-rejection of authority. Mostly Church authority, several crises contributed to this. -”best” authority was practical. Bacon: “purpose of knowledge was to ease man’s estate” Descartes: purpose of knowledge “to make us, as it were, masters and possessors of nature” Demystification of the universe: e.g., heavenly realm above the moon was no longer of eternal bodies that had no matter or weren’t physical Experiment was different from Observation, which the ancient did.
The Church invested greatly in this world-view: put man in the center of the universe, most important part of God’s creation
Called into question the literal truth of the Scriptures. There are a few passages where God, for example, makes the sun stand still. This implies that the earth is still and the sun moves around it.
Among observations: moons of Jupiter, that is that there are planets with their own satellites: this also goes against the conception of perfect crystal spheres.
Mathematician: invented the Cartesian Coordinate system and analytic geometry, among other things. Promoter of deductive reasoning . Wanted science to be like Euclid: deductions from self-evident starting points.
Cogito ergo sum was one of Descartes’ “axioms”, that is, certain and self-evident truths that other truths could then be deduced from using a deductive method.
Toward a New World View The Scientific Revolution
Introduction There were profound changes in the world-view of Europeans in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The primary cause was the Scientific Revolution. (1543-present)
Introduction The most profound change in human history?
Introduction The new intellectual climate differed from the medieval world-view: Rejection of authority. Best knowledge was practical. Demystification of the universe.
Introduction Intellectuals in this era differed from their predecessors by combining mathematics and experiment.
Roots of the Scientific Revolution Ancient Egypt
Introduction China – movable type, paper, astronomy
The Scientific Revolution Niccolo Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the trajectory of cannonballs. His work was later validated by Galileos studies on falling bodies.
The Scientific Revolution Gian Battista Benedetti proposed a new doctrine of the speed of bodies in free fall. The speed depends on the difference between the specific gravity of the body and that of the medium it falls through.
The Scientific Revolution Tyco Brahe was a Danish nobleman who set the stage for modern astronomy by building an observatory and collecting data. He was known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian scientist. Improved the telescope. Formulated Laws of Motion and Inertia.
The Scientific Revolution Proved the Copernican view of the universe. Moon Planets Stars Sunspots Wrote in the vernacular.
Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany (1615) Written to address the conflict between the Bible and heliocentric theory. Argued that the Bible must be interpreted in light of scientific knowledge. Argued for a non-literal interpretation of the Bible. Galileo declared the Bible teaches how to go to heaven, not how the heavens go. The letter began Galileo’s troubles with the Church.
The Scientific Revolution 1633 – Church arrested Galileo and charged him with heresy. He was forced to recant and was placed under house arrest.
The Scientific Revolution Johannes Kepler formulated three laws of planetary motion that proved the relationship between the planets in a sun- centered solar system.
René Descartes (1596-1650) French mathematician and philosopher. A transitional figure between the medieval past and modern science.
The Scientific Revolution A rationalist. Promoter of deductive reasoning, predicting particular results from general principles.
Discourse on Method (1637) Descartes wished to develop a method that could be used to yield scientific truth. Argued that abstract reasoning and math were a more reliable path to truth; our senses could deceive us. Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”)
The Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo.
Prinicipia Mathematica 1687 Newton formulated a set of mathematical laws to explain motion and mechanics. A key feature was the law of universal gravitation.
The Scientific Revolution Contributions made by these scientists made the universe comprehensible for the first time.
Scientific Revolution The individual became much more important; collective authority was not the source of wisdom…individual intellect was.
The Scientific Revolution After the Revolution, God was viewed by many as either a remote master mechanic, or his existence began to be doubted.
The Scientific Revolution Began long adversarial relationship between science and religion.
The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution laid the foundation for the Enlightenment of the 18th Century.