104 The life of Jesus 2 day
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  • Before we examine the life of Jesus we need to remind ourselves of God’ original will, his purpose of creation. The original will is in the theology of creation. Too often we focus on salvation. God had a dream, a vision and ideal. He wanted to create beings like himself with which he could share his love and everything. So God created human beings as his children in his image and likeness so that he could enjoy a relationship of love with us.
  • These three fold blessings are a central concept in the Bible. God gave these blessings to Adam and Eve and later to Noah and
  • Goal is to be perfect, “You must be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.” Mt. Due to fall came under the dominion of Satan. Instead of God as parent worshipped other gods. Rejected God’s way of life – purity, honesty, goodness and embraced Satan’s way of life – impurity, selfishness, dishonesty, murder, violence. Resemble Satan more than resemble God. “ You are of your father the devil and your will is to do your father’s desires.”
  • In the garden of Eden was the archangel Lucifer who rebelled against God and refused to bow down to Adam and Eve who he did not respect. Lucifer undermined Eve’s faith and tempted her to disobey God’s commandment. In giving into her desire for the fruit she turned away from God and become self-centred. Eve offered the fruit to Adam and he also disobeyed God’s commandment and ate it. Through this Adam and Eve became slaves to sin and Satan came to rule humanity. People came to be part of SATAN’s lineage. “You are of your father the devil.” People born with original sin. Dominated by physical desire. Finding identity in idolatry, false and empty religion, nationalism etc. This broke God’s heart. But God looked forward to the day when everything would be put right.
  • Because the fall was man’s fault, man has to restore it not God’s. So the messiah is a person – not God. He is a perfect person so fully human and fully divine
  • Have to cut off from Satan – at the risk of life deny Satan’s way of life and follow the Messiah. Leave the dead to bury the dead. Complete, unconditional self denial and sacrifice. Cut off all ties to Satan.
  • The messiah means the anointed one. The Jews had a very clear vision of what the messiah’s job was – to liberate Israel and establish peace and justice
  • The messiah comes to bring salvation to the individual, family, society, nation and world – to be a light. He comes to ‘set the captives free’, to release people from from Satan’s sovereignty into the freedom of the sovereignty of God. to restore the fall of man, destroy Satan’s soverngity and establish ideal family and peace
  • One of the messiah’s titles is Everlasting Father. The messiah comes to establish God’s original ideal – Kingdom of Heaven. To do this he has to save people from their sin, to restore people back to the position they would have had before the fall – i.e. sinless and able to give birth to children without original sin. Change people from Satan’s lineage to God’s lineage. This is why have to be born again. Jesus came as the second Adam, as the True Father to sinful people. When Jesus forgave sins he referred to himself as the father of those he healed. Mt 9:2,22 Wild olive trees grafted onto true olive tree.
  • The messiah doesn’t just come to liberate the Jewish people but the whole world. Prisoners of Satan living in ignorance
  • Jesus prayed was for spiritual and physical salvation
  • The Jews were longing for the messiah to come. They had been occupied or controlled by one foreign power after another for 1000 years – the Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and finally the Romans. The last two in particular had tried hard to destroy and undermine the Jewish religion. As a result the Jewish people longed for freedom and independence. They longed for a deliverer and were expecting God to send the messiah.
  • On the oft chance that people wouldn’t recognize and accept the Messiah and thus be cursed, God said he would send the prophet Elijah to prepare the way for him. Elijah was the greatest of the Old Testament, second only to Moses. He lived during the period of the divided kingdoms and his mission was to separate the people from Satan by exposing the emptiness of idol worship and destroying the priests of Baal. Unfortunately he was unable to complete his mission and it was passed on to his follower Elisha. The next 400 years from Malachi until the birth of Jesus was a time for the people to prepare to receive the messiah by rejecting idol worship and uniting in worshipping God and living according to the Torah. Picture is malachi
  • An angel spoke to Zechariah and told him that his wife Elizabeth would have a child who they were to call John and prophesied that he would be the Elijah figure foretold by Malachi.
  • John’s father Zechariah prophesied that John would be the one to prepare the way for the Messiah. Prepare the way for what – for Christ to be accepted. John’s mission wasn’t to prepare the people to reject and kill him. As it says in John his job was to bear witness that all might believe.
  • John the Baptist was the person foretold by Malachi. His job was to prepare the people so that they would believe in and follow the Messiah when he came so that he could realise the vision of Isaiah.
  • Shortly after Elizabeth conceived John, her cousin Mary also received a visit from an angel who told her that she too would bear a son called Jesus: This is similar to the vision of Isaiah. No hint here of the cross being the purpose
  • As the messiah Jesus wanted to prepare for his mission by studying with religious scholars and leaders to learn and also to get to know them.
  • You can see in this painting by Simone Martini the tension between Jesus and his parents. Jesus is clearly angry with them for not realising where he would be and also for taking him away. They should have supported him to stay there. Other verses that show that Jesus’ family didn’t support him: “ And Jesus said [to his mother], ‘Woman, what have you to do with me?’” John 2:4. “ His mother and his brothers stood outside, asking to speak to him. But he replied to the man that told him, ‘Who is my mother, and who are my brothers? . . . For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and sister, and mother.’” Matthew 12:46-50. “ For even his brothers did not believe in him.” John 7:5. “ And when his friends heard it they went out to seize him, for they said, ‘He is beside himself.’” Mark 3:2
  • John created some a powerful impression by his ascetic lifestyle and message that he wonder the respect of even the religious leaders who even thought he might be the Messiah himself.
