The	  Tricks	  of	  the	  Trade	  Understanding	  theInternet PeeringPlaybook                       ©2012	  DrPeering	  In...
 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	     THE	  INTERNET	  PEERING	  PLAYBOOK	                         ...
Research “The Art of Peering”Q: When you get no response or a “No” response to a peerign  request, what do seasoned Peerin...
The	  Players	                       4	  
Internet	  Peering,	  Paid	  Peering,	  Internet	  Transit	                                                               ...
ISP	  Customers	                         6	  
Equivalent	  Transit	  Nota9ons	                                          7	  
Equivalent	  Peering	  Nota9ons	                                          8	  
Traffic	  Flow	  Nota9on	                                 9	  
The	  ISP	  Peering	  Playbook	  •  Where	  ISP	  obtained	  peering	  •  Where	  ISP	  defended	  its	  posi9on	  •  Tele...
Tac9c	  1.	  Extended	  Direct	  Approach	                                                      11	  
Top	  10	  Ways	  the	  Pros	  Contact	  Target	  ISPs	  1.        face-­‐to-­‐face	  at	  informal	  mee9ng	  in	  an	  I...
Top	  10	  ways	  the	  Pros	  Contact	  Target	  ISPs	  5.        via	  electronic	  mail,	  using	  the	  pseudo	  stand...
Email	  Bypass	                        14	  
Maximize	  Face	  Time	                                 15	  
Leverage	  IXP	  Resources	                                     16	  
Tac9c	  2.	  Internet	  Transit	  with	  Peering	  Migra9on	  •  Leverage	  internal	     advocate	  •  Transit	  Contract...
Tac9c	  3.	  End	  Run	  Maneuver	  •  Minimizes	  need	  for	     peering	  •  When	  you	  need	  it	  less	     you	  c...
Tac9c	  4.	  Bundle	  Internet	  Transit	  with	  Peering	  •  BBC	  Internet	  •  Internal	  advocate	  •  May	  be	  tou...
Tac9c	  5.	  Buy	  Transit	  from	  most	  Restric9ve	  Tier	  1	  ISP	  •  Peering	  request	     process	        –  Do	 ...
Tac9c	  6.	  Transi9onal	  Paid	  Peering	  •  “Stepping	  Stone”	  to	     free	  peering	  •  Free	  peering	  when	    ...
Tac9c	  7.	  Par9al-­‐Route	  Internet	  Transit	  •  X	  well	  established	  peer	  •  I	  will	  sell	  you	  IX	  rout...
Tac9c	  8.	  Play	  Chicken	  (1	  of	  3)	  •  Confronta9onal	  •  Upgrade-­‐Pay	  Me	  •  No?	  Disconnect	  •  Then…	  ...
Tac9c	  8.	  Play	  Chicken	  (2of3)	  •  More	  circuitous	  path	  •  Maybe	  par99on	                                  ...
Tac9c	  8.	  Play	  Chicken	  (3of3)	  •  Renego9ate	  terms	  •  Exodus-­‐Genuity	  •  Peering	  Ra9o	  sidebar	  •    En...
Tac9c	  9.	  Traffic	  Manipula9on	  •  Leverages	  Traffic	     Asymmetry	                                            26	  
Tac9c	  9.	  Traffic	  Manipula9on	  •  Content-­‐Heavy	     network	  controls	     spigot	  •  Understand	     Mo9va9ons	 ...
Tac9c	  9.	  Traffic	  Manipula9on	  Tac9c	  •  Force	  traffic	  along	  path	       that	  ISP	  B	  has	  to	  pay	  for	  ...
Tac9c	  9.	  Traffic	  Manipula9on	  •  THEN	  ask	  for	  peering	  •  “Oh	  my!	  How	  did	  that	     creep	  up	  on	  ...
Tac9c	  9.	  Traffic	  Manipula9on	  •  Unethical?	  •  Varia9ons:	  •  A	  stops	  announcing	       reachability	  to	  L	...
Tac9c	  10.	  Bluff	  Issues	  •  Bluff	  load	  futures	       –  Msw	       –  Difficult	  to	  detect	  •  Bluff	  bad	  per...
