Theoretical FrameworkThe presentation of this proposed project andintervention will be guided using the IntegrativeLearning Design Framework (ILDF) of Dabbagh &Bannan-Ritland (2005: 113) as adapted.At this stage a blended learning approach has beendeemed as most appropriate to meet the objectivesidentified.It is defined as a flexible, instructional learningresource that combines face to face teaching withonline resources, supported by virtual learningenvironments that include using mobile devices (Bersin, 2004: 2).
To demonstrate prior knowledge on the normal anatomy and physiology of the body systems To systematically examine the systems of the body To identify any abnormality in a specific system To diagnose common conditions managed at a primary level of care To initiate the drug and non-drug management of the condition diagnosed under direct supervision
Concerns raised during a clinical review meeting: “Students are unable to the bridge the “gap” between theory and clinical practice”. The request: To identify an innovative, affordable, effective & easily accessible “method” to assist students to bridge the “gap”. This request spiralled towards looking at mobile technology with the increased use to enhance teaching and learning (Gupta & Koo, 2010).
For our students there is a need to have resources available at any time or at any place to do research on conditions or procedures (Cook, Pachler & Bradley, 2008: 16; Bennett in Roberts, 2004: 4; Liu, Wang, Liang, Chan, Ko & Yang, 2003: 371). The fact that they dont carry notes and textbooks into clinical practice takes away the opportunity to do research on the common conditions encountered in clinical practice. During class sessions students are divided into small groups to work on case scenarios on various conditions. It had been seen over and over again that students effectively use the different applications on their mobile devices for social networking and research.
During a meeting with lecturers the following was identified as the need:A review of the normal anatomy and physiology of asystem before a class session.Theclass session is focussed on common conditionsmanaged at a primary level of careSupport while in clinical practice to reinforce therelationship between the normal and abnormalGuidance and support in how to manage commonconditions effectively.
Results from an online survey with students:They have connectivity off campusThey are prepared to use their devices for researchrelated to their moduleThe don’t use their devices to read emails off campusThey mostly use Facebook and Whatsapp for socialnetworking
A blog and Facebook page was created The information needed to be communicated to students was imbedded in the blog A Facebook group was created with a direct link to the blog Pre-test and a post-test is to be completed to review of anatomy and physiology of a system After the pre-test they are referred to resources to review and complete the post- test before the class session. Availability of lecturers and clinical facilitators on What’s App to answer queries from 08H30 to 16H00. It was suggested that every lecturer and clinical facilitator are assigned a group to manage during this session.
Suggestions received during a review of the blog:Setting up a pre and post testHaving a formative assessment structure in place to“reward” students for their participationHaving lecturers and clinical facilitators available as asource of reference while students are in clinicalpracticeTo explore using Whatsapp to answer queriesThe evaluation was important to determine if the toolsselected is user friendly and relevant in addressing theteaching and learning challenges initially identifiedAlso evaluating the affordances and the pedagogicalvalue of the tools identified
This phase will include: a formative evaluation of the design model reviews of an expert reviews of the reflective online diaries of students, lecturers and clinical facilitators, including the case studies, to view lessons learnt to inform the possible application of the ICT tool or tools selected andthe formulation of guidelines on how to integrate mobile learning into the undergraduate nursingcurriculum at the University of the Western Cape.
Bersin, J. (2004). The Blended Learning Book. Best Practices, Proven Methodologies, and Lessons Learned. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Cook, J., Pachler, N. & Bradley, C. (2008). Bridging the Gap? Mobile Phones at the Interface Between Informal and Formal Learning. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 4 (1), 3-18. Dabbagh, N. & Bannan-Ritland, B. (2005). Online learning: Concepts, strategies and application. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. Liu, T.C., Wang, H.Y., Liang, J.K., Chan, T.W., Ko, H.W. & Yang, J.C. (2003). Wireless and mobile technologies to enhance teaching and learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 371-382. Roberts, T.S. (2004). Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice. USA: Information Science Publishing.