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  • (Brief introduction)
    Ever since then, the material has attracted attentions from various disciplines in science
    This atomic membrane of carbon atoms has many unique properties that conventional QWs don’t have, hard to list them all, choose a few
    For example, it is very flexible, very easy initiate its mechanical motion
    At the same time, it is also very strong, very difficult to break, With the highest known Young’s modulus
    Also, because of its atomic thickness, the physical properties are highly tunable by external perturbations
    Combining with the unique electro-optical properties, the material becomes increasingly promising for photonics and optoelectronics applications
    (Quick on this slide, citations)
  • As I have mentioned, the mass term gives rise to finite Berry curvature, which are absent in graphene
    The finite berry curvature completely modifies the optical selection rules
    While in Graphene, massless dispersion does not allow valley selective optical pumping, equal populations are generated by absorption photons
    Staggered honeycomb in contrast, carrier can be selectively injected into a particular valley by controlling the handedness of the incident photon
    For the rest of the talk, I will show you discuss such an optical control in detail
  • As I have mentioned, the mass term gives rise to finite Berry curvature, which are absent in graphene
    The finite berry curvature completely modifies the optical selection rules
    While in Graphene, massless dispersion does not allow valley selective optical pumping, equal populations are generated by absorption photons
    Staggered honeycomb in contrast, carrier can be selectively injected into a particular valley by controlling the handedness of the incident photon
    For the rest of the talk, I will show you discuss such an optical control in detail
  • As I have mentioned, the mass term gives rise to finite Berry curvature, which are absent in graphene
    The finite berry curvature completely modifies the optical selection rules
    While in Graphene, massless dispersion does not allow valley selective optical pumping, equal populations are generated by absorption photons
    Staggered honeycomb in contrast, carrier can be selectively injected into a particular valley by controlling the handedness of the incident photon
    For the rest of the talk, I will show you discuss such an optical control in detail
  • Transcript

    • 1. International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Young Scientist Prize Award Ceremony Commission on Quantum Electronics –C17 December 4, 2013 OPTIC 2013, Chung-Li, Taiwan
    • 2. IUPAP Commission C17 – Quantum Electronics Mandate To promote the exchange of information and views among the members of the international scientific community in the general field of Quantum Electronics including: •the physics of coherent electromagnetic energy generation and transmission; •the physics of interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with matter; •the application of quantum electronics to technology.
    • 3. International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Young Scientist Prize is awarded to Kin Fai Mak Commission on Quantum Electronics –C17 For his ground-breaking contributions to the measurement and physical understanding of the novel optical properties of atomically thin 2D materials
    • 4. Graphene (Geim, Novoselov, Kim) Electro-optical modulator Transparent conductor Lee and Hone … Ultrahigh mechanical strength -6.29 Unique electro--0.31×1013cm-2 Ruof, Ferrari, Wang, -6.29 optical Geim, Novoselov … properties -6.29 5.40 -0.31×1013cm-2 Flexible atomic membrane Graphene MEMs McEuen, Hone … Widely tunable physical properties 12.54 13cm-2 -0.31×10 5.40 5.40 12.54 Tunable Fermi level and work function 12.54 Kim, Brus, Heinz …
    • 5. Universal optical absorbance A ( ω ) = πα = 2.3% π (1) σ ( ω ) = G0 Graphene 4 e- h+ K e- h+ K’ Universal optical conductance No valley-selective excitation Experiment: Mak et al. PRL 2008 Nair et al. Science 2008
    • 6. Electrons in few-layer graphene Inter-layer interaction Dependence on stacking order Mak et al. PRL (2010) Decomposition into massless and massive Dirac fermions Electric field effect Mak et al. PNAS (2010) Mak et al. PRL (2009) Zhang et al. Nature (2009) Lui et al. Nat. Phys. (2011)
    • 7. Electrons beyond graphene Graphene e- Monolayer MoS2 e- K K’ A 2D semimetal e- e- K K’ A new direct gap semiconductor Mak et al. PRL 2010 Splendi et al. Nano Lett. 2010
    • 8. Electrons beyond graphene Graphene Monolayer MoS2 e- h+ K e- h+ K’ Universal optical conductance No valley-selective excitation e- e- h+ h+ K K’ Valley-selective excitation Theory: Niu, Xiao, Yao … Experiment: Mak et al. Nature Nano 2012 Zeng et al. Nature Nano 2012 Cao et al. Nature Comm. 2012
    • 9. Acknowledgement Columbia: Prof. Tony Heinz (Chun Hung Lui, Zhiqiang Li) Prof. James Hone (Changgu Lee) Prof. Philip Kim Prof. Louis Brus Case Western Reserve: Prof. Jie Shan (Keliang He) Cornell: Prof. Paul McEuen (Kathryn McGill) Prof. Jiwoong Park Prof. Dan Ralph BNL: Larry Carr. Matthew Sfeir James Misewich Funding: NSF NSEC Kavli Foundation
    • 10. International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Young Scientist Prize is awarded to Nickolas Vamivakas Commission on Quantum Electronics –C17 For his seminal contributions to extending the domain of experimental quantum optics from atomic to solidstate systems
    • 11. solid-state quantum optics Idea: combine the tools and techniques of quantum optics with quantum heterostructures (quantum dots) and defects in solids  want discrete optical transitions in the solid-state  “quantum engineering”; design the optical response Why? new optics-based approaches to quantum science and technology that leverage these solid-state quantum emitters  generation and control of quantum states of light  localized degrees-of-freedom are potential qubits  small size enables sub-diffraction limited optical metrology Cadmium Selenide QDs increasing radius http://en.wikivisual.com/index.php/Quantum_dot
    • 12. observation of single-QD spin quantum jumps resonance fluorescence to monitor Bohr spin quantum jumps (single QD)  QIS: direct optical, single shot, spin measurement  also example of a quantum nondemolition measurement QD electronic structure spin quantum jumps write-in 0 (↑) Vamivakas et al Nature 467 (2010).
    • 13. nanoscale metrology/enhance photon generation nanophotonic devices modify local density of optical states  optical transition sensitive to local density of states; Purcell effect  nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging (nFLIM) scan optical antenna lifetime intensity autocorrelation shortening of ~ 3 Ag pyramid tip ~ 30 nm Beams, et al Nano Lett 11 (2013).
    • 14. collaborators Mete Atature, Yong Zhao, Chao-yang Lu, Clemens Matthiesen University of Cambridge Antonio Badolato, University of Rochester Atac Imamoglu, Stefan Falt, Alex Hogele, ETH-Zurich Lukas Novotny, ETH-Zurich Sang-Hyun Oh, Tim Johnson, University of Minnesota Romain Quidant & Jan Gieseler ICFO-Barcelona Bennett Goldberg, Anna Swan & Selim Unlu, Boston University Support Institute of Optics, NSF, DOE, EPSRC Research Group Quantum Optoelectronics and Optical Metrology Group Nick Vamivakas nick.vamivakas@rochester.edu University of Rochester Institute of Optics http://www.optics.rochester.edu/workgroups/v