Judaism powerpoint


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A brief overview of Judaism. its main beliefs, practices and some recent history. Suitable for secondary school and above

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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  • LEARN!!! In reality to just try to understand what it means to be one from the Chosen Nation you must listen at least 10 hours of lectures from Ravs that learn all day for many years.

    Here are some of the best video resources,
    Rav Yosef Mizrachi:

    Rav Daniel Cohen:
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  • I'm teaching a World Religions Class at our local Community College. This presentation was very helpful. Thank You.
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  • Orthodox This is one of the world's biggest Jewish movements. Orthodox Jews regard the Torah and the Talmud (Jewish laws) as being given directly to them by God, hence they are held in the highest authority. Within Orthodoxy, there are different strands. These include: Ultra Orthodox, who follow the religion very strictly and may remove themselves as far as possible from the modern world. Some even steer clear of television and newspapers due to the influence that these may have on their social standards and moral viewpoints. They may also live in separate communities from other Jewish people and follow their own customs, which could include specific dress codes. Modern Orthodox: These Jews will usually participate in social and secular activities, such as going to a sports game or watching TV, provided it does not conflict with Jewish laws or impacts on their religious life. On a religious level, they will observe the Sabbath, festivals, dietary laws (kashrut) and other Jewish commandments. The basic principles of Orthodox Judaism have not changed since Biblical times. Reform:This movement was founded in Germany in the 19th Century after Jews were liberated from their ghettos and began to integrate themselves more into society - the feeling was that the religion would lose members if it did not move with the times. Members of the Reform movement take a more modern approach towards Judaism, while seeking to retain its traditional principles and morals. Unlike Orthodox movements, women can be ordained as Rabbis, men and women sit together in the synagogue (place of worship) and on death, cremation is allowed. Liberal: The Liberal movement, like Reform, adopts a modern approach to Judaism. Liberal Jews believe that the Torah was God-inspired and is an interpretation of his words. They do not observe the faith in the same way as an Orthodox Jew would, for example Orthodox Jews will always have a head covering, usually a kipah or yarmulke, which shows respect for God. Liberal Jews do not believe this is necessary.
  • Memory Don’t pronouce God’s name. relationship of heart. Generations. Memory. Giving internal things an external expression
  • Chosen people. Chosen to serve, chosen to teach about God, chosen to suffer. Different people chosen for different things. Greeks to teach democracy. Jews to teaqch Torah - word and deed.
  • Hierarchy of laws Can eat pork if otherwise starve Only laws cannot break - idol worship, adultery,
  • Jews believe that performing of ritual mitzvot (commandments or religious obligations) is a means of tikkun olam, helping to perfect the world, and that the performance of more mitzvot will hasten the coming of the Messiah and the Messianic Age. This belief dates back at least to the early Talmudic period. According to Rabbi Yochanan, a rabbi who lived during that period, the Jewish people will be redeemed when every Jew observes Shabbat (the Sabbath) in two consecutive weeks.[4] In Jewish thought ethical mitzvot as well as ritual mitzvot are important to the process of tikkun olam. Some Jews believe that performing mitzvot will create a model society among the Jewish people, which will in turn influence the rest of the world. By perfecting themselves, their local Jewish community or the state of Israel, the Jews set an example for the rest of the world. The theme is frequently repeated in the sermons and writings of across the Jewish spectrum: Reconstructionist, Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox. According to Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, an influential 18th century interpreter and systemic philosopher of Lurianic Kabbalah[10], the physical world is connected to spiritual realms above, and these spiritual realms in turn influence the physical world.[11] In his view, as developed in his Derech Hashem, Jews have the ability, through physical deeds and free will, to direct and control these spiritual forces.[12] These spiritual forces include tikkun (rectification, good; the presence of Divine light) and kilkul (damage, evil; not merely the absence of goodness and Divine light, but its own force that is strengthened by the absence of goodness and Divine light).[13] God's desire in creation is that God's creations ultimately will recognize God's unity and overcome evil; this will constitute the perfection (tikkun) of creation.[14] Jews have the Torah now and are aware of God's unity, but when all of humanity recognizes this fact, the rectification will be complete.[15] Only the actions of Jews further creation; the deeds of non-Jews do not.[16] Instead, God gave non-Jews the Noachide Laws so that they may obtain individual portions in the Olam Haba (afterlife).[17]
  • motivation
  • Family centred religion
  • An important part of the Sabbath day is the service held in the synagogue o n Saturday morning. As people arrive they wish each other a "Shabbat Shalom" (A peaceful Sabbath). During the service that follows the Torah is ceremoniously taken from the ark, processed around the synagogue and then a portion of the scripture will be read. A sermon will usually be preached on the text and songs will be sung. At the end of the Sabbath, just before dusk on Saturday evening there is another ceremony. This ceremony is called Havdulah. A special candle with several wicks is lit and a spice box is opened to wish everybody a sweet week until the next Sabbath. The parting greeting at the end of the Sabbath is "shavua tov" (have a good week); the candle will be dipped in wine to extinguish it.
