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The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
The mini definitive chemistry guide
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The mini definitive chemistry guide

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Mini guide to chemistry AS OCR Spec A

Mini guide to chemistry AS OCR Spec A

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  • 1. THE MINI DEFINITIVE CHEMISTRY GUIDE Disclaimer: May not be that definitive, calculator may be needed for some of the questions.Definition Ion Question Equations s formulae s
  • 2. GLOSSARYAvagadro’s Constant Waters of Proton Number CrystallisationMolar Mass Relative isotopic mass CombustionAmount of Substance Relative atomic mass AcidMole Mass spectrum of element AlkaliEmpirical Formula Valency (not required for Base exam)Molecular Formula 1st Ionisation Energy IsotopeAnhydrous 2nd Ionisation EnergyHydrated Orbital
  • 3. AVAGADRO’S CONSTANT The number of particles in a mole. (6.02x1023)MOLAR MASS The mass per mole of a substance (gmol-1)AMOUNT OF SUBSTANCE The quantity who’s unit is the mole (mol) Back to glossary
  • 4. MOLE The amount of any substance containing the same amount of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12 isotope.EMPIRICAL FORMULA The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.MOLECULAR FORMULA The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. Back to glossary
  • 5. ANHYDROUS A substance that contains no water moleculesHYDRATED A crystalline compound that contains water moleculesWATERS OF CRYSTALLISATION Water molecules that form part of the crystalline structure of the compound Back to glossary
  • 6. COMBUSTION When a substance reacts with O2 to form its oxides.ACID A proton donor (H+)ALKALI A substance that dissolves in water to release OH- ions Back to glossary
  • 7. BASE A proton receiver (H+)1ST IONISATION ENERGY The amount of energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms2ND IONISATION ENERGY The amount of energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous +1 ions Back to glossary
  • 8. ORBITAL  A region of space that holds up to 2 electrons with opposite spinsPROTON NUMBER  The number of protons in the nucleusRELATIVE ISOTOPIC MASS  The mass of an atom of an isotope relative to 1/12 of carbon-12 Back to glossary
  • 9. MASS SPECTRUM OF AN ELEMENT  … Shows the relative isotopic mass of each isotope of an element and their abundanceRELATIVE ATOMIC MASS  The weighted mean mass of an element relative to 1/12 of carbon 12VALENCY (NOT REQUIRED FOREXAM)  The number of atoms an atom has the affinity to bond with. In other words the amount of holes in an atom in a modelling kit. to Back glossary
  • 10. ISOTOPE Contains the same number of protons (and electrons) but different number of neutrons. Back to glossary
  • 11. EQUATIONS Mass = Moles * Molar mass (Mr) (mass g, moles mol, Mr gmol-1) Gdm-3 = Mol dm-3 * Mr (Gdm-3 and mol dm-3 = ditto, Mr gmol-1) Moles = Concentration * Volume (Moles, mol Concentration gmol- 1 or mol dm-3 , Volume = dm3 Volume = Moles * 24 (volume dm3, moles mol, 24 = dm3 mol-1) Acid + Alkali  Salt + Water Metal oxide + Acid  Salt + Water Metal + Acid  Salt + H2 Ammonia (NH3)+ Acid  Salt Carbonate + Acid  Salt + Water + CO2
  • 12. COMMON ION FORMULAE -2 -3 +/-1 Ammonium = NH4+  Sulphate = SO42-  Phosphate PO43- Hydroxide = OH-  Sulphide = S2-  Nitride N3- Nitrate = NO3-  Oxide = O2- Hydrogen carbonate HCO3- Carbonate = CO32- 
  • 13. 1) What is the definition for “1st ionisation energy”? Reveal answer The amount of energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms2) When given moles and concentration, how do you calculatevolume? Reveal answer Moles = Conc * Vol, so Vol = Mol / Conc3) What is the valency of carbon? Reveal answer 4. It is a sneaky question, but think back to biology lessons with the modelling kits ;) Next set of questions Remember score out of 3 for later