  • For some reason John denied the mission that had been revealed to his father. This was to have serious consequences for Jesus
  • John baptises Jesus and declared “behold the lamb of God that takes away the sins of the world” John 1:29 Picture by Ivanov
  • With his acceptance by the Jewish people Jesus would have united with other religious groups in the East that were awaiting a saviour too and finally convert and transform the people of the Roman empire.
  • There is no record of John following Jesus. On the contrary the only time he is mentioned it is doing something different to Jesus. After the 3 temptations
  • 1 st temptation – overcame the temptation of the flesh – turning stone into bread – c.f. Adam and Eve who gave into physical desire – established mind – body unity. Dt 8:3 Man shall not live by bread alone 2 nd temptation – overcame temptation to think he could violate the law (of gravity) (fall off the temple) with impunity – without suffering the consequences. Adam and Eve thought they could break God’s commandment, Fall, and not die. You shall not test the lord your God Dt. 6:16 3 rd temptation – overcame the temptation to gain power at the compromising integrity. Means – ends. You shall worship the lord your God and him only will you serve. Dt 6:13 Temptation Satan approached when Jesus alone, isolated Son of god can do as he pleases. At baptism Jesus definded as pleasing God Jesus responds with exact quote of the divine word
  • Preaching the kingdom was the good news. Theologians and Bible scholars agree that the imminent kingdom was the chief message of Jesus. So many kingdom verses
  • To restore the lost foundation established by John, Jesus also started to baptising people .
  • There were also disagreements about fasting Mt. 9:14 Also about purifying Jn. 3:25
  • Did 1ohn have difficult relationship with father? If father told him he was John was deny?
  • Had John been about his Father’s business – namely supporting and following Jesus he wouldn’t have been arrested Without John’s support Jesus’ mission became more difficult. He needed John to be actively testifying to him. Anyway Jesus got on with his job.
  • Meanwhile, Jesus burst onto the scene and galvanised the people. Rembrandt’s 100 Guilder Print. Gospel of the kingdom
  • The ordinary people were attracted to Jesus
  • The constitution of the Kingdom of God. The popularity that Jesus had soon led to jealousy from the traditional religious leaders
  • Despite or maybe because of his popularity among ordinary people, some of the religious leaders who attended Jesus’ meeting to listen to him were becoming increasingly sceptical and critical of his teaching and actions. When he said to the cripple lowered through the roof, “Your sins are forgiven” they were shocked as they believed that only God had the authority to forgive sins. So Jesus did miracles as a way to prove to the sceptical religious leaders that he had authority from God for what he was saying and doing. He didn’t need to die to forgive sins. He could forgive them because he was who he was. If John had followed him he would not have had to do miracles.
  • The work of God was to believe in Jesus. And what of John? Did he continue to believe in Jesus?
  • Now some time later John sent disciples to Jesus. By this question John reveals that he is no longer sure that Jesus was the messiah. He is doubting revelation he received. By asking the question publicly he is undermining the testimony he gave at Jesus’ baptism. This meant that people who respected John would also start having second thoughts about Jesus. If even John was unsure, why should they follow? They would now also have legitimate reasons not to believe in Jesus
  • Jesus couldn’t say “Yes, I am the messiah” without discrediting himself completely. So he asks John to judge him by his deeds. “You shall know them by their fruits.” Jesus’ comment that the ‘poor have the good news preached to them’ is full of irony. He is not happy that he is not preaching to the religious leaders – the rich people who ought to have had the foundation to be able to understand him - which he would have been doing if he had had John’s support. Picture Samuel van Hoogstraten “St. John the Baptist in Prison receives Christ ’ s answer”
  • John didn’t make it into heaven. Not because belonged to previous dispensation but because he didn’t obey and follow Jesus.
  • Jesus implied that it was John’s fault that the kingdom of heaven was not established. Immediately after this Jesus condemns the cities of Chorazin, Bethsaida and Capernaum for rejecting him. All three were destroyed by earthquakes and never rebuilt.
  • Without the protection of John’s testimony the opposition to Jesus grew stronger and stronger. Jesus was a very controversial person. He stirred up the Jewish people and of course many of the religious leaders came to oppose him.
  • Although what Jesus said was shocking and controversial, if he had been supported by John, he would have been protected by his authority and prestige.
  • Jesus was very upset about the death of John because it meant that the person who was supposed to tell everyone about him was now dead. This meant that his mission became much more difficult and that there was a real possibility that he would be rejected. Salome danced for John’s head
  • Now comes the famous Elijah problem. Malachi’s prophecy was that before the Messiah came, Elijah would come. If there is no Elijah anyone claiming to be the Messiah must be an impostor.
  • John had denied that he was Elijah. Jesus said that he was the Elijah. Only one could be correct or telling the truth. Who were the people to believe? John’s public questioning of Jesus did huge damage to Jesus’ mission.
  • Without the support of John Jesus became cut off from the bulk of the religious leaders and people. There was no one to protect him from Satan’s attack. – After the 3 temptations Satan had departed until ‘an opportune time.’
