vehicle in Bunia, Congo, where there have been reports of rape and cannibalism.
  • 173. Algeria French settlers fought fiercely to keep Algeria a French colony. DeGaulle realized after the war that France could not hold onto Algeria by force. Independence came in 1962.
  • 174. Angola 400 years: Portuguese are the first the arrive and the last to leave in 1975.
  • 175. Angola Left With Bitter Civil War Mateus Chitangenda, Fernando Chitala and Enoke Chisingi and their families have been displaced by war to the town of Kunhinga, in central Angola.
  • 176. Going to School A father walks his daughter to school in Kuito, Angola. All students in the town bring their own small benches to class.
  • 177. Africa: 2000
  • 178. Nigerians today travel the same way as the Congolese
  • 179. Nigeria Struggles With Ethnic & Religious Rivalries Nigerian Muslims welcome Sharia law. January 2000
  • 180. Sharia Law
  • 181. This adulterous woman was sentenced to death by stoning
  • 182. Woldwide attention has given her hope Amnesty International is campaigning against the stoning sentence July 2002.
  • 183. Some find Sharia a blessing I Thank God for the Amputation
  • 184. South Africa
  • 185. Nelson Mandela jailed for 20 years in his fight against Apartheid
  • 186. Lived to vote in the first racially democratic election 1994
  • 187. And Become President of South Africa South African President Nelson Mandela, center, flanked by his two deputy presidents, Thabo Mbeki, left and F.W. de Klerk, right, celebrate the new constitution, May 8, 1996. (AP/WWP Photo Leon Muller)
  • 188. Age-Group Differences
  • 189. Less Developed Regions
  • 190. Global Water Stress
  • 191. Share of World’s GDP
  • 192. Health Statistics
  • 193. Bits Per Capita: An Information Revolution?
  • 194. using ICTs for social and economic development (Information and communication technologies) All across Africa
  • 195. A Cyber Shepherd in Senegal’s Sahel 2004-04-15 Pastoralists tracking wandering cattle herds using cell phones and Global Positioning Systems.
  • 196. South Africa: Eco-tourism Small tourist businesses operating out of the townships attracting customers from around the world by using the Internet.
  • 197. Mozambique stops poaching with radios
  • 198. Healthcare in Uganda A health care worker conducting a survey using a PDA. (SATELLIFE Photo: Mark Grabowsky)
  • 199. Decolonization: Algeria vs. Uganda
  • 200. Uganda:  Britain, 1894  Non- Settler Colony
  • 201. Uganda: PSE Status Before Colonization  Buganda Kingdom  Between 1100 & 1600  Traditional society  Clan-based society  Communal land ownership  Some Islamic influence
  • 202. Uganda:  Valued Resources  Cotton  Method of Rule  British officials took high posts  Imposed taxes  Asserted British law via local Buganda Chiefs
  • 203. Uganda: Nationalist Leaders & Groups  Rising nationalism after WWI and WWII  Weak attempts at nationalist political parties  Uganda National Congress, 1952  Uganda People’s Union, 1958  Uganda’s People’s Congress, 1959
  • 204. Uganda:  Year of Independence = 1961  Methods of Gaining Independence  Requests for independence dragged-on for years  British had puppet gov’ts in Uganda  Britain granted Independence as part of a larger wave of decolonization around 1960  Ugandans elected local UGANDA
  • 205. Uganda: Summary Since Free  Idi Amin took rule in Uganda from 1971-1979  Amin was born to a Catholic who converted to Islam.  Amin was abandoned by his father and raised by his mother.  He attended Islamic school and excelled at reciting the Qur’an.  After a few years he left school and joined the British Colonial army.  Amin served in many campaigns for the British and rose to the highest rank possible for a Black African.
  • 206. Idi Amin  Idi Amin's rule cost an estimated 300,000 Ugandans' lives.  He forcibly removed the entrepreneurial Indian minority from Uganda, decimating the economy.  Thousands were killed for opposing his rule  His reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979 in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda.
  • 207.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV_QgKJFZP0
  • 208. Overarching Themes • Colonies had to struggle to gain independence • Settler colonies had more complicated processes of gaining independence because of the Euro. people who settled there – who also wanted to keep their status and power • Non-settler colonies also had complicated (sometimes violent) independence fights, but many were able to transition power to local rulers as Euro. Influence moved out. • Most African nations have been dominated by military rulers since independence..