  • 14. 4) When given 24 and moles, what can you calculate? (andhow?) Reveal answer Moles * 24 = Volume. (Only for gasses at RTP)5) What is the definition of “waters of crystallisation” Reveal answer Water molecules that form part of the crystalline structure of the compound6) As well as the obvious difference of “contains water molecules” and“contains no water molecules”, what is the difference between“anhydrous” and “hydrated”? (recite definitions mentally) Reveal answer Ouch, tough one. Remember “an” meaning “exempt”? So an anhydrous substance is “exempt” from being a crystalline molecule. Next set of questions Add previous score to this score (total / 6)
  • 15. 7) What are the ionic formulae (with charges) for Nitrate +Nitride? Reveal answer Nitrate = NO3- Nitride N3-8) What is the definition of “Alkali”? Reveal answer A substance that dissolves in water to release OH- ions9) Calculate the volume of 15 g dm-3 calcium chloriderequired to give 0.150 moles. (hint, you need 2 triangles) Reveal answer 1.10 dm3. Follow THIS LINK for the workings. Next set of questions Add ∑ previous score to this score (total / 9)
  • 16. WORKED QUESTION 9  First write out the chemical formula. CaCl2. (Remember ionic charge)  You have been given the g dm-3. You need 2 numbers to use any of the 4 triangles. So what else can you work out from the question?  The Mr of the compound! (which is 40.1 + 35.5*2)  G dm-3 divided by Mr gives mol dm-3. (0.135)  So how can you calculate volume from mol dm-3? Well split up mol and dm3. You have 1 dm3, and 0.135 0.135 The question 3 moles.Usesame asks 1 dm many dm3 make 0.15 moles. So moles of it this way…to 0.150 how think From 0.135 = *by 1.1 recurring.number (click anywhere to cont) (0.150 / 0.135. New(multiply 0.150 over old.)1 by 1.1 Answer molesrecurring) Back to Q9
  • 17. 10) What is the definition for “orbital”? Reveal answer A region of space that holds up to 2 electrons with opposite spins11) What is the definition for “Isotope?” Reveal answer Contains the same number of protons (and electrons) but different number of neutrons.12) What mass of MgO is formed by the completecombustion of 24 g of Magnesium Reveal answer First balance the equation to get 2Mg + O2  2 MgO You have 24 g of magnesium. You need the moles. 24 / 24.3 = 0.987… mol 0.987 * (24.3 + 16) = 39.8 g Next set of questions Add ∑ previous score to this score (total / 12)
  • 18. 13) Metal + Acid  What? Reveal answer Salt + Hydrogen gas14) Metal oxide + Acid  what? Reveal answer Salt + Water. Logical as the only difference is the insertion of a water molecule into the metal.15) What is the definition of “Empirical Formula”? Reveal answer The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound. Next set of questions Add ∑ previous score to this score (total / 15)
  • 19. 16) What is the definition of “molar mass”? Reveal answer The quantity (of a substance) who’s unit is the mole17) When 14.2 g of hydrated nickel (11) nitrate is dried, 8.9 gremains. Find x in Ni(NO3)2 . X H2O Reveal answer X = 6. Find the mass of water, and of nickel nitrate. Then use mass = moles * Mr to find the moles. Divide both by smallest18) What are x. ionic formulae for a) carbonate b) moles to get thehydrogen carbonate? Reveal answer Carbonate = CO3 2- Hydrogen Carbonate = HCO3- Next set of questions Add ∑ previous score to this score (total / 18)
  • 20. 19) What is the definition of “mole”? Reveal answer The amount of any substance containing the same amount of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12 isotope.20) What is the definition of “relative isotopic mass?” Reveal answer The mass of an atom of an isotope relative to 1/12 of carbon-1221) X + Acid  Salt + Water + CO2 Reveal answer Carbonate. Next Continue… set of questions Add ∑ previous score to this score (total / 21)
  • 21. THE MOMENT OF TRUTH, YOURSCORE… 90% +  Fantastic! A* 80% +  Great! A 70% + … B 60% +  Never! C

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