The Controversial Peace: 1919
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  • 1. The Treaty of Versailles Paris 1919
  • 2. 4. Who were the "Big Four?"
  • 3. Woodrow Wilson/United States David Lloyd-George /Great Britain The Big Four Georges Clemenceau /France Vittorio Orlando /Italy
  • 4. The Big Four in Paris 1919
  • 5. What did France want from the treaty? Security Revenge Reparations Clemenceau : The Tiger Clemenceau wanted to make sure that Germany could not invade France in the future. He was determined that Germany should be made to pay for the damage that had been caused in northern France by the invading German armies.
  • 6. What did Great Britain want from the treaty? In public, Lloyd-George said he wanted to punish the Germans. Germany should pay to compensate for the damage done by the war. In private, he realized that Britain needed Germany to recover because she had been an important trading partner. David Lloyd-George He was also worried about the disease from the east, Soviet communism. The Russian government had been overthrown by a communist revolution in 1917. A strong Germany would be a barrier against the spread of communism.
  • 7. What did Italy want from the treaty? The weakest of the four major victorious powers, Italy sought to ensure that it received the territory that it had been promised by the Treaty of London in 1915. This largely consisted of the Trentino, Tyrol (including Istria and Trieste), and the Dalmatian coast including Fiume. Heavy Italian losses and a severe budget deficit as a result of the war led to a belief that these concessions had been earned. During the talks in Paris, Orlando was constantly hampered by his inability to speak English. He left the meeting only to return to sign later. Vittorio Orlando
  • 8. 7. Why was Italy a "problem" for the other Allies at the Paris Peace Conference?
  • 9. What did the United States want from the treaty? Woodrow Wilson wanted the treaty to be based on his Fourteen Points. He believed Germany should be punished but not severely. He wanted a just settlement that would not leave Germany feeling resentful. Wilson wanted to set up an international organization--The League of Nations --which would settle disputes that might otherwise lead to war. Woodrow Wilson The American public did not support him and rejected the treaty. The USA became more isolationist.
  • 10. 10. How did the United States and Japan benefit most from their participation in World War I?
  • 11.  1. What were the specific issues and overriding principles expressed in President Wilson's Fourteen Points?
  • 12. What did Germany want from the treaty? On April 29, a German delegation was summoned to Versailles to receive the treaty. Upon learning of the content, the Germans protested that they had not been allowed to participate in the talks. Deeming the treaty's terms a violation of honor, they withdrew from the proceedings. Brockdorff-Rantzau
  • 13. What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? I. The Military Clauses The German army was to be reduced to 100,000 men. The production of military aircraft, tanks, armored cars, and poison gas was prohibited. The area known as the Rhineland was to be de-militarized. The Allies were to occupy the west bank of the Rhine for fifteen years. The German navy was reduced to no more than six battleships (not to exceed 10,000 tons), 6 cruisers, 6 destroyers, and 12 torpedo boats.
  • 14. II. Territorial Losses Numerous changes to the map reduced Germany's size. In addition, Germany lost all of her colonies overseas. Territorially, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France. West Prussia was given to the new nation of Poland while Danzig was made a free city to ensure Polish access to the sea. The province of Saarland was transferred to League of Nations control for a period of fifteen years. At the end of this period, a plebiscite was to determine whether it returned to Germany or was made part of France.
  • 15. 2. Identify the new nations that emerged after World War I from the collapse of the old Empires.
  • 16. 3. How did World War I and the peace treaties change the political structure of Europe?
  • 17. 9. To what extent was the peace settlement a victory for the principle of "selfdetermination?"
  • 18. 8. How were the conflicting interests in the Middle East resolved after the War?
  • 19. WW 1 Secret Treaties: Sykes-Picot Agreement [1916]
  • 20. The Middle East in the 1920’s
  • 21. III. Reparations Clause Germany was issued a war reparations bill totaling £6.6 billion (later reduced to £4.49 billion in 1921). This number was determined by the Inter-Allied Reparations Commission. While Wilson took a more conciliatory view on this issue, Lloyd George had worked to increase the demanded amount. The reparations required by the treaty included not only money, but a variety of goods such as steel, coal, intellectual property, and agricultural produce. This mixed approach was an effort to prevent hyperinflation in postwar Germany which would decrease the value of the reparations.
  • 22. IV. Article 231: The War Guilt Clause Several legal restrictions were also imposed, most notably Article 231 which laid sole responsibility for the war on Germany. A controversial part of the treaty, its inclusion had been opposed by Wilson and it became known as the War Guilt Clause. The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies. --Article 231
  • 23. 6. Why was Article 231 written into the Versailles Treaty? What objections might legitimately be raised to it?
  • 24. How did Germans React to the Treaty? Germans thought the Treaty was a diktat: a dictated peace. They had not been invited to the peace conference at Versailles. When the Treaty was presented to them they were threatened with war if they did not sign it. In Germany the treaty provoked universal outrage, particularly Article 231. Having concluded the armistice in expectation of a treaty embodying the Fourteen Points, Germans took to the streets in protest.
  • 25. How did Germans React to the Treaty? Unwilling to sign it, the nation's first democratically-elected chancellor, Philipp Scheidemann, resigned on June 20 forcing Gustav Bauer to form a new coalition government. Bauer was soon informed that army was not capable of offering meaningful resistance. Lacking any other options, he dispatched Foreign Minister Hermann Müller and Johannes Bell to Versailles. The treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been proclaimed in 1871 on June 28. It was ratified by the National Assembly on July 9. Philip Scheidemann
  • 26. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919-- officially ending the Great War. Many historians believe that it was a major cause of the Second World War. Most Germans were horrified by the harshness of the Treaty. There was anger among all groups in Germany, no matter what their political beliefs. Some German newspapers called for revenge for the humiliation of Versailles. However anger was also directed against the government in Germany. Already there was a myth growing in the country that the German army had been stabbed in the back by politicians…the so called November Criminals. Now these same politicians had signed the Diktat, the dictated peace. The new democracy in Germany was now closely linked with the humiliation of Versailles.
  • 27. 11. What were some of the major mistakes made by the participants at the Paris Peace Conference?
  • 28.  12. Why was there so much disillusionment after the Versailles Treaty was signed?