  • Rabbi not a mediator Derived from pharisees
  • Prayers before and after operation
  • Hesed - acts of loving kindness Adam - a world Rabbinic Jewish literature contains extensive discussions on the subject of repentance. Many rabbinic sources state that repentance is of paramount importance to the existence of this world, so that it was one of the seven provisions which God made before the Creation ( Talmud Bavli, tractates Pesahim 54a; Nedarim 39b; Midrash Genesis Rabbah 1). "The Holy One, blessed be His name, said to Elijah, 'Behold, the precious gift which I have bestowed on my world: though a man sins again and again, but returns in penitence, I will receive him'" (Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 28b). "Great is repentance: it brings healing into the world"; "it reaches to the throne of God" (Hosea 14:2, 5); "it brings redemption" (Isiah 59:20); "it prolongs man's life" (Ezekiel 18:21; Talmud Yoma 86a). "Repentance and works of charity are man's intercessors before God's throne" ( Talmud Shabbath 32a). Sincere repentance is equivalent to the rebuilding of the Temple, the restoration of the altar, and the offering of all the sacrifices [8] .
  • Rabbinic Jewish literature contains extensive discussions on the subject of repentance. Many rabbinic sources state that repentance is of paramount importance to the existence of this world, so that it was one of the seven provisions which God made before the Creation ( Talmud Bavli, tractates Pesahim 54a; Nedarim 39b; Midrash Genesis Rabbah 1). "The Holy One, blessed be His name, said to Elijah, 'Behold, the precious gift which I have bestowed on my world: though a man sins again and again, but returns in penitence, I will receive him'" (Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedrin 28b). "Great is repentance: it brings healing into the world"; "it reaches to the throne of God" (Hosea 14:2, 5); "it brings redemption" (Isiah 59:20); "it prolongs man's life" (Ezekiel 18:21; Talmud Yoma 86a). "Repentance and works of charity are man's intercessors before God's throne" ( Talmud Shabbath 32a). Sincere repentance is equivalent to the rebuilding of the Temple, the restoration of the altar, and the offering of all the sacrifices [8] .
  • In the 2nd century BCE, Israel lay between Egypt and the Seleucid empire. Both Egypt and the Seleucid empire were states descended from the break up of Alexander the Great’s Greek empire. Since the rule of Alexander in 336–323 BCE, a process of Hellenization had spread through the near East. When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE, Hellenizing Jews had been long-established in Israel. They had built a gymnasium, competed internationally in Greek games, "removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant" (1 Maccabees, i, 15.) From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a Hellenizing policy with zeal. This effectively meant banning traditional Jewish religious practice. In 167 BCE Jewish sacrifice was forbidden, sabbaths and feasts were banned and circumcision was outlawed. Altars to Greek gods were set up and animals prohibited to Jews were sacrificed on them. The Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple. Possession of Jewish scriptures was made a capital offence. The king's motives are unclear. He may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus,[1] he may have been responding to a Jewish revolt that had drawn on the Temple and the Torah for its strength, or he may have been encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews.[2] After Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BCE, his son Judah Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Jewish collaborators, of whom there were many. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised children and forced Jews into outlawry.[2] The term Maccabees as used to describe the Jewish army is taken from its actual use as Judah's surname. Soldiers made new menorah out of spears
  • Why is this night different from all other nights? On all other nights, we eat either unleavened or leavened bread, but tonight we eat only unleavened bread? On all other nights, we eat all kinds of vegetables, but tonight, we eat only bitter herbs? On all other nights, we do not dip [our food] even once, but tonight we dip twice? On all other nights, we eat either sitting or reclining, but tonight we only recline?