  • 209. Algeria: Colonizer & Year  France, 1830  Settler Colony
  • 210. Algeria: PSE Status Before Colonization  History of Algeria  Part of Greek & Roman Empires  Islam arrived in 8th century (700s) CE = Umayyad  300 years of Ottoman rule  French win control over Algeria in 1830  Social and Economic Status  Islam dominated society  Trade center on Mediterranean  Long-time source of piracy  Strong agriculture due to Med. climate  Cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, vegetables (figs, olive oil, etc.)..
  • 211. Algeria:  Valued Resources  Cash crops = cotton and tobacco  Foods = fruits and vegetables  Method of Rule  Thousands of French migrated to Algeria  Termed “colons” for “colonizers” or “settlers”  Bought much land as it was cheap in price for them  French rule was strongest in urban centers  French governor held political power  French courts were imposed over traditional Islamic courts (Sharia Law)  French owned most business and profited greatly from manufacturing, mining, agriculture and trade
  • 212. Algeria:  Government imposed higher taxes on Muslims than on Europeans  Muslims = 90% of population  Muslims earned 20% of Algeria’s income  Muslims paid 70% of Algeria’s direct taxes  French sought assimilation  Mission to civilize the Muslims  Established French schools with entirely French curriculum (no Arabic)  Only a small number of Algerians fought back
  • 213. Algeria: Nationalist Leaders & Groups  WWI  Many Algerians fought in France  Many stayed in France after war  Noticed unequal standards of living  Inspired by European Enlightenment  WWII  Many Algerians fought for France again  After WWII  French fight to re-establish colony by attacking any protestors  In response, a more radical Algerian independence movements rise  Groups  Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA) = main group  Front de Liberation National (FLN)  Leaders:  Ahmed Ben Bella, Frantz Fanon
  • 214. Algeria:  Year of Independence = 1962  Methods of Gaining Independence  Guerilla tactics  Hit and run  Sniping  Bombing of French police and civilians  Café wars
  • 215. Café Wars
  • 216.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ca3M2feqJk8&fea ture=related
  • 217. Post-Colonialism  After the revolution, Ahmed Ben Bella was elected as premier in a one-sided election and was recognized by the United States.  Algeria was admitted as the 109th member of the United Nations  Ben Bella declared that Algeria would follow a neutral course in world politics  In 1965 Ben Bella's government banned opposition parties, providing that the only party allowed to overtly function was the FLN.  Algeria remained stable, though in a one-party state, until violent civil war broke out in the 1990s.
  • 218. Post-Colonialism: Algeria  “For Algerians of many political factions, the legacy of their War of Independence acted to legitimise the unrestricted use of force in achieving a goal deemed to be justified. Once invoked against foreign colonialists, the same principle could be turned with relative ease also against fellow Algerians. The determination of the FLN to overthrow the colonial rule, and the ruthlessness exhibited by both sides in that struggle, were to be mirrored thirty years later by the determination of the FLN government to hold on to power and of the Islamist opposition to overthrow that rule, and the brutal struggle which ensued.”
  • 219. To learn more: Rent “The Battle of Algiers”
  • 220. To learn more: Rent “The Last King of Scotland”
  • 221. Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building • Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. • Three patterns: 1. Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China, Algeria, Vietnam, Palestine) 2. Non-Violent, negotiated independence (India, Ghana Turkey) 3. Both violent and non-violent methods (Kenya, Egypt, South Africa)
  • 222. Decolonization in the Middle East- Palestine and Israel • Zionism • 1917 Balfour Declaration • Immigration of Jews to Palestine • European Holocaust • Increase of migration • 1947- end of British mandate of Palestine and failed UN partition solution • 1948 establishment of Israel • Regional conflicts-> Violent Movements
  • 223. UN Partition Plan Britain, which had ruled Palestine since 1920, handed over responsibility for solving the Zionist-Arab problem to the UN in 1947. The UN recommended splitting the territory into separate Jewish and Palestinian states. The partition plan gave: • 56.47% of Palestine to the Jewish state • 43.53% to the Arab state • An international enclave around Jerusalem. • On 29 November 1947, 33 countries of the UN General Assembly voted for partition, 13 voted against and 10 abstained. Which Countries are most likely to vote against the U.N. Partition Plan?
