Wars of Religion


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Wars of Religion

  1. 1. The Wars of Religion (1560-1648)
  2. 2. The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End v Henri II --the last powerful Valois King
  3. 3. The young Lion shall overcome the old on the field of battle in single combat; He will pierce his eye in a cage of gold Two wounds one, then to die a cruel death.
  4. 4. The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End v Three sons followed Henri II to the throne: § Francis II, Charles IX and Henri III
  5. 5. The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End v Catherine de Medici was the power behind the throne: § Was mother to the boys. § Played both sides in the civil war. § Developed a reputation for ruthlessness.
  6. 6. Francis II and Wife, Mary Stuart
  7. 7. The French Civil War v There were two factions fighting for the royal inheritance: § The Guise family led Catholics in North. § Bourbon family led Huguenots in South. § Catherine d’ Medici supported the Guises in the first phase.
  8. 8. The French Civil War St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre § August 24, 1572 § 20,000 Huguenots were killed. § Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived.
  9. 9. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
  10. 10. The French Civil War v Catherine switched her support to the Bourbons— fearing Guise power and influence. Catholic League Catholic League Protestant Union Protestant Union CIVIL WAR Henry, Third Duke of Guise Garpard de Coligny, Admiral of France Charles IX Valois
  11. 11. The War of the Three HenrysThe War of the Three Henrys 1584–15981584–1598 Henri Duke of Guise Assassinated 1588 Henri III King of France Assassinated 1589 Henri of Navarre
  12. 12. French Wars of ReligionFrench Wars of Religion v Henri of Navarre defeated the Catholic League in 1598. v Became King Henry IV of France.
  13. 13. Effects of the French Wars ofEffects of the French Wars of ReligionReligion § France was left divided by religion. § Royal power was seriously weakened. § Valois dynasty was replaced by the Bourbons.
  14. 14. Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris Peter Paul Rubens
  15. 15. v Ended Spanish interference in French internal affairs v Converted to Catholicism : § Did this to compromise/make peace. § “Paris is worth a mass.” § Henry Bourbon was a politique-- the interest of the state is the first priority. Henry IV Bourbon of France
  16. 16. v Issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598: §Granted religious rights to Huguenots. §Huguenots could worship in those areas where they were in the majority. §Huguenots could fortify their towns. §This was NOT freedom of religion. Henry IV Bourbon of France
  17. 17. The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  18. 18. 1618-1648
  19. 19. v The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. v In the beginning-it was Catholics vs. Protestants. v In the end Habsburg dreams of establishing a nation in Germany under their control were dashed. v Peace was achieved as a result of the treaties that made up the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Thirty Years War
  20. 20. v The Hapsburg Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia. § Bohemian Protestants hated him. § Ferdinand revoked Bohemian religious liberties. § The Bohemian Protestants responded by the Defenestration of Prague in May, 1618. § The Bohemians proclaimed a new king, Frederick II, Elector Palatine. The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622
  21. 21. Defenestration of Prague
  22. 22. v Ferdinand II Hapsburg became the Emperor in 1619. § Frederick borrowed an army from Maximilian of Bavaria. § Frederick lost his land and title in the fighting—at the Battle of White Mountain. § The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others to continue the war. The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622
  23. 23. Bohemian Phase
  24. 24. v Emperor Ferdinand II tried to end resistance. § Tried to crush Protestant in northern Germany. § Ferdinand II hired Albrecht von Wallenstein. § Wallenstein defeated the Protestants in north. The Danish Phase: 1625-1629
  25. 25. v The Edict of Restitution (1629): § Restored to Catholic rulers all lands lost since 1552. § Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights. v German princes feared Ferdinand--he dismissed Wallenstein in an effort to calm them. The Danish Phase: 1625-1629
  26. 26. Danish Phase
  27. 27. v France and Sweden now got involved. § Both want to limit potential Habsburg power. § Sweden led the charge; France provided monetary and material support. The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635
  28. 28. King Gustavus Adolphus
  29. 29. v King Gustavus Adolphus invaded The Empire with a Swedish army. § The Swedes won the Battle of Breitenfeld and turned the tide of the war. § Emperor Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein to stem the charge. The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635
  30. 30. v The Swedes won the Battle of Lützen but King Gustavus Adolphus was killed. The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635
  31. 31. v German princes feared Ferdinand II. v Wallenstein assassinated to appease them. The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635
  32. 32. Swedish Phase
  33. 33. v France and Sweden switched roles—the French were determined to check Hapsburg power in Germany. v Nearly every nation in Europe participated. v This phase was most destructive of the war. § German towns were decimated by marauding armies. § Agriculture collapsed and famine resulted. § 8 million dead—perhaps 1/3 of the population--from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648. § Caused massive inflation. § Trade was crippled throughout Europe. The French Phase: 1635-1648
  34. 34. Casualties of the 30 Years War
  35. 35. Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  36. 36. § The German princes were freed from any kind of control by the Emperor. § The Edict of Restitution was rescinded, and Calvinism won official legal recognition. § The United Provinces (Dutch Netherlands) became officially independent. § The Swiss Confederation became totally independent of the Emperor and Bavaria became an elector state. § France received most of the German-speaking province of Alsace and won the right to intervene in the German states at will. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  37. 37. § The Pope was denied the right to participate in German religious affairs. § Sweden got lands in northern Germany on the Baltic and Black Sea coasts and won a voice in the Diet of the Empire. § Brandenburg-Prussia got important territories on the North Sea and in central Germany, and became the most powerful northern German state. § The Hapsburgs were forced to surrender their dream of a united German Empire under their control—they retreated to their dynastic territories to regroup. § German fragmentation and political weakness would be perpetuated into the modern era. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  38. 38. § Cuius Regio Eius Religio would apply to Catholics, Calvinists and Lutherans equally. § In the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, freedom of private worship was to be permitted. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  39. 39. What were the long-range consequences of the Thirty Years’ War? What were the long-range consequences of the Thirty Years’ War?