  • Picture – relief from Arch of Titus in Rome built to celebrate Titus’ conquest of Judea 66-70
  • Root of hatred of Jews is envy and thus ultimately irrational. Better to say judeophobia, Judeophobia is: Oldest hatred Universal Permanent Deep Obsessive Dangerous Based on fantasy Sermons 820 – 1850 Disputations – forced to defend their faith in set piece ‘dialogues’ Book burning 1236 - Last burning of Talmud 1757 in Poland Ghettos 1516 (Venice) – 1796 Expulsions 1290 – No matter how intently and desperately individual Jews tried to de-emphasize these confrontational aspects of their religion, and sought to identify themselves with the imperial powers and their values, the spirit of independence and freedom made the Jews the most rebellious People of the ancient world. The Jews were the group that rebelled against Hellenistic and then Roman rule with greater ferocity and tenacity than any other. Jews differed from other people precisely because they followed norms that seemed subversive to the established order. Jews seemed unwilling to accept "reality" and subordinate themselves to imperial powers. This made them seem threatening to the ruling elites, who sought to make their subjects distrust Jews before they got too friendly with them and heard the Jews' ideals of egalitarian society. Maurice Samuel wrote a series of books between 1924 and 1950 in which Judeophobia is not a Jewish problem, but an affliction of the Gentiles to which Jews had to accustom themselves. Western man hates the Jew because he is the jailer who had bound the world with fetters of moral law. This is "the great hatred" in the amoral pagan soul. A not very different position was taken by Prager and Telushkin in their 1983- Why the Jews? where the higher quality of Jewish life arouses continuous and uncompromising envy of the non-Jewish world. Eliane Amado Levy-Valensi offered her interpretation during the 1960s: Judeophobia is the result of the Gentiles' failure in stealing Jewish history for themselves. "Judaism was already an ancient religion, possessed of a great literature, with great heroes and wise men in its past, and a divine promise of an even more glorious future. Christianity possessed none of these. From the very outset, therefore, the Christians laid claim to the Bible, at first merely as predicting Jesus and later as being exclusively their own." Also the plight of the Palestinians could be explained from the same perspective. Even Jesus is presented by them as "a Palestinian." The lack of a long history of their own, brings other peoples to hate Jewish ownership of a past.
  • Jews generally settled where Arabs didn’t live. Jews attitude to Arabs was arrogant and overbearing.
  • Jews happily assimilating after French enlightenment. Reform movement, reaching pinnacle of European sociiety. Envy. Heinne.
  • The conflicting agreements are partly the result of changing progress during the war, switching in the earlier correspondence from needing Arab help to subsequently trying to enlist the help of Jews in the United States in getting the US to join the First World War , in conjunction with the Balfour Declaration, 1917 .
  • Mixed motivations. Some Europeans wanted Jewish homlenad so as to get rid of. Others because philo-semitic and belief in 2nd coming Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3 , 1919 . The agreement committed both parties to conducting all relations between the groups by the most cordial goodwill and understanding, to work together to encourage immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale while protecting the rights of the Arab peasants and tenant farmers, and to safeguard the free practice of religious observances. The Muslim Holy Places were to be under Muslim control. The Zionist movement undertook to assist the Arab residents of Palestine and the future Arab state to develop their natural resources and establish a growing economy. Early on seemed to have been real possibility of Jews being welcomed by Arabs. British contributed to bad feeling
  • Due to Arab unhappiness at idea of Jewish homeland Britain restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine and set up beginning of Hashemite Kingdom. Zionists not happy as regarded whole area as future Jewish homeland