Tac9c	  11.	  Be	  Open.	  Loudly.	  •  PC	  faces	  rejec9on	  •  Phone	  calls	  and	  emails	     go	  unanswered	  •  ...
Tac9c	  12.	  Be	  Everywhere	  •  Build	  into	  large	  #	  of	     POPs,	  IXPs,	  colos	  •  Meet	  geographic	     di...
Tac9c	  13.	  Get	  Traffic	  •  Cogent	  •  More	  a@rac9ve	  peering	  candidate	                                         ...
Tac9c	  14.	  Friendship-­‐based	  Peering	  •  Related:	  Bro-­‐lo	  •  “Brother	  can	  you	     spare	  some	     colo?...
Tac9c	  15.	  Spam	  Peering	  Requests	  •  Discussion	  lists	  •  “Reply	  to	  self”	  •  “Dozens	  of	  peering	     ...
Tac9c	  16.	  The	  Honey	  Approach	  -­‐	  Be	  Sweet	  •  Yahoo!	  Microsow	  desirability	  of	  content	  •  Thousand...
Tac9c	  17.	  Purchase	  a	  well-­‐peered	  ISP	  •  Level	  3	  acquired	  ISPs	  to	     become	  Tier	  1	  •  Telstra...
Tac9c	  18.	  Bait-­‐and-­‐Switch	  •  Large	  parent	  company	     power	  is	  leveraged	  •  Smaller	  company	  gets	...
Tac9c	  19.	  False	  Peering	  Outage	  NOC	  A:	  “Hey!	  Our	  peering	  session	  is	  down	  again.	  AGAIN!”	  NOC	 ...
Tac9c	  20.	  Leverage	  Broader	  Business	  Arrangement	  •  As	  with	  the	  Level	  3	     Comcast	  rela9onship	  • ...
Tac9c	  21.	  Overseas	  Power	  Play	  •  Pressure	  incumbent	  ISP	     B	  to	  peer	  •  Cut	  transit	  in	  country...
Tac9c	  21.	  Overseas	  Power	  Play	  •  Pressure	  incumbent	  ISP	     B	  to	  peer	          “We	  have	  made	  a	 ...
Tac9c	  22.	  Construct	  Peering	  from	  Transit	  	      Why	  do	  this?	  •  No	  paid	  peering	  product	  •  Make	...
Tac9c	  23.	  Do	  Not	  Peering	  in	  your	  home	  market	  •  Defensive	  tac9c	  •  “The	  desire	  to	  protect	    ...
Tac9c	  24.	  Protect	  Peering	  Policy	  •  Defensive	  tac9c	  •  Do	  not	  publish	  peering	     policy	  •  Require...
Tac9c	  25.	  Change	  and	  Escalate	  Peering	  Prerequisites	  •  Defensive	  tac9c	                                   ...
Tac9c	  26.	  Make	  it	  Long	  and	  Difficult	  (MILD)	  •  Defensive	  tac9c	  •  Comindico	  story	      –  Telstra	  a...
Tac9c	  27.	  Congest	  Transit	  Pipes	  •  Makes	  paid	  peering	  look	  pre@y	  a@rac9ve,	  doesn’t	     it?	  •  Was...
Tac9c	  27.	  Congest	  Transit	  Pipes	  •  Maybe	  just	  a	  bad	  day?	  •  30	  day	  view	                          ...
Tac9cs	  that	  don’t	  work	  •  Hold	  desirable	  content	         •  Blind	  peering	  requests	     hostage	         ...