  • As it emphasises is the Gospel of John, it was John’s job to bear witness to Jesus. But he didn’t do it properly. So Jesus was left unprotected and vulnerable. Picture Holman Hunt
  • Jesus became angry with the stubborn attitude of the religious leaders because they were obstructing his work and mission – to bring the kingdom of heaven on earth. “ Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within they are full of dead men’s bones and all uncleanness.” Matthew 23: 27
  • In Jesus time many Judaisms. Not monolithic. Never has been. Always different ways to interpret and apply the Torah. Many arguments but this meant a lot of religious freedom. Jesus group one of many. The Sadducees were a priestly group, Aaronites , associated with the leadership of the Temple in Jerusalem . Sadducees represented the aristocratic group of the Hasmonean High Priests . This Priestly lineage had been blamed by the Pharisees for allowing the Syrian Emperor Antiochus IV Epiphanes to desecrate the Temple of Jerusalem with idolatrous sacrifices and to martyr monotheistic Jews. The Hasmoneans ruled as "priest-kings", claiming the titles of high priest and king simultaneously, and like other aristocracies across the Hellenistic world became increasingly influenced by Hellenistic syncretism and Greek philosophies. Sadducees followed the Hebrew Bible literally. Rejected Oral Torah, rejected life after death and resurrection. Disappeared after destruction of the Temple. Collaborators with the Romans. High priest apponited by the Roamns. Thye kept his vestamanets. Then, in 167 BCE, Antiochus IV invaded Judea, entered the Temple, and stripped it of money and ceremonial objects. He imposed a program of forced hellenization, requiring Jews to abandon their own laws and customs, and precipitating the Maccabean Revolt . Jerusalem was liberated in 165 BCE and the Temple was restored. In 141 BCE an assembly of priests and others affirmed Simon Maccabeus as high priest and leader, in effect establishing the Hasmonean dynasty. Pharisees – ‘set apart’. a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews during the Second Temple period under the Hasmonean dynasty (140–37 BC) in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt . Focused on synagogue. When in Babylon developed synagogue for worhsip, prayer and study. After return to Jerusalem. Popular, democratic, progressive, develop oral Torah for application to everyday life. Became normative Judaism after 70 AD. The Essenes were a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE that some scholars claim seceded from the Zadokite priests. [1] Being much fewer in number than the Pharisees and the Sadducees (the other two major sects at the time) the Essenes lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism, voluntary poverty, daily baptisms, and abstinence from worldly pleasures, including marriage. Many separate but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic , eschatological , messianic , and ascetic beliefs. These groups are collectively referred to by various scholars as the "Essenes." Josephus records that Essenes existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Judæa . The Essenes believed they were the last generation of the last generations and anticipated Teacher of Righteousness , Aaronic High Priest [ citation needed ] , and High Guard Messiah , [ citation needed ] similar to the Prophet, Priest and King expectations of the Pharisees. Zealotry was originally a political movement in first century Second Temple Judaism which sought to incite the people of Iudaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy land by force of arms, most notably during the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70). The Zealots were a "fourth sect", founded by Judas of Galilee (also called Judas of Gamala) and Zadok the Pharisee in the year 6 against Quirinius' tax reform , shortly after the Roman state declared (what had most recently been the territory of Herod Archelaus ) a Roman Province, The Zealots objected to Roman rule and violently sought to eradicate it by generally targeting Romans and Greeks. Zealots engaged in violence against other Jews were called the Sicarii [8] . They raided Jewish habitations and killed Jews they considered apostate and collaborators, while also urging Jews to fight Romans and other Jews for the cause. The Zealots had the leading role in the Jewish Revolt of 66. After the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple in AD 70, 960 Zealots under the lead of Elazar ben Yair took refuge by capturing the Roman fortress of Masada and taking no prisoners. Rome sent the Tenth Legion to retake the stronghold, but it failed for three years. It is estimated that they took over 1,000 casualties in the process. The Zealots held the fortress even after the Romans invented new types of siege engines . Finally, in the third year of the siege, 73, The Romans completed a massive earthwork siege ramp up one face of the mountain on which Masada sat. This allowed them to bring the full strength of their siege to bear and penetrate the walls, a feat impossible before due to the topography of the mountain itself. When the Romans stormed in to capture the Zealots, they found that the fighters and their families had all committed suicide . Scribes in Ancient Israel, as in most of the ancient world, were distinguished professionals who could exercise functions we would associate with lawyers, government ministers, judges, or even financiers. Some scribes copied documents, but this was not necessarily part of their job. [15] In 586 B.C., Jerusalem was captured by the Babylonians. The Temple was looted and then destroyed by fire. The Jews were exiled . About 70 years later, the Jewish captives returned to Jerusalem from Babylon. According to the Bible, Ezra recovered a copy of the Torah and read it aloud to the whole nation.