  • Amin al-Husseini studied religious law at al-Azhar University, Cairo, and attended the Istanbul School of Administration. In 1913 he went to Mecca on a pilgrimage, earning the honorary title of "Hajji". He voluntarily joined the Ottoman Turkish army in World War I but returned to Jerusalem in 1917 and expediently switched sides to aid the victorious British. He acquired the reputation as a violent, fanatical anti-Zionist zealot and was jailed by the British for instigating a 1920 Arab attack against Jews who were praying at the Western Wall. The first Palestine High Commissioner. Sir Herbert Samuel arrived in Palestine on July 1, 1920. He was a weak administrator who was too ready to compromise and appease the extremist, nationalistic Arab minority led by Haj Amin al-Husseini. When the existing Arab Mufti of Jerusalem (religious leader) died in 1921, Samuels was influenced by anti-Zionist British officials on his staff. He pardoned al-Husseini and, in January 1922, appointed him as the new Mufti, and even invented a new title of Grand Mufti. He was simultaneously made President of a newly created Supreme Muslim Council. Al-Husseini thereby became the religious and political leader of the Arabs. The appointment of the young al-Husseini as Mufti was a seminal event. Prior to his rise to power, there were active Arab factions supporting cooperative development of Palestine involving Arabs and Jews. But al-Husseini would have none of that; he was devoted to driving Jews out of Palestine, without compromise, even if it set back the Arabs 1000 years. Al-Husseini represented newly emerging proponents of militant, Palestinian Arab nationalism, a previously unknown concept. Once he was in power, he began a campaign of terror and intimidation against anyone opposed to his rule and policies. He killed Jews at every opportunity, but also eliminated Arabs who did not support his campaign of violence. Husseini was not willing to negotiate or make any kind of compromise for the sake of peace. According to documentation from the Nuremberg and Eichmann trials, the Nazi Germany SS helped finance al-Husseini's efforts in the 1936-39 revolt in Palestine. Adolf Eichmann actually visited Palestine and met with al-Husseini at that time and subsequently maintained regular contact with him later in Berlin. In 1940, al-Husseini requested the Axis powers to acknowledge the Arab right: ... to settle the question of Jewish elements in Palestine and other Arab countries in accordance with the national and racial interests of the Arabs and along the lines similar to those used to solve the Jewish question in Germany and Italy. While in Baghdad, Syria al-Husseini aided the pro-Nazi revolt of 1941. He then spent the rest of World War II as Hitler's special guest in Berlin , advocating the extermination of Jews in radio broadcasts back to the Middle East and recruiting Balkan Muslims for infamous SS "mountain divisions" that tried to wipe out Jewish communities throughout the region. At the Nuremberg Trials, Eichmann's deputy Dieter Wisliceny (subsequently executed as a war criminal) testified: The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry and had been a collaborator and adviser of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of this plan. ... He was one of Eichmann's best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures. I heard him say, accompanied by Eichmann, he had visited incognito the gas chamber of Auschwitz. From Egypt al-Husseini was among the sponsors of the 1948 war against the new State of Israel . Spurned by the Jordanian monarch, who gave the position of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem to someone else, Haj Amin al-Husseini arranged King Abdullah's assassination in 1951 , while still living in exile in Egypt. King Tallal followed Abdullah as king of Jordan, and he refused to give permission to Amin al-Husseini to come into Jordanian Jerusalem. After one year, King Tallal was declared incompetent; the new King Hussein also refused to give al-Husseini permission to enter Jerusalem. King Hussein recognized that the former Grand Mufti would only stir up trouble and was a danger to peace in the region.
  • British practiced divide and rule and didn’t try to bring the Jews and Arabs together
  • After
  • After Hitler came to power many Jews left Germany
  • Source: Cited in Landau, The Nazi Holocaust, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994. These data originally appeared in Poliakov and Wulf (eds), Das Dritte Reich und die Juden: Documente und Aufsatze (Arani Verlag, GmbH, Berlin, 1955)
  • Tikkum olam
  • After the Holocaust many Jews wanted to go to Israel. They were not welcome and had no desire to go back to their homes which had often been confiscated and the new inhabitants would not give them back.
  • Important point. Palestine had already been divided into 2. The East Bank - Jordan - was for Palestinan Arabs.
  • The 1949 border is result of armistice - not a border fixed by treaty
  • Many leaders on both sides Arab and Israeli saw in terms of population exchange as happened between Greece and Turkey in 1920s and India and Pakistan in 1947.
  • Grand mufti also encouraged Palestinians to leave so wouldn’t be in the way during battle. Jews tried to persuade Arabs to stay
  • Around 758,000 to 866,000 of the Jews living in Arab countries and territories left or were forced to leave their countries of birth; 600,000 of these people fled or emigrated to Israel , with another 300,000 seeking refuge in various Western countries, primarily France .