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11 internet peering-playbook

  1. 1. The  Tricks  of  the  Trade  Understanding  theInternet PeeringPlaybook ©2012  DrPeering  Interna9onal   Licensed  material  –  sales@DrPeering.net   h@p://DrPeering.net  
  2. 2.                                         THE  INTERNET  PEERING  PLAYBOOK   The  Tricks  of  the  Trade               2  
  3. 3. Research “The Art of Peering”Q: When you get no response or a “No” response to a peerign request, what do seasoned Peering Coordinators do?Give up?A: No, there are some tricks.n  Smartest Peering Coordinator “Tricks of the Trade”n  20 Tactics successfully used to obtain Peering where you otherwise might not be able to.Disclaimer: These are NOT recommended tactics…I am simply documenting what has been successfully used in the field to obtain peering. 3   Language.Graphical notation to describe the tactics
  4. 4. The  Players   4  
  5. 5. Internet  Peering,  Paid  Peering,  Internet  Transit   5  
  6. 6. ISP  Customers   6  
  7. 7. Equivalent  Transit  Nota9ons   7  
  8. 8. Equivalent  Peering  Nota9ons   8  
  9. 9. Traffic  Flow  Nota9on   9  
  10. 10. The  ISP  Peering  Playbook  •  Where  ISP  obtained  peering  •  Where  ISP  defended  its  posi9on  •  Telecom  Italia  &  Deutsche  Telekom  by  the  #   –  “Last  night  we  had  another  19”  •  Expanded   10  
  11. 11. Tac9c  1.  Extended  Direct  Approach   11  
  12. 12. Top  10  Ways  the  Pros  Contact  Target  ISPs  1.  face-­‐to-­‐face  at  informal  mee9ng  in  an  Internet   Opera9ons  forum  like  NANOG,  IETF,  RIPE,  GPF,   APNIC,  AFNOG,  etc.,    2.  face-­‐to-­‐face  at  Commercial  Peering  Forums  like   Global  Peering  Forum  (you  must  be  a  customer  of   one  of  the  sponsoring  Ixes)  3.  face-­‐to-­‐face  at  IX  Member  Mee9ngs  like  DE-­‐CIX,   LINX,  or  AMS-­‐IX  member  mee9ngs.  4.  introduc9ons  through  an  IX  Chief  Technical   Liaison  (or  a  peer)  that  knows  the  right  contacts   12  
  13. 13. Top  10  ways  the  Pros  Contact  Target  ISPs  5.  via  electronic  mail,  using  the  pseudo  standard   peering@ispdomain.net  or  a  personal  contact,    6.  from  contacts  listed  on  an  exchange  point   par9cipant  list,  or  peeringdb  registra9ons,  7.  with  tech-­‐c  or  admin-­‐c  from  DNS  or  ASN   registries,  8.  Google  for  peering  contact  $ASN  peering  ,  9.  from  the  target  ISP  sales  force,  at  trade  show  or   as  part  of  sales  process,  10.  from  the  target  ISP  NOC.   13  
  14. 14. Email  Bypass   14  
  15. 15. Maximize  Face  Time   15  
  16. 16. Leverage  IXP  Resources   16  
  17. 17. Tac9c  2.  Internet  Transit  with  Peering  Migra9on  •  Leverage  internal   advocate  •  Transit  Contract  •  If  peering  prerequisites   are  met,  migrate  to   peering  •  If  not,  try  again…  •  Williams  story   17  
  18. 18. Tac9c  3.  End  Run  Maneuver  •  Minimizes  need  for   peering  •  When  you  need  it  less   you  can  more  easily  get   it.  •  Rather  peer  than  lose   customers  •  Takes  9me  •  Cherry  picking  may   annoy  peer   18  
  19. 19. Tac9c  4.  Bundle  Internet  Transit  with  Peering  •  BBC  Internet  •  Internal  advocate  •  May  be  tough  to   support  •  Can  be  gamed   19  