  • Much conflict although at other times friendship over 100 years. ‘2 Torahs’. Shammai in majority. Hillel accepted rulings when Shammai won but not other way around. Hillel more humble. After Hillel died 10 CE his followers amy have joined Essenes. Passing of 18 measures - against Gentiles - led to murder of bet Hillel prophets. 20 BCE People became more anti-Gentile as Shammai controlled Sanhedrin. Shammai became vice-president of Sanhedrin when Menaham - a follower of Hillel led a large outreach program to Gentiles. In Talmud explanation for fall of Temple is “hatred without cause” around 30 CE. The 18 measures were worse than the sin of the golden calf because they nullified the purpose of Israel to be a witness. Hillel - wanted to fulfill mission of Jews - witness to Gentiles. Sent missionaries out among Gentiles to promote Noahide code. May have led to God-fearers groups. Rabbi Shammai a sage but group - bet Shammai - became corrupted. Would hand over to Saducees people they didn’t like to be death with by Romans Zealots founded by Judah the Galilean and Rabbi Zadok the Pharisee. Shammai intellectual sponsors of Zealots. Very anti-Gentile. Rabbi Eliezar follower of Shammai. Only rabbi to say eye for eye is literal. Mt 27:23 - Shammai doctrine against converts. Zealots murderers. Probably murdered a number of followers of Hillel who were called prophets in Talmud. So when Jesus is accusing the Pharisees of murdering prophets he is referring to event 20-10 BCE. Josephus accuses Zealots of causing destruction of Temple. Jesus criticism about heavy burdens - followers of Shammai made harder to follow rulings Jesus' healing by prayer on Sabbath - Hillel OK; Shammai oppose Dispute about washing - same Tithing -same Temple offerings - Jesus cruising the Shammite practice of not accepting Gentile offerings. Moneychangers accepted gifts from Gentiles but Zealot moneychangers didn't pass money on but pocketed it. Zealots controlled. Temple and siphoning off Gentile offerings/money. Refusal of Emperors sacrifice led to destruction of Temple. Bet Shammai later partially broke with Zealots. Jesus wanting to bring universal salvation. Start a religion that can be for Gentiles too - Noahidic code. Hille supported. Followers of Jesus mostly bet-Hillel. Bet Shammai rejected such an attempt. No salvation for Gentiles and also but giving Gentiles a religion they would marginalise the `Jews and eventually wipe out. Paul a follower of Gamelial - a follower of Hillel. Protected early church. Opposition to Paul from followers of Shammai? Jesus comments are not anti-Jewish. Merely intra-Jewish dispute. Mistake for Christian church to think all Jews opposed Jesus or that Jesus was opposed to Judaism.He was criticising ruling group just as followers fo Hillel were doing. In Talmud follower if Hillel says followers of Shammai deserve to be put to death. Followers of Hillel accused those of Sahmmai of being followers o of Satan. “Anyone who rules according to beit-Shammai - when it disagrees with beit-Hillel - has no place in the world to come.” (Maimonides)
  • In A.D. 324 Constantine became the ruler of the entire Roman Empire. The pagan emperor Constantine wanted to unify the rival Christian factions in the Roman Empire for political reasons. In A.D. 325, he convened the Council of Nicea. Jesus of Nazareth was declared divine. Jesus was now a god, not a mortal prophet. Only four of the gospels were chosen as the official gospels of the Church. New versions of the gospels had to be written. They were edited to make the Romans less culpable and the Jews more culpable for the Crucifixion of Jesus. Over three hundred other gospels were ordered to be destroyed (including all Gospels written in Hebrew). An edict was issued stating that anyone found in possession of an unauthorized gospel would be put to death. The Council of Nicea changed the birthday of Jesus from January 6th to December 25th (Natalis Invictus) to match the birthday of Sun-God Sol Invictus (Mithras), and shifted the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday. This assimilation of aspects of the pagan Roman religion made Christianity more palatable to the Roman masses. The Romans felt great animosity toward the Jews because of their constant rebellions against Roman rule. Blaming the Crucifixion of Jesus on the Jews, unified the Roman pagans and the Christians.
  • Jesus realised that they couldn’t believe in him because of what he said so pleaded with them to at least judge him on the basis of his actions such as miracles and good works
  • Jesus tried desperately to persuade people to accept him. On his way to Jerusalem for the final confrontation he raised Lazarus from the dead. He didn’t do such miracles merely as an act of love but because he was desperate for people to recognize him. Picture Rembrandt
  • Jesus realises that with John dead and the growing hostility of the religious leaders there is strong possibility that he will be rejected and put to death. It is at this point that Jesus BEGAN to tell his disciples that things might not work out as they expected. Peter is shocked because this is a real change in the Jesus teaching from the optimistic message of the imminent coming of the kingdom of God.
  • It was God’s original will for the people to accept Jesus and for him to become the Lord of Glory establishing the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. Echoes of Saul and Samuel “I desire obedience not sacrifice’ If he was rejected it was God’s will for him to go the way of the cross. “ I desire mercy not sacrifice”. Sacrifice becomes necessary when there is no mercy.
  • Jesus cheered, not jeered.
  • Antonia fortress built by Herod
  • Palm Sunday. People welcomed Jesus. Actually people followed him everywhere. Cleansed Temple - mistake. Threatened the Temple system. Threatened to cause unrest and riots. Threatened to bring Romans down on people. Threatened the position of priestly authorities who were charged with keeping order. Passover was the time when expected the messiah to come. Temple offerings - Jesus critising the Shammite practice of not accepting Gentile offerings. Moneychangers accepted gifts from Gentiles but Zealot moneychangers didn't pass money on but pocketed it. Zealots controlled. Temple and siphoning off Gentile offerings/money. Refusal of Emperors sacrifice led to estruction of Temple. During Passover the Roman governor and extra troops in Jerusalem to maintain order. Religious authorities couldn’t arrest Jesus in the Temple or by day because he was so popular. So had to do it slyly by night and trial by night and execute next morning. Picture El Greco
  • Discovered 1990. 1st centruy
  • Ford Maddox Brown
  • After the Last Supper they went to stay in the Garden of Gethsemane (Olive Press). Jesus went to pray with 3 disciples who fell asleep. Agony in front of God – why? What was the content of his prayer?
  • Jesus didn’t want to go the way of the cross. 3 times prayed. Not out of fear or cowardness but because he knew that by dying he couldn’t accomplish as much as he wanted to – he couldn’t build the kingdom of heaven on earth. He also knew that if the Jewish people rejected him they would have a miserable future. On the other hand, had Jesus run away everything would have been lost. He was so committed to do his mission that even death would not deter him. He welcomed death on the cross if that would advance the will of God. He freely offered himself up as a sacrifice. He freely accepted his future death as the will of God. “ For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it up again; this charge I have received from my Father.” John 10: 17-18
  • Jesus was no coward
  • But Jesus freely decided to offer his life. He could have run away. He could have complained. But instead he made himself a perfect sacrifice.