  • Tesco, Marks and Spencer, Levi Strauss, # Robert (Bobby) Fischer 2 (1972-1975) # Garry Kasparov 3 (1985-1993)
  • Judaism powerpoint

    1. 1. Judaism
    2. 2. Who are the Jews? <ul><li>Child of a Jewish mother or conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Ethnicity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oldest extant community in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest monotheistic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Judaism developed after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD </li></ul>
    3. 3. What types of Jews? <ul><li>Sephardim (Expelled from Spain 1497) </li></ul><ul><li>Ashkenazim (Germany, Austria, Poland) </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental Jews (Middle Eastern/Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Falasha (Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Secular </li></ul>
    4. 4. What do Jews believe? <ul><li>The Shema </li></ul><ul><li>Hear, O Israel, the L-rd is our G-d, the L-rd is One. </li></ul><ul><li>Blessed be the name of the glory of His kingdom forever and ever. You shall love the L-rd your G-d with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might. </li></ul><ul><li>And these words which I command you today shall be on your heart. You shall teach them thoroughly to your children, and you shall speak of them when you sit in your house and when you walk on the road, when you lie down and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign upon your arm, and they shall be for a reminder between your eyes. And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house and upon your gates. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Kippah Tefillin Mezzuzah Shema
    6. 6. Memory <ul><li>Listen, my people, to my teaching, and pay attention to what I say. I am going to use wise sayings and explain mysteries from the past, things we have heard and known, things that our ancestors told us. We will not keep them from our children; we will tell the next generation about the Lord’s power and his great deeds and the wonderful things he has done. He gave laws to the people of Israel and commandments to the descendants of Jacob. He instructed our ancestors to teach his laws to their children, so that the next generation might learn them and in turn tell their children. In this way they also would put their trust in God and not forget that he has done, but always obey his commandments. Psalm 78:1-7 </li></ul>
    7. 7. What do Jews believe? <ul><li>Covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People serve God and keep his laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God looks after his people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commandments - mitzvah (act of human kindness) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>613 commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>248 positive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>365 negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chukkim </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Kosher laws <ul><li>Kosher - food that is fit to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables, fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals with split hoof and chew cud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish with fins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals slaughtered ritually </li></ul><ul><li>Kosher kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the Torah says so </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Tikkun olam <ul><li>“ Repairing the world” or “perfecting the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Performing ritual mitzvot hastens messianic age </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens good spiritual forces </li></ul><ul><li>Makes Jews better people which influences society and thus the world </li></ul>
    10. 10. Holiness code <ul><li>‘ Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the LORD, who makes you holy.’ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Speak to the entire assembly of Israel and say to them: ‘Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy.’” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many laws on sexual relations, sexual purity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice, animal welfare, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. What do Jews believe about the messiah? <ul><li>God’s ‘anointed one’ </li></ul><ul><li>Called God’s son </li></ul><ul><li>Bring blessings from God </li></ul><ul><li>Establish God’s kingdom on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy Israel’s enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Rule the whole world </li></ul>
    12. 12. What are the Jewish holy books? <ul><li>TeNaKh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophets (Neviim) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writings (Ketuvim) </li></ul></ul>Torah scroll Dressed Torah Yad
    13. 13. The Talmud <ul><li>Mishnah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgements, opinions, practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gemara </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions of mishnah </li></ul></ul>Babylonian Talmud Page of Talmud
    14. 14. Celebrating Shabbat <ul><li>Woman of the house welcomes the Sabbath </li></ul><ul><li>Kiddush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing and drinking wine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessing wife and children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shabbat meal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 loaves bread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs, prayer </li></ul></ul>Hallot
    15. 15. Celebrating the Sabbath <ul><li>Synagogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shabbat shalom” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liturgy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sermon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Havdulah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spice box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shavua tov” </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The synagogue <ul><li>House of worship, study and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Community centre </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ner Tamid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bimah </li></ul></ul>Grand synagogue in Brussels Modern orthodox synagogue
    17. 17. The ark and bimah