  20. 20. Tac9c  5.  Buy  Transit  from  most  Restric9ve  Tier  1  ISP  •  Peering  request   process   –  Do  I  already  hear   these  routes  for   free?   –  Yes=deny  peering  •  So  buy  from   someone  that   doesn’t  peer  •  Minimize  chance  of   rejec9on   “Once  a  customer,  never  a  peer”  –  UK  Story   20  
  21. 21. Tac9c  6.  Transi9onal  Paid  Peering  •  “Stepping  Stone”  to   free  peering  •  Free  peering  when   prerequisites  sa9sfied  •  Few  success  stories   21  
  22. 22. Tac9c  7.  Par9al-­‐Route  Internet  Transit  •  X  well  established  peer  •  I  will  sell  you  IX  routes   –  No  Joining  Fees   –  No  Peering  legwork   –  Would  take  years  •  Priced  cheap   22  
  23. 23. Tac9c  8.  Play  Chicken  (1  of  3)  •  Confronta9onal  •  Upgrade-­‐Pay  Me  •  No?  Disconnect  •  Then…   23  
  24. 24. Tac9c  8.  Play  Chicken  (2of3)  •  More  circuitous  path  •  Maybe  par99on   24  
  25. 25. Tac9c  8.  Play  Chicken  (3of3)  •  Renego9ate  terms  •  Exodus-­‐Genuity  •  Peering  Ra9o  sidebar  •  End  result?  •  Name  calling  •  Public  scru9ny  •  More  interconnects   25  
  26. 26. Tac9c  9.  Traffic  Manipula9on  •  Leverages  Traffic   Asymmetry   26  
  27. 27. Tac9c  9.  Traffic  Manipula9on  •  Content-­‐Heavy   network  controls   spigot  •  Understand   Mo9va9ons   27  
  28. 28. Tac9c  9.  Traffic  Manipula9on  Tac9c  •  Force  traffic  along  path   that  ISP  B  has  to  pay  for     28  
  29. 29. Tac9c  9.  Traffic  Manipula9on  •  THEN  ask  for  peering  •  “Oh  my!  How  did  that   creep  up  on  me?  •  Yes,  let’s  peer.  •  I’ll  save  $$  •  I’m  such  a  valuable  PC”   29  
  30. 30. Tac9c  9.  Traffic  Manipula9on  •  Unethical?  •  Varia9ons:  •  A  stops  announcing   reachability  to  L  •  A  inserts  B  in   announcement  to   trigger  loop   suppression     30  
  31. 31. Tac9c  10.  Bluff  Issues  •  Bluff  load  futures   –  Msw   –  Difficult  to  detect  •  Bluff  bad  performance   –  Traceroute   –  Ji@er   –  latency   31  
  32. 32. Tac9c  11.  Be  Open.  Loudly.  •  PC  faces  rejec9on  •  Phone  calls  and  emails   go  unanswered  •  Be  the  low  hanging  fruit  •  #  of  sessions,  volume  of   traffic  used  in   performance  reviews  •  Make  it  clear  you  will   make  them  look  good   32  
  33. 33. Tac9c  12.  Be  Everywhere  •  Build  into  large  #  of   POPs,  IXPs,  colos  •  Meet  geographic   distribu9on   requirements  •  Signal  big  peer   volume  poten9al   33  
  34. 34. Tac9c  13.  Get  Traffic  •  Cogent  •  More  a@rac9ve  peering  candidate   34  
  35. 35. Tac9c  14.  Friendship-­‐based  Peering  •  Related:  Bro-­‐lo  •  “Brother  can  you   spare  some   colo?”  •  As  CTL  peers   became  friends,   introduced   newbies  to   “friendly”  peers   35  
  36. 36. Tac9c  15.  Spam  Peering  Requests  •  Discussion  lists  •  “Reply  to  self”  •  “Dozens  of  peering   sessions  resulted”   –  Mitchell  Rose  •  Might  be  low  volume   peers  •  Some  unexpected   posi9ve  responses   36  
  37. 37. Tac9c  16.  The  Honey  Approach  -­‐  Be  Sweet  •  Yahoo!  Microsow  desirability  of  content  •  Thousands  of  webcasts,  personal  radio  sta9ons,  web   proper9es  your  eyeballs  want!  Easier  to  be   approached  than  to  approach.   37  
  38. 38. Tac9c  17.  Purchase  a  well-­‐peered  ISP  •  Level  3  acquired  ISPs  to   become  Tier  1  •  Telstra  forced  to  peer   with  Optus,   Connect.com,  and  Oze-­‐ mail  •  OptusàSingTel  •  Connect.comàTNZ  •  Oze-­‐mailàVerizon  •  1990’s  Value~Value  of   peering   38  
