Taming the City
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Taming the City

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John McKay, A History of Western Society, Ch. 24.

John McKay, A History of Western Society, Ch. 24.

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Taming the City Taming the City Presentation Transcript

  • Taming the City
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities Deplorable urban conditions of congestion, filth and disease existed long before the Industrial Revolution.
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities The Industrial Revolution and population growth made urban reform necessary.
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities In Britain, the percentage of population living in cities of 20,000 or more jumped from 17% in 1801 to 54% in 1891.
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities Housing was crowded and poor, and living conditions unhealthy.
  • A. Industry and the Growth of Cities Many people lived in sewage and excrement.
  • King Cholera
  • A. What was responsible for the awful conditions?  A lack of transportation, which necessitated the crowding.  The slowness of government enforcement of sanitary codes contributed to the problem.  The legacy of rural housing contributed to resistance to reform.
  • The Walking City
  • B. Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution • Edwin Chadwick • Influenced by Jeremy Bentham’s idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. • Disease was responsible for poverty, not laziness.
  • B. Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution • The Sanitary Idea: clearing the city of filth would curtail disease. • The solution: the installation of clean, running water and sewers. • The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population (1842),[
  • B. Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution • Chadwick conducted a campaign that culminated in passage of the Public Health Act of 1848. • New sanitation methods and public health laws were adopted all over Europe from the 1840’s.
  • C. The Bacterial Revolution • The prevailing opinion of disease was that it was caused by bad odors. • The Miasmatic Theory
  • Viniagrettes
  • C. The Bacterial Revolution • Key breakthrough: disease was spread through filth and not by it.
  • John Snow
  • The Broad Street Pump
  • The Great Stink 1858
  • Joseph Bazalgette • Designed and executed a new sewer system in London. • Completed in 1874; still in use today.
  • C. The Bacterial Revolution Louis Pasteur’s theory that germs caused disease was a major breakthrough, and its application meant that disease could be controlled through vaccines.
  • C. The Bacterial Revolution Based on the work of Robert Koch and others, the organisms responsible for many diseases were identified and effective vaccines developed.
  • Anthrax
  • C. The Bacterial Revolution • Joseph Lister developed the concept of sterilization of wounds. • The Antiseptic Principle.