  • Satan was the one who wanted to kill Jesus because he knew Jesus was a threat to his rule. After Jesus overcame Satan’s temptations he was looking for other ways to get at him. Jesus was betrayed by one of his closest friends and disciples with a kiss
  • Jesus was let down by nearly everyone. The prophecies in Isaiah of the Lord of Suffering come to pass. Jesus was accused but never defended himself.
  • Instead he made himself a perfect sacrifice – an unconditional offering. BUT remember, God desires mercy NOT sacrifice. His suffering became the condition for the salvation of humanity.
  • Jesus paid the price. He made himself a perfect sacrifice. He took responsibility for the sins of mankind – for my sins. He was beaten and tortured for our sins. He was sinless and yet did not complain. He took responsibility for the sins and failings of humanity. He never defended himself not complained. Every beating and wounding he offered up as a condition of indemnity to save humanity.
  • Jesus must have been in such pain. On Palm Sunday they were shouting Hosanna. 5 days later they were mocking him. Yet despite this Jesus never changed his heart or attitude.
  • Despite being mocked Jesus never left the position of being the son of God. He didn’t curse the people for rejecting and crucifying him. Instead he practised what he preached and asked God to forgive them. He loved and gave his life for his enemies. Satan couldn’t accuse Jesus. He had done his utmost to destroy and break Jesus but had been unsuccessful. Satan had tempted and dominated Adam, but he couldn’t tempt Jesus. Even on the cross Jesus continued to love. Even when he didn’t feel God’s presence, Jesus still kept faith. Even though things didn’t turn out how he expected, Jesus continued to love and trust God. Satan had to bow down and acknowledge that Jesus was greater than he was. So Satan had to release anyone who believed in Jesus. He was even abandoned by God. But he didn’t lose faith or curse God. He said, “Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit.” On the cross Jesus restored Foundation of Faith and Substance – kept faith in God even though he felt abandoned by God, and loved his enemies. This was condition for him to be resurrected
  • Because Jesus kept his position of the son of God, Satan couldn’t keep him. Jesus was victorious over death. He resurrected and during 40 days Jesus revived the faith and spirits of his disciples and thus established the church, the body of Christ against which “the gates of hell cannot prevail.”
  • At Pentecost the Trinity was established and the Holy Spirit descended and the disciples were born again. This was the birth of the church, the bride of Christ, the body of Christ.
  • Jesus offered himself up as a sacrifice. He ransomed himself so that we could be saved. Because of this Satan was able to claim his body but not his soul. So although he couldn’t bring physical salvation, Jesus was able to bring spiritual salvation the tremendous grace that no other religious founder could bring – the forgiveness of sins and reconciliation with God. Satan thought that by crucifying Jesus he had won. But Jesus never left his position as the Son of God. He didn’t run away. He didn’t curse his persecutors. Instead he showed absolute unconditional love. So Satan could not accuse him. Even Satan had to bow down to Jesus and release people who call on Jesus’ name. Jesus conquered death. He went to hell and liberated those drowned in the flood. So by his death Jesus could redeem people’s spirits from Satan. But the body continues to be dominated by Satan. Also the world is NOT the kingdom of heaven.
  • Jesus and Holy Spirit are True Parents giving spiritual rebirth to sinful humanity so that we can become ‘children of God.’ Spiritual change of blood lineage. Sins are forgiven, cleansed by the holy Spirit. New life, new beginning.
  • Despite being born again and saved by the blood of Christ, we still struggle with the flesh.
  • Remember, Jesus came to bring complete salvation. This is what he would have brought if he had been accepted. Jesus prayer would have been realised in his lifetime. The kingdom of heaven would have been established. There would be no need for a second coming.
  • The disciples were in shock. They didn’t expect Jesus to be rejected and put to death. Jesus in his love didn’t accuse them. He had accepted what had happened as the will of God and explained it to his disciples in that way. Through this he restored their spirits and their faith.
  • Christianity lost much of its Jewish foundation and developed based on Greek philosophy and thought more than Jewish thought. E.g. predestination; idea of Jesus as pre-existent saviour; distant God; worship on Sunday; low opinion of sex and marriage. Church instead of being volunteers became compulsory State religion. Christianity served purposes of the State. Roman Catholic church took on external hierarchical form of Roman Empire. Constantine made the church draw up creeds thus creating heretics. Church became rich and membership helped career. Roman Empire collapsed due to immorality. Took nearly 1500 years for Europe to approach same technological level. Jesus would have gone East been accepted by Arabs – descendants of Ishmael. Because he didn’t God sent prophet to the descendants of Ishmael – Muhammad. Islam started as a reforming movement within Judeo-Christian Middle East and North Africa.
  • After Jesus had been circumcised he was taken to Jerusalem where a devout man called Simeon met him at the Temple. He had been told by God that he wouldn’t die until he had seen the Lord’s Messiah. As he held Jesus in his arms he proclaimed
  • If no love -> sacrifice necessary
  • We are waiting the second coming when salvation will be completed.
  • Of course, Jesus words of truth didn’t go down very well and the religious leaders came to hate him and sought to destroy him.
  • John didn’t enter heaven because he didn’t obey Jesus and follow him. Instead he decided on an alternative path.
  • For such a faithless reaction Jesus condemned the Jewish leaders, The men of Ninevah believed in the message of the faithless Jonah
  • Picture El Greco
  • Jesus expressed his own understanding of God’s expectation for his life and mission and its outcome in the parable of the wicked tenants Mt. 21:33-43

104 The life of Jesus 2 day 104 The life of Jesus 2 day Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • The Life of Jesus
  • What was the original will of God?
    • So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female He created them. Genesis 1:27-28
  • How were we to become like God?
  • The three Great Blessings
    • And God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it.”