  39. 39. Tac9c  18.  Bait-­‐and-­‐Switch  •  Large  parent  company   power  is  leveraged  •  Smaller  company  gets   peered   39  
  40. 40. Tac9c  19.  False  Peering  Outage  NOC  A:  “Hey!  Our  peering  session  is  down  again.  AGAIN!”  NOC  B:  “I  don’t  see  any  alerts”  NOC  A:  “Don’t  make  wake  Hans-­‐Werner  Braun  out  of  bed  again.  Set  it  up  and  we’ll  se@le  it  tomorrow”  What  would  your  NOC  do?   40  
  41. 41. Tac9c  20.  Leverage  Broader  Business  Arrangement  •  As  with  the  Level  3   Comcast  rela9onship  •  AOL  did  this  in  the  00’s  •  Bundle  peering  with   –  Fiber   –  Colo   –  Wavelengths  •  Aka  “Free  On-­‐Net”   41  
  42. 42. Tac9c  21.  Overseas  Power  Play  •  Pressure  incumbent  ISP   B  to  peer  •  Cut  transit  in  country  •  Force  traffic  through   expensive  ISP  B   interna9onal  transit  link  •  Expensive  tac9c  •  Requires  PR   42  
  43. 43. Tac9c  21.  Overseas  Power  Play  •  Pressure  incumbent  ISP   B  to  peer   “We  have  made  a  conscious  decision  that  •  Cut  transit  in  country   star9ng  next  month  [November]  we  will  not  •  Force  traffic  through   pay  anybody  for  transit  traffic  anymore.  So  if   expensive  ISP  B   you  don’t  wtant  to  ink   with  us,  that  is  it!  We   interna9onal   ransit  l peer   will  not  tpay  you  one  single  cent  anymore.”  •  Expensive   ac9c   -­‐-­‐  Rudy  Jansen,  MWEB  CEO  •  Requires  PR   43  
  44. 44. Tac9c  22.  Construct  Peering  from  Transit     Why  do  this?  •  No  paid  peering  product  •  Make  you  look  more   a@rac9ve   –  Like  paying  for  a  date  •  Neither  party  inclined  to   talk  about  it   44  
  45. 45. Tac9c  23.  Do  Not  Peering  in  your  home  market  •  Defensive  tac9c  •  “The  desire  to  protect   one’s  home  market   dwarfs  any  benefits   peering  might  provide.”   –  John  Milburn  •  KT  Story   45  
  46. 46. Tac9c  24.  Protect  Peering  Policy  •  Defensive  tac9c  •  Do  not  publish  peering   policy  •  Require  NDAs  before   peering  discussions  •  Reduces  unqualified   peering  candidate   requests  •  Avoid  court  of  public   opinion  and  regulatory   interest   46  
  47. 47. Tac9c  25.  Change  and  Escalate  Peering  Prerequisites  •  Defensive  tac9c   47  
  48. 48. Tac9c  26.  Make  it  Long  and  Difficult  (MILD)  •  Defensive  tac9c  •  Comindico  story   –  Telstra  anecdote   –  High  Bar   –  Reschedule  mtg   –  Swap  out  teams   –  More  docs  required   –  Mee9ng   –  Prereqs  changing   –  Comindico  bankrupt   48  
  49. 49. Tac9c  27.  Congest  Transit  Pipes  •  Makes  paid  peering  look  pre@y  a@rac9ve,  doesn’t   it?  •  Was  this  on  purpose?  •  Or  just  a  bad  day?   49  
  50. 50. Tac9c  27.  Congest  Transit  Pipes  •  Maybe  just  a  bad  day?  •  30  day  view   50  
  51. 51. Tac9cs  that  don’t  work  •  Hold  desirable  content   •  Blind  peering  requests   hostage   with  largest  target  •  Exert  market   peers  first   dominance  in  a  foreign   •  Demonstra9ng  lack  of   market   knowledge  regarding  •  Threaten  li9ga9on   peer  and  backbone  •  Public  name  calling  and   opera9ons   badgering   •  Refusal  to  register  in   rou9ng  registries   51  
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