    18. 18. Jewish leadership <ul><li>Rabbi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beth din </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cantor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah scrolls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shochet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaughterer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mohel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Brit millah (circumcision) <ul><li>Sign of the covenant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer before circumcision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Praised be Thou, O Lord our G-d, ruling spirit of the universe who has commanded us to enter into the covenant of our father Abraham.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer after circumcision: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ As he entered the covenant, so may he enter into the love of the Torah, into the marriage canopy and into the life of good deeds.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Bar mitzvah <ul><li>Meaning: son of the commandment </li></ul><ul><li>13 years old - becomes an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Read Torah in public </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Celebratory meal </li></ul>
    21. 21. Marriage <ul><li>Plan of God </li></ul><ul><li>Bride and groom fast </li></ul><ul><li>Ketubah </li></ul><ul><li>Betrothal </li></ul><ul><li>Chuppah </li></ul><ul><li>Wine, ring </li></ul><ul><li>7 benedictions </li></ul><ul><li>Break a glass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Mazel tov’ </li></ul>
    22. 22. Festivals
    23. 23. Rosh Hashanah <ul><li>Jewish New Year </li></ul><ul><li>Birthday of the world and Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st of 10 days of repentance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 books opened to righteous, wicked and in-between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer, apologies, fasting, hesed , self-reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shofar blown 100 times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repentance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronation of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judge of the world </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Yom Kippur <ul><li>Day of Atonement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of causing act to be forgiven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 hour fast and prayer in synagogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No eating and drinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No wearing of leather shoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No bathing or washing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No marital relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No dealing with money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Person’s fate for the year sealed </li></ul>
    25. 25. Hanukkah <ul><li>Celebrate the Everlasting Light burning for 8 days - 165 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Judah the Maccabee and Antiochus Epiphanes </li></ul><ul><li>Family festival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food cooked in oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents exchanged </li></ul></ul>Hannukiah Menorah
    26. 26. Pesach (Passover) <ul><li>Remember and relive the Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>Family festival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove leaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seder meal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haggadah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 glasses wine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic foods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Songs and fun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Next year in Jerusalem” </li></ul>
    27. 27. Recent Jewish history
    28. 28. Destruction of Jerusalem and Israel <ul><li>First Jewish revolt against Roman rule </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Jewish revolt 132-135 </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 Jews killed, 985 villages destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Jews forbidden to live in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Judea renamed Palaestina </li></ul>Arch of Titus in Rome
    29. 29. New Jewish Diaspora
    30. 30. Anti-Semitism or Judeophobia <ul><li>Forced conversion and baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Christian sermons in synagogues </li></ul><ul><li>Public disputations </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of Jewish books </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on professions </li></ul><ul><li>Expulsions and slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Holocaust denial </li></ul><ul><li>De-legitimising the State of Israel </li></ul>
    31. 31. Expulsions of Jews
    32. 32. Growth of the Jewish community in the Land of Israel <ul><li>Jews always lived in the Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Jerusalem and Israel a constant theme in Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Jews often emigrated there in Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish philanthropists sponsored agricultural settlements in 19th century </li></ul>Mikveh Israel agricultural school 1870 Petah Tiqwa founded 1880
    33. 33. Growth of Zionism <ul><li>Movement to support a Jewish homeland in the Biblical Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Response to rampant anti-Semitism of 19th century Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian pogroms and expulsions of 1880s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreyfus Affair in France in 1890s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecution 1930s and Holocaust 1940s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular but with religious roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for a refuge from persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to be self-governing independent nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1st Zionist Congress 1897 </li></ul>
    34. 34. Balfour Declaration 1917 <ul><li>&quot;His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people , and . . . nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine . . .&quot; </li></ul>