    • Genesis 1:28
  • What was God’s original ideal? Mature Person Mind Body God Society Nation World Happy Family Adam God Eve Heaven Person Creation God
  • What went wrong?
  • Ideal and Fall God Man Perfect Person God Man Fallen Person God Man Satan
  • What were the results of the Fall? Sinful Person Mind Body Satan Society Nation World Fallen Family Adam Satan Eve Hell Person Creation Satan
  • Whose job is it to fix things?
  • The messiah is the new Adam
    • For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s righteousness many will be made righteous. Romans 5:19
    • For as by one man came death, so by a man has come the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. I Corinthians 15:22-23
  • Salvation God Christ Man Satan “ I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me.” John 14:6 The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil. I John 3:8 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men; the man Jesus Christ. 1 Timothy 2:6
  • What is the mission of the Messiah?
    • For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government will be upon his shoulders and his name will be called, ‘ Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace .’ Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David, and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from this time and forever more.
    • Isaiah 9:6-7
    The Messianic vision
  • The Messiah comes to change the lineage God Satan True Father True Mother Eve Adam Sinless children Sinful Children Rebirth “ Unless one is born anew, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.” John 3:3
  • World salvation
    • I have given you as a covenant to the nations, to open the eyes that are blind, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, from the prison those who sit in darkness.
    • Isaiah 42:6-7
  • Complete salvation Messiah Spirit Body Spiritual Salvation Physical Salvation Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Matthew 6:10
  • What were the Jews expecting 2000 years ago? Egyptians Assyrians Greeks Romans Babylonians Persians
  • What would happen before the Messiah came?
    • “ Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. And he will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse.” Malachi 4:5-6
  • What was the mission of John the Baptist?
    • “ And he [John] will turn the hearts of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God, and he will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah , . . . to make ready for the Lord a people prepared .” Luke 1:14-17
    • “ And you child, will be called the prophet of the Most High; for you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways .” Luke 1:76
    • There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came for testimony to bear witness to the light, that all might believe through him . John 1:6-8
  • John’s mission
    • To prepare the people for the Messiah by calling them to repentance and baptism
    • To tell everyone that Jesus was the Messiah so that they would believe in him and follow him
    • To be Jesus’ chief disciple and supporter
  • What were the prophecies when Jesus was born?
  • The annunciation
    • “ He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of his kingdom there will be no end .”
    • Luke 1:32-33
  • Did Jesus’ parents support him?
    • After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to their questions; and all who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. Luke 2:46-47
    • And he said to them, “How is it that you sought me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?” And they did not understand the saying which he spoke to them .
    • Luke 2:50
  • What did John the Baptist do?
    • In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, “Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”
    • Matthew 3:1-2
    The forerunner
    • As the people were in expectation, and all men questioned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he were the Christ, John answered them all, “I baptise you with water; but he who is mightier than I is coming, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie; he will baptise you with the Holy Spirit and with fire.”
    • Luke 3:15-15
    John was highly respected
    • And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” He confessed, he did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.”
    • John 1:19-21
    John denies being the Elijah
  • John testifies to Jesus
    • “ Behold the lamb of God that takes away the sins of the world” John 1: 29
    • “ And I have seen and borne witness that this is the Son of God.”
    • John 1: 34
  • What should have happened next?
    • John should have become Jesus’ chief disciple
    • The Jewish people and leaders would have accepted Jesus as the Messiah
    • The prophecies in Isaiah would have been realised
    • The kingdom of God would have been established
  • Jesus John the Baptist Religious leaders Jewish people Roman Empire Eastern peoples
  • What did happen?
    • John did not follow Jesus
    • So Jesus took responsibility for John’s failure and restored his mission
    • Jesus fasted for 40 days to restore the foundation of faith
  • Jesus restored the three blessings
    • First temptation – restore 1 st Blessing
    • Second temptation – restore 2 nd Blessing
    • Third temptation – restore 3 rd Blessing
    And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time. Luke 4:13
  • Jesus restores John’s mission
    • Jesus found his own disciples
    • He preached the same message as John:
    • “ Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” Matthew 4:17
    • Jesus and his disciples went into the land of Judea; there he remained with them and baptised. John was also baptising at Aenon near Salim, because there was much water there; and people came and were baptised. John 3:22-23
    Jesus baptises
  • Rivalry between Jesus and John
    • Now when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptising more disciples than John . . . he left Judea and departed again to Galilee. John 4:1-3
  • Why didn’t John follow Jesus?
    • Own concept of the messiah
      • “ He who comes after me the thong of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.” John 1:27
    • Couldn’t recognise Jesus was the messiah
      • “ I myself did not know him.” John 1:33
    • Knew about Jesus’ family background
    • Didn’t imagine sharing Jesus’ future
      • “ He must increase but I must decrease.” John 3:30
    • Didn’t act on the inspiration and it faded
  • What happened to John?
    • Herod had seized John and bound him in prison, for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife; because John said to him, “It is not lawful for you to have her.” Matthew 14:3-4
    John in prison
  • Galilean Spring
    • And he went about all Galilee teaching in their synagogues and preaching the gospel of the kingdom and healing every disease and every infirmity among the people.
    • Matthew 4:23
    • And great crowds followed him from Galilee and the Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.
    • Matthew 4: 25
  • Sermon on the Mount
    • And when Jesus finished these sayings, the crowds were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who had authority, and not as their scribes.
    • Matthew 7:28-29
  • Jesus did miracles
    • “ That you might know that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins ” - he then said to the paralytic – “Rise, take up your bed and go home.”
    • Matthew 9:6
  • Jesus wanted people to believe
    • Then they said to him, “What must we do, to be doing the works of God?” Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him who he has sent .”
    • John 6:28-29
  • John’s question to Jesus
    • Now when John heard in prison about the deeds of the Christ, he sent word by his disciples and said to him, “Are you he is to come, or shall we look for another?”
    • Matthew 11:2-3
  • Jesus’s response
    • “ Go and tell John what you hear and see; the blind receive their sight and the lame walk . . . and the poor have the good news preached to them. And blessed is he who takes no offence at me .”
    • Matthew 11:4-6
    John receives Christ ’ s answer
  • Jesus’ judgement on John
    • “ Truly I say to you, among those born of women there has risen no one greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he .”
    • Matthew 11:11
  • Jesus blames John
    • “ From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and men of violence take it by force.”
    • Matthew 11:12
  • Opposition to Jesus
    • Some Jewish religious leaders were jealous that Jesus was so popular
    • Some disagreed with his teaching. E.g. the dispute about washing Mt. 15:1-20
    • Some disagreed with his actions. E.g. healing on the Sabbath
    • He didn’t match their idea of what a Messiah should be like. E.g. he was uneducated
  • Some were outraged about the claims he made about himself
    • He said he was the manifestation of God John 14:9-10
    • He said he was greater than the temple
    • Matthew 12:6
    • He claimed to be more important than Abraham John 8:58
    • He claimed to be above the Mosaic Law
    • Matthew 5:17
    • He said he was the mediator between people and God John 14:6
  • The death of John the Baptist
    • Now when Jesus heard this [the death of John], he withdrew from there to a place apart.
    • Matthew 14:13
  • The Elijah problem
    • And the disciples asked him, “Then why do the scribes say that first Elijah must come?” He replied, “ . . . Elijah has already come, and they did not know him, but did to him whatever they pleased.” . . . Then the disciples understood that he was speaking to them of John the Baptist.
    • Matthew 17: 10-13
  • Jesus declares John was Elijah
    • “ For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John; and if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who is to come.”
    • Matthew 11:13-14
  • The problem Jesus John the Baptist Jewish people ? Jesus: John is Elijah John: I’m not Elijah
  • The significance of John John as Elijah Supports Jesus Denies Jesus Jesus accepted Jesus in difficulty
  • Jesus John the Baptist Religious leaders Jewish people Jesus unprotected
    • Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world; he who follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” The Pharisees then said to him, “You are bearing witness to yourself; your witness is not true.”
    • John 8: 12-13
  • He offended religious leaders
    • “ But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because you shut the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither enter yourselves, nor allow those who would to go in.” Matthew 23: 27
  • Who are these religious groups?
    • Sadducees
      • Ruling aristocratic priestly group, collaborators
    • Pharisees
      • Popular, democratic, synagogue, Oral Torah
    • Essenes
      • Break away priestly group, near Dead Sea
    • Zealots
      • Nationalist freedom fighters against Roman rule
    Different responses to occupation and religious life
  • Who is Jesus attacking?
    • Rabbi Shammai
    • Majority time of Jesus
    • Connected to Zealots
    • Strict and extreme
    • Rejected converts
    • Gentiles can’t be saved
      • 18 measures
    • Rabbi Hillel
    • Minority until Yavneh
    • Connected to Essenes
    • Liberal and moderate
    • Welcomed converts
    • Gentiles could be saved
      • Follow Noahic code
    Two rival groups amongst the Pharisees 30 BCE-70 CE
  • What is going on here?
    • Is the conflict between Jesus and the Jews?
    • Jesus born, lived and died a practising Jew
    • All Jesus’ followers were Jews
    • The early church were Jews who believed in Jesus
    • Conflicts in the gospels are conflicts between Jews
    • The Pharisees were liberal reforming Jews who became the leaders of Judaism after 70 AD
    • Jesus was probably a Pharisee
  • Why does the New Testament appear to be anti-Jewish?
    • The gospels were written by Jews who believed in Jesus at a time when there was a lot of conflict between the early church and Judaism
    • Parting of the Ways – defining identities
    • Conflicts projected back into Jesus time
    • Gospel writers blamed the Jews and not the Romans for the crucifixion
    • “ . . . even though you do not believe me, believe the works that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.”
    • John 10:38
    Jesus wanted people to believe in him
  • Why did Jesus do miracles?
    • And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, “Father, . . . I knew that thou hearest me always, but I have said this on account of the people standing by, that they might believe that thou didst send me .”
    • John 11:41-42
    Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead
  • How did some leaders respond?
    • But when the Pharisees heard it [the healing of the blind and dumb demoniac] they said, “It is only by Beelzebub, the prince of demons, that this man casts out demons.”
    • Matthew 12:24
  • Change of course
    • Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised. And Peter took him and began to rebuke him saying, “God forbid Lord! This shall never happen to you.”
    • Matthew 16:21
  • The two possible courses Jesus Christ Lord of Glory Lord of Suffering Accepted Rejected Isaiah 9 Luke 1 Isaiah 53 God’s Will “ I desire mercy, not sacrifice.” Matthew 9:13
  • Entry into Jerusalem
    • "Hosanna!" "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" "Blessed is the King of Israel!”
    • “ Look how the whole world has gone after him!”
    • Yet at the same time many even among the leaders believed in him.
    • John 12: 13,19,42
  • What effect did this have?
    • ‘ King of Israel’ and Messiah are political titles
      • Jesus rejected attempt to make him king
      • Jesus told disciples not to say he was messiah
    • Threat to Roman authority and rule
    Roman fortress next to the Temple
  • Cleansing the Temple
    • And he was teaching daily in the temple. The chief priests and the scribes sought to destroy him; but they did not find anything they could do, for all the people hung upon his words.
    • Luke 19:47-48
    Christ driving the money changers from the Temple
  • Chief priests plot against Jesus
    • Then the chief priests and elders gathered and took counsel to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. But they said, “Not during the feast, lest there be a tumult among the people.”
    • Matthew 26:3-5
  • Why did they do this?
    • “ If we let him go on like this, every one will believe in him, and the Romans will come and destroy our holy place and our nation.” Caiaphas said, “It is expedient that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation should not perish.”
    • John 11:48-51
    Ossuary of the high priest Joseph Caiaphas
  • The Last Supper
    • Washes the disciples feet
    • Institutes Eucharist
    • Predicts betrayal by Judas and denial by Peter
    • And being in great agony he prayed more earnestly and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down onto the ground.
    • Luke 22:44
    Prayer in Gethsemane
    • “ My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me, nevertheless, not as I will but as thou wilt.”
    • Matthew 26:39
  • Why didn’t Jesus want to die?
    • He understood God’s providence and didn’t want God’s heart to be broken again
    • He wanted to bring complete salvation to his followers
    • He knew his followers would suffer
    • He knew that the chosen people of Israel who had suffered so much already would go through untold suffering
  • Jesus sacrificed himself
    • “ For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord . I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it up again; this charge I have received from my Father.”
    • John 10:17-18
  • Betrayal by Judas
    • Then Satan entered into Judas . . .
    • Luke 22:3
    • “ . . . woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! It would have been better for that man if he had never been born.”
    • Matthew 26:24
  • The betrayal of Jesus
    • The disciples ran away
    • Peter denied him
    • Unfair trial by Sanhedrin
    • Pilate failed to protect him
    • He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief.
    • Isaiah 53:3
  • A perfect sacrifice
    • He offered himself without blemish to God, a spiritual and eternal sacrifice; and his blood will cleanse our conscience from the deadness of our former ways and fit us for service of the living God.
    • Hebrews 9:14
  • Scourging of Jesus
    • He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed.
    • Isaiah 53:5
  • The crucifixion of Christ
    • And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads and saying, “You would destroy the temple and build it up in three days, save yourself.”
    • Matthew 27:39-40
  • The last words
    • “ My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”
    • Mark 15:34
    • “ Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit.”
    • Luke 23:46
    • “ Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.”
    • Luke 23:34
  • Resurrection
    • If Christ had not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins.
    • I Corinthians 15:17
  • Establishes the Church Foundation of Faith Foundation of Substance Foundation for the Messiah Offering – Word Central person - Jesus Time period – 40 days Restored disciples Pentecost and rebirth
  • Salvation through the cross Jesus Spirit Body Spiritual Salvation Physical Salvation “ . . . we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.” Romans 8:23 Romans 7:21-25
  • Spiritual salvation But to all who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God; who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God. John 1:12-13 Believers Jesus God Holy Spirit
    • For I delight in the law of God, in my inmost self, but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind making me captive to the law of sin which dwells in my members. Wretched man that I am!
    • Romans 7:22-24
    The human situation
  • Complete salvation Messiah Spirit Body Spiritual Salvation Physical Salvation Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Matthew 6:10
  • Second Advent Marriage Supper of the Lamb New Heaven And New Earth Society Nation World True Children . True Father God True Mother
  •  
  • Why do Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was supposed to be crucified?
  • The road to Emmaus
    • “ But we hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel.”
    • Luke 24:21
    • “ Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?”
    • Luke 24:26
  • What were the consequences of the rejection of Jesus?
    • The destruction of the Temple and Jewish nation for 2000 years
    • The separation of Judaism and Christianity
    • The corruption of Christianity by Rome
    • The breakdown of the Roman Empire
    • The sending of Muhammad and rise of Islam
  • Extras
  • Simeon’s testimony
    • “ For mine eyes have seen thy salvation which thou hast prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles.”
    • Luke 2:31-32
  • Wrong guests at the wedding
    • “ The wedding is ready, but those invited are not worthy. Go therefore, to the thorough-fare, and invite as many people as you find.” And those servants went out into the streets and gathered all whom they found, both bad and good.
    • Matthew 22:8-10
  • Jesus’ mission
    • “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”
    • Luke 4:18-19
  • Love not sacrifice
    • For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God, rather than burnt offerings.
    • Hosea 6:6
    • Luke 9:1-6 sending out of the 12
    • Luke 10:1 – appointment of 70
    • John 6:66 – disciples draw back after hard sayings
    • John 7:5 – brothers didn’t believe
    • “ . . . we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.”
    • Romans 8:23
    • “ The world hates me . . . because I testify to it that its works are evil.”
    • John 7:7
    • The writer of the Gospel of John after reporting John the Baptist’s words,
    • “ He must increase but I must decrease.”
    • comments ,
    • He who believes in the Son has eternal life; he who does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God rests upon him .
    • John 3:36
    • “ The men of Nineveh will arise at the judgement with this generation and condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold something greater than Jonah is here.”
    • Matthew 12:41
    Jesus’s judgement
  • Jesus’s prophecy
    • “ For the days shall come upon you, when your enemies will . . . Dash you to the ground, you and your children within you, and they will not leave one stone upon another in you; because you did not know the time of your visitation .”
    • Luke 19:43-44
  • Entry into Jerusalem
    • Palm Sunday
    • Cleansed the Temple
    • Disputed with the religious leaders
    • The High Priest determines to kill Jesus
    Christ driving the money changers from the Temple
  • Parable of the Tenants
    • Landlord = God
    • Tenants = Israel
    • Servants = Prophets
    • Son = Jesus Christ
    • “ They will respect my son.”
    • Matthew 21:37
    Tenants murder the son