  • 224. Palestinian Intifada •Protest took the form of civil disobedience, general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti, and barricades, but it was the stone-throwing demonstrations against the heavily-armed occupation troops that captured international attention. •The Israeli Defense Forces responded and there was heavy loss of life among Palestinian civilians. •More than 1,000 died in clashes which lasted until 1993. A mass uprising - or intifada against the Israeli occupation began in Gaza and quickly spread to the West Bank.
  • 225. Algeria 1954- 1962 war between FLN (nationalist party) and French troops • Appeal of Arab nationalism • Large French settler population “Part of France” • Algerians used guerilla and terrorist tactics • French used counter terrorism and torture • 300,000 lives lost 1962 - Ahmed Ben Bella became the first President • Primarily a one-party state • Current challenges by Islamic Fundamentalists Violent Movements
  • 226. India: History of the Movement • Indian National Congress - 1885. (Elite group not mass movement) • Growth of Indian national identity- presented grievances to the British. • Congress party attracted mass following. • Gandhi and Congress leadership tried to prevent mass peasant uprising (as was happening in China) by keeping power centered on middle class leaders. Non-Violent Movements
  • 227. Militant Nationalists • B.G. Tilak urged a boycott of British manufactured goods and used threats of terrorism. • Attracted a violent conservative Hindu following. • Tilak was exiled and his movement was repressed by the British.
  • 228. Peaceful Protests • Mohandas Gandhi and other western educated lawyers led peaceful alternative. • Nation-wide protest against colonialism through boycotts and campaigns of civil resistance. (Salt March, Homespun Movement) • His efforts were not well received by the Muslims who formed a separate organization in 1906, The Muslim League. • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League) insisted on partitioned state (Hindu and Muslim).
  • 229. Indian Independence • August 1947 Pakistan and India gained independence. • Mass killings of Muslims and Hindus (1 million) followed by mass migrations (12 million). (Gandhi fasted to prevent war-> assassination) • Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister,began modernization campaign.
  • 230. De-colonization in Africa • -1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah. • Used Non-violent methods influenced by Gandhi • Developed a parliamentary democracy • - By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent. Non-Violent Movements
  • 231. Africa for Africans • Nationalists composed of ex- servicemen, urban unemployed and western educated elite. • Pan-Africanism and Negritude • Senghor (Senegal)
  • 232. Decolonization of Africa
  • 233. Kenya • Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. • Jono Kenyatta used non- violent protests • Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. • Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. • 1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta. Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  • 234. Egypt • 1906 Dinshawai incident aroused nationalist passions. • Actions post- Indep (1936) not sufficient. • Coup d’etat in 1952 Gamal Abdel Nasser • Nationalization of Suez 1956 protested by Israelis, British and French but diplomacy won over eventually. • Nasser= symbol of pan-Arab nationalism. Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  • 235. South Africa • 4 million white residents • Afrikaner-dominated (white) National Party won 1948 election • Apartheid – separation of races • No protests tolerated (African National Congress, Mandela, Biko, Sharpeville massacre 1960, Spear of the Nation) • World boycotts led by Desmond Tutu • 1990- DeKlerk legalized ANC and ended Apartheid • 1994 –first open election • Mandela- first Black President Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
  • 236. Failed Traditional Rebellion Western Inspired Nationalist Movement (Leaders & Goals) WWI, WWII, Cold War Independence Violent or Non-violent (Events/Methods) Resurgence of Indigenous Challenges (Major Problems) Building a Nation-State (Structure of new Gov’t) Modern, but not Western Society DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM 1914-Present
  • 237. Nasser in Egypt Ataturk in TurkeyNkrumah in Nehru in India Kenyatta in Kenya Mao Zedong in
  • 238. Challenges of Independence • Ethnic disputes • Dependent economies • Growing debt • Cultural dependence on west-> religious revivalism as backlash • Widespread social unrest • Military responses to restore order • Population growth • Resource depletion • Lack of middle class in some locales • Education deficit and later, brain drain. • Neo-colonialism through economic debt.
  • 239. Conclusions • Decolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony. • In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred. • Significant challenges faced independent nations. • Western economic dominance of the global trade system continued unabated. WHY?

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