    35. 35. British Mandate <ul><li>Britain given control of Palestine by Versailles Conference in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Faisal-Weizmann Agreement signed </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920 the League of Nations gave Britain the mandate to administer Palestine and establish a Jewish homeland </li></ul>
    36. 36. Separation of Palestine & Jordan <ul><li>In 1921 Britain stopped Jewish settlement in Transjordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Gave the territory to Emir Abdullah who later became the first King of Jordan </li></ul>
    37. 37. Rise of Palestinian nationalism <ul><li>Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, a convicted anti-Jewish rioter, made Grand Mufti despite opposition of Muslim High Council in 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>He eliminated Arabs who opposed him and who wanted to cooperate with Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Instigated Arab revolts in 1920, 1927, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoned Jewish – Palestinian relations until today </li></ul>
    38. 38. Muhammad Amin al-Husseini <ul><li>Stayed with Hitler during WW2 </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the Holocaust: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Mufti was one of the initiators of the systematic extermination of European Jewry and had been a collaborator and adviser of Eichmann and Himmler in the execution of this plan. ... He was one of Eichmann's best friends and had constantly incited him to accelerate the extermination measures.” Eichmann's deputy Dieter Wisliceny at Nuremburg Trials </li></ul><ul><li>Yasser Arafat was Husseini’s nephew </li></ul>
    39. 39. Between a rock and a hard place <ul><li>Jews wanted unlimited emigration to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe and verbally and violently rejected British attempts to limit immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs opposed Jewish immigration as they saw it would lead to a Jewish majority and the loss of their country. So they verbally and violently attacked Britain for allowing it </li></ul>
    40. 40. Jews in Europe in 1933
    41. 41. Jewish emigration
    42. 42. Extent of the Holocaust Country Jewish pop. Sept. 1939 Number Jews murdered Percentage of Jews murdered Poland 3,300,000 2,800,000 85 Soviet Union 2,100,000 1,500,000 71 Romania 850,000 425,000 50 Hungary 404,000 200,000 50 Czechoslovakia 315,000 260,000 82 France 300,000 90,000 30 Germany 210,000 171,000 81 Lithuania 150,000 135,000 90 Holland 150,000 90,000 60 Others 522,000 313,000 60 Total 8,301,000 5,978,000 72
    43. 44. Letter found near a dead child at Ravensbruch concentration camp <ul><ul><ul><li>O, Lord, remember not only the men and women of good will, but also those of evil will. But do not remember all the suffering they have inflicted upon us; remember the fruits we have borne thanks to this suffering— our comradeship, our loyalty, our humility, our courage, our generosity, the greatness of heart which has grown out of all this; and when they come to the judgement, let all the fruits that we have borne be their forgiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;The Holocaust was a Cain inspired action, one of Hitler’s satanic designs and plans which should have been prevented by a unified front of all Christian and Jewish forces.” Sun Myung Moon 1975
    44. 45. Jews in Europe in 1950
    45. 46. UN partition plan of 1947 <ul><li>2 state solution with Jerusalem under international control </li></ul><ul><li>Most Jews accepted the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Arab leadership in and out of Palestine rejected the plan </li></ul><ul><li>Britain refused to implement the plan & ended mandate on 15 th May 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>5 Arab armies invade Israel </li></ul>
    46. 47. After the 1949 armistice <ul><li> The territory of the State of Israel proposed by the UN in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li> Territory conquered by Israel 1948-49 </li></ul><ul><li>New frontier agreed in 1949 armistice </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank annexed by Jordan in 1950 </li></ul>
    47. 48. Refugees, refugees <ul><li>600,000 Jews expelled/encouraged to leave Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt etc. They left behind houses, businesses, possessions </li></ul><ul><li>They fled to Israel where they settled </li></ul><ul><li>720,000 Palestinians fled to Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, West Bank, Gaza </li></ul><ul><li>They were not given citizenship but kept in refugee camps until today </li></ul>
    48. 49. Palestinian refugees 1948 <ul><li>“ The Arab States encouraged the Palestine Arabs to leave their homes temporarily in order to be out of the way of the Arab invasion armies,” </li></ul><ul><li>Jordanian newspaper Filastin (February 19, 1949) </li></ul>
    49. 50. Jewish refugees 1948 In 1948 800,000 Jews were encouraged or forced to leave Muslim countries where their ancestors had lived for up to 2500 years. Their possessions were seized without compensation. About 600,000 settled in Israel and were given citizenship. Another 300,000 sought refuge elsewhere. 1948 2000 Country Jewish population Jewish population Morocco 265,000 5,800 Algeria 140,000 100 Tunisia 105,000 1,300 Libya 38,000 0 Egypt 75,000 200 Lebanon 6,000 0 Syria 30,000 200 Iraq 150,000 100 Iran 100,000 12,500 Afghanistan 5,000 2 Pakistan 2,000 300 Yemen 63,000 200 Ethiopia 23,270 100 Total 1,002,270 20,800
    50. 51. Jewish contributions <ul><li>0.25% world population </li></ul><ul><li>22% Nobel prize winners </li></ul><ul><li>47% world chess champions </li></ul><ul><li>51% Oscars for best score & best song </li></ul><ul><li>Thinkers of the 20th Century - 30% </li></ul><ul><li>40% eminent psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Business, finance, education, medicine, government, Hollywood, cosmetics, literature, law, philosophy, charity etc. </li></ul>
    51. 52. Summing up <ul><li>To the Jews we owe the idea of equality before the law, both divine and human; of the sanctity of life and the dignity of the human person; of the individual conscience, and so of personal redemption; of the collective conscience, and so of social responsibility; of peace as an abstract ideal and love as the foundation of justice, and many other items that constitute the basic moral furniture of the human mind. Without the Jews it might have been a much emptier place. Above all, the Jews taught us how to rationalise the unknown. The result was monotheism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Johnson, Roman Catholic historian </li></